President of the United States
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. In contemporary times, the president is looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower; the role includes responsibility for the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. The president leads the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP; the president possesses international hard and soft power. Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, it vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president directs the foreign and domestic policies of the United States, takes an active role in promoting his policy priorities to members of Congress. In addition, as part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation; the power of the presidency has grown since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. Through the Electoral College, registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term; this is the only federal election in the United States, not decided by popular vote. Nine vice presidents became president by virtue of a president's intra-term resignation. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: natural-born U. S. citizenship.
The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term. In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms, so he is counted twice, as both the 22nd and 24th president. Donald Trump of New York is the current president of the United States, he assumed office on January 20, 2017. In July 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the Thirteen Colonies, acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress, declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. Recognizing the necessity of coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the states together. There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, the exact powers to be given the central government. Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.
Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power. It could make its own resolutions and regulations, but not any laws, could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens; this institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some royal prerogatives to Congress; the members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator. Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the office of President of the United States, it was a ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies.
With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another, they witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed. Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in Annapolis, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms; when the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance (Rh
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Benton County, Oregon
Benton County is a county in the U. S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 census, the population was 85,579, its county seat is Corvallis. The county was named after Thomas Hart Benton, a U. S. Senator who advocated American control over the Oregon Country. Benton County is designated as the Corvallis, OR Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Portland-Vancouver-Salem, OR-WA Combined Statistical Area, it is in the Willamette Valley. Benton County was created on December 1847 by an act of the Provisional Government of Oregon; the county was named after Democratic Senator Thomas Hart Benton of Missouri, an advocate of the doctrine of Manifest Destiny and the belief that the American government should control the whole of the Oregon Country. At the time of its formation the county included all the country west of the Willamette River, south of Polk County and running all the way to the California border in the south and the Pacific Ocean in the west; the county was created out of lands inhabited by the Klickitat, who rented it from the Kalapuyas for use as hunting grounds.
All aboriginal claims to land within Benton County were ceded in the Treaty of Dayton in 1855. Portions of Benton County were taken to form Coos, Douglas, Josephine and Lincoln Counties, leaving Benton County in its present form; the city of Marysville renamed Corvallis, was made the county seat in 1851. The city was the capital of Oregon. In 1862 Corvallis became the site of the Oregon State Agricultural College, known today as Oregon State University. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 679 square miles, of which 676 square miles is land and 2.7 square miles is water. It is the fourth-smallest county in Oregon by land third-smallest by total area. Polk County Lincoln County Linn County Lane County Siuslaw National Forest William L. Finley National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 78,153 people, 30,145 households, 18,237 families residing in the county; the population density was 116 people per square mile. There were 31,980 housing units at an average density of 47 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 89.16% White, 0.84% Black or African American, 0.79% Native American, 4.49% Asian, 0.24% Pacific Islander, 1.92% from other races, 2.56% from two or more races. 4.66% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 18.2 % were of 8.9 % Irish and 7.0 % American ancestry. 91.1 % spoke 4.1 % Spanish and 1.0 % Chinese as their first language. There were 30,145 households out of which 28.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.40% were married couples living together, 7.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.50% were non-families. 26.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.95. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.30% under the age of 18, 20.20% from 18 to 24, 26.70% from 25 to 44, 21.40% from 45 to 64, 10.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years.
For every 100 females there were 99.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $41,897, the median income for a family was $56,319. Males had a median income of $42,018 versus $29,795 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,868. About 6.80% of families and 14.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.60% of those under age 18 and 4.90% of those age 65 or over. Benton County has the lowest church attendance per capita of any county in the nation; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 85,579 people, 34,317 households, 19,256 families residing in the county. The population density was 126.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 36,245 housing units at an average density of 53.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 87.1% white, 5.2% Asian, 0.9% black or African American, 0.7% American Indian, 0.2% Pacific islander, 2.3% from other races, 3.6% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 6.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 22.6% were German, 16.1% were English, 13.5% were Irish, 3.6% were American. Of the 34,317 households, 24.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.3% were married couples living together, 7.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 43.9% were non-families, 28.2% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.87. The median age was 32.1 years. The median income for a household in the county was $48,012 and the median income for a family was $71,763. Males had a median income of $50,282 versus $35,387 for females; the per capita income for the county was $26,177. About 7.7% of families and 19.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.6% of those under age 18 and 5.5% of those age 65 or over. Adair Village Albany Corvallis Monroe Philomath Alpine Alsea Bellfountain Blodgett Kings Valley Summit For a long time Benton County favored the Republican Party: along with Riverside County in California it was one of only two counties in the Pacific States to be held by Herbert Hoover in 1932.
As late as 1960 Benton was the most Republican county in the traditionally Republican state of Oregon, which at that point had never supported a Democrat other than FDR for President except for 1912 when the Republican Party was divided and a narrow victory in 1868. Up to 1984 Benton County had voted
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Astoria is a port city and the seat of Clatsop County, United States. Founded in 1811, it is the oldest American settlement west of the Rocky Mountains and the oldest city in the state of Oregon. Astoria is located on the south shore of the Columbia River, where the river meets the Pacific Ocean; the city is named for John Jacob Astor, an investor from New York City whose American Fur Company founded Fort Astoria at the site. Astoria was incorporated by the Oregon Legislative Assembly on October 20, 1876; the city is served by the deepwater Port of Astoria. Transportation includes the Astoria Regional Airport with U. S. Route 30 and U. S. Route 101 as the main highways, the 4.1-mile Astoria–Megler Bridge connecting to neighboring Washington across the river. The population was 9,477 at the 2010 census; the Lewis and Clark Expedition spent the winter of 1805–1806 at Fort Clatsop, a small log structure south and west of modern-day Astoria. The expedition had hoped a ship would come by to take them back east, but instead they endured a torturous winter of rain and cold returning the way they came.
Today the fort is now a historical park. In 1811, British explorer David Thompson, the first person known to have navigated the entire length of the Columbia River, reached the constructed Fort Astoria near the mouth of the river, he arrived just two months after the Tonquin. The fort constructed by the Tonquin party established Astoria as a U. S. rather than a British, became a vital post for American exploration of the continent and was used as an American claim in the Oregon boundary dispute with European nations. The Pacific Fur Company, a subsidiary of John Jacob Astor's American Fur Company, was created to begin fur trading in the Oregon Country. During the War of 1812, in 1813, the company's officers sold its assets to their Canadian rivals, the North West Company; the fur trade would remain under British control until U. S. pioneers following the Oregon Trail began filtering into the town in the mid-1840s. The Treaty of 1818 established joint U. S. – British occupancy of the Oregon Country.
In 1846, the Oregon Treaty divided the mainland at the 49th parallel north, the southern portion of Vancouver Island south of this line was awarded to the British. Washington Irving, a prominent American writer with a European reputation, was approached by John Jacob Astor to mythologize the three-year reign of his Pacific Fur Company. Astoria, written while Irving was Astor's guest, cemented the importance of the region in the American psyche. In Irving's words, the fur traders were "Sinbads of the wilderness", their venture was a staging point for the spread of American economic power into both the continental interior and into the Pacific; as the Oregon Territory grew and became more colonized by Americans, Astoria grew as a port city near the mouth of the great river that provided the easiest access to the