Lincoln Cathedral

Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln Minster, or the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln and sometimes St Mary's Cathedral, in Lincoln, England, is the seat of the Anglican Bishop of Lincoln. Construction commenced in 1072 and continued in several phases throughout the High Middle Ages. Like many of the medieval cathedrals of England it was built in the Gothic style, it was the tallest building in the world for 238 years, the first building to hold that title after the Great Pyramid of Giza. The central spire was not rebuilt. For hundreds of years the cathedral held one of the four remaining copies of the original Magna Carta, now securely displayed in Lincoln Castle; the cathedral is the fourth largest in the UK at around 5,000 square metres, after Liverpool, St Paul's and York Minster. It is regarded by architectural scholars. Remigius de Fécamp, the first Bishop of Lincoln, moved the episcopal seat there "some time between 1072 and 1092" About this, James Essex writes that "Remigius... laid the foundations of his Cathedral in 1072" and "it is probable that he, being a Norman, employed Norman masons to superintend the building... though he could not complete the whole before his death."

Before that, writes B. Winkles, "It is well known that Remigius appropriated the parish church of St Mary Magdalene in Lincoln, although it is not known what use he made of it." Up until St. Mary's Church in Stow was considered to be the "mother church" of Lincolnshire. However, Lincoln was more central to a diocese. Remigius built the first Lincoln Cathedral on the present site, finishing it in 1092 and dying on 7 May of that year, two days before it was consecrated. In 1124, the timber roofing was destroyed in a fire. Alexander rebuilt and expanded the cathedral, but it was destroyed by an earthquake about forty years in 1185; the earthquake was one of the largest felt in the UK: it has an estimated magnitude of over 5. The damage to the cathedral is thought to have been extensive: the Cathedral is described as having "split from top to bottom"; some have suggested that the damage to Lincoln Cathedral was exaggerated by poor construction or design. After the earthquake, a new bishop was appointed.

He was Hugh de Burgundy of Avalon, who became known as St Hugh of Lincoln. He began a massive expansion programme. With his appointment of William de Montibus as master of the cathedral school and chancellor, Lincoln became one of the leading educational centres in England, producing writers such as Samuel Presbiter and Richard of Wetheringsett, though it declined in importance after William's death in 1213. Rebuilding began with the choir and the eastern transepts between 1192 and 1210; the central nave was built in the Early English Gothic style. Lincoln Cathedral soon followed other architectural advances of the time — pointed arches, flying buttresses and ribbed vaulting were added to the cathedral; this allowed support for incorporating larger windows. There are thirteen bells in the south-west tower, two in the north-west tower, five in the central tower. Accompanying the cathedral's large bell, Great Tom of Lincoln, is a quarter-hour striking clock; the clock was installed in the early 19th century.

The two large stained glass rose windows, the matching Dean's Eye and Bishop's Eye, were added to the cathedral during the late Middle Ages. The former, the Dean's Eye in the north transept dates from the 1192 rebuild begun by St Hugh being completed in 1235; the latter, the Bishop's Eye, in the south transept was reconstructed a hundred years in 1330. A contemporary record, “The Metrical Life of St Hugh”, refers to the meaning of these two windows: "For north represents the devil, south the Holy Spirit and it is in these directions that the two eyes look; the bishop the dean the north in order to shun. With these Eyes the cathedral's face is on watch for the candelabra of Heaven and the darkness of Lethe." After the additions of the Dean's eye and other major Gothic additions it is believed some mistakes in the support of the tower occurred, for in 1237 the main tower collapsed. A new tower was soon started and in 1255 the Cathedral petitioned Henry III to allow them to take down part of the town wall to enlarge and expand the Cathedral, including the rebuilding of the central tower and spire.

They replaced the small rounded chapels with a larger east end to the cathedral. This was to handle the increasing number of pilgrims to the Cathedral, who came to worship at the shrine of Hugh of Lincoln. In 1290 Eleanor of Castile died and King Edward I of England decided to honour her, his Queen Consort, with an elegant funeral procession. After her body had been embalmed, which in the 13th century involved evisceration, Eleanor's viscera were buri

Hermenegildo Sosa

Hermenegildo Sosa is a Mexican painter and art professor, best known for colorful depictions of Mexican rural landscapes those of his home state of Tlaxcala. He was born there into a farming family, whose economic condition delayed his education as he had to work from a young age. In his teens he arrived to Mexico City to work as a domestic, but this allowed him to attend school, including painting classes, he entered the Escuela Nacional de Pintura, Escultura y Grabado "La Esmeralda", where he gained a career as a professor. Sosa's has been extensively exhibited in the Mexico City area, his home state of Tlaxcala and has been exhibited in the United States and Germany, his work has been recognized with various awards, publications and membership in the Salón de la Plástica Mexicana. Sosa was born in the small rural community of San Andrés Buenavista, northwest of Mexico City, he comes from a family of farm workers, including his father Rafael Sosa, an ejido leader. His mother was a homemaker, with Sosa being the twelfth of their fourteen children.

His creative tendencies were encouraged by his parents. This forced his mother to leave San Andrés with her three youngest children, which included Hermenegildo, live in the larger town of Apizaco, arriving when Sosa was eight. Sosa had to start working while young, doing a number of jobs to support himself and his family; this included herding sheep, which influenced his art as it allowed him to observe nature and the cycle of the seasons. Economics and his family situation meant that he began and completed school late, but he maintained his determination to get an education, which in life would allow him to support his mother and siblings. At age ten, he went to Mexico City to work as a domestic service at a private home sending money home to his mother, he began primary school at age twelve at the Centro Escolar Revolución, but in his fourth year won a recital competition among primary schools in Mexico City. In 1961, at age 15, he is reunited with his mother, who had remarried and moved to Mexico City as well.

Sosa went on to study middle school at the Maestra Guadalupe Núñez y Parra School in 1964, the same year he exhibited a series of watercolors he did at the school. The school promoted his work; however his stepfather opposed Sosa's artistic ambitions and eliminated his chances of entering the National School of Arts in 1967 by destroying needed documents in Sosa's face. So a few weeks Sosa took a painting class at the Casa del Lago, an institution supported by the National Autonomous University of Mexico. Here he learned the basics of composition, working during his free time and on any material from napkins to actual canvas; the teacher of this class, José Rivera, arranged to allow Sosa to attend an ENAP class as an unmatriculated student with Fermín Rojas, Sosa participated in an exhibition with the class. Rojas encouraged him to continue his studies. However, Sosa could not continue at the school because of his lack of credentials. Instead, he finished middle school at age 23 and was able to get steady employment a buy a modest house in the Granjas Valle de Guadalupe, Seccion B, a housing tract just outside the bounds of Mexico City.

This allowed him to distance himself from his stepfather while maintaining a relationship with his mother. By age 26, Sosa had completed high school and enrolled at La Esmeralda, studying from 1973 to 1978, when he earned his bachelors in visual arts. In 1988, he received his masters in fine arts from the same institution. Sosa learned various styles of drawing and painting, but his rural background in part led him to be interested in landscape painting, his art studies allowed him to look at the landscapes around his hometown in a new light, the fields, farms and the colors of the different seasons, along with the sky both day and night. In the 1970s, this format was undervalued and not taught at La Esmeralda. For this reason, Sosa taught himself the art by studying the works of famous landscape artists. Sosa's career as a painter and teacher has extended from the 1970s to the present. By 1973 his work gained some recognition from participation in a number of exhibitions, which earned him opportunities to teach classes.

This allowed him to leave the more strenuous labor. Most of his teaching career has been with his alma mater La Esmeralda. In the 1980s, he and a group of students here at the time lobbied the administration to hold landscape painting workshops to be taught by Sosa, they were successful, with the classes taking place on intermittent weekends. In 1982, he passed the exam at La Esmeralda. Sosa had exhibited his work as a student in various collective shows, which his first two individual exhibitions coming in 1978. Just before graduating La Esmeralda, he organized an exhibition at a small restaurant in the Colonia Guerrero neighborhood in Mexico City, followed by a second at the Instituto Politécnico Nacional in the same city. Since he has had individual exhibitions at the Nishizawa Cultural Center, Atizapán de Zaragoza, Hermenegildo Sosa Cultural Center, Tlaxco,Teatro San Benito Abad, Cuautitlán Izcalli, Wimmer Gallery, National Agriculture Museum, University of Chapingo, Tlaxcala Art Museum, Tlaxcala State Fair, José María Velasco Museum, Salón de la Plástica Mexicana, Galería Tere Hass, Mexico City, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Campus Estado


Božidar is a Slavic given name meaning "Divine gift". It is a calque of the Greek name Theodore, itself derived from the Greek word "Theodoros". Božo is a nickname form of Božidar. People with the name include: Božidar Adžija, Yugoslav left-wing politician and journalist Božidar "Boško" Antić, Bosnian Serb striker Božidar Antunović, Serbian shot putter Božidar Bandović, Serbian football manager and former player Božidar Beravs, Slovenian ice hockey player Bozidar Brazda, artist and musician Božidar Čačić, Croatian retired football defender Božidar Ćosić, Serbian professional footballer Božidar Debenjak, Slovenian Marxist philosopher, social theorist and translator Božidar Delić, retired Yugoslav Army general, current vice president of Serbia Božidar Đelić, Serbian economist and politician Božidar Drenovac, Serbian football player and manager Božidar Đurašković, Yugoslav former middle distance runner Božidar Đurković, retired Serbian football player Božidar Ferjančić, Serbian historian Božidar Finka, Croatian linguist and lexicographer Božidar Grujović, pseudonym of Teodor Filipović, Serbian writer and educator Bozidar Iskrenov, former Bulgarian footballer Božidar Ivanović, Montenegrin Yugoslav chess grandmaster and politician Božidar Jakac, Slovene Expressionist and Symbolist painter Božidar Janković, the Commander of the Serbian Third Army Božidar Jelovac, Serbian football forward Božidar Jović, retired Croatian handball player Božidar Kalmeta, Croatian politician Božidar Kantušer, Slovene composer Prince Božidar Karađorđević, Serbian artist and writer on art Božidar Kavran, Croatian Ustaše war criminal Božidar Leiner, Croatian communist and Partisan Božidar Maljković, Serbian professional basketball coach Božidar Matić, president of the Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina Božidar "Boki" Milošević, Serbian clarinetist Božidar Petranović, Serbian author, journalist, historian of Serbian literature Božidar Purić, Serbian and Yugoslav politician and diplomat Božidar Radošević, Croatian footballer Božidar Rašica, architect and painter Božidar Sandić, Serbian football player Božidar Senčar, Croatian football midfielder Božidar Širola, Croatian composer and musicologist Božidar Špišić, Croatian orthopedist and rector of the University of Zagreb Božidar Tadić, Serbian footballer Božidar Urošević, Serbian professional football player Božidar Vuković, one of the first printers of Serb books Edmund Bogdanowicz, pseudonym Bozydar Slavic names Bozar Bozdar Bozhidar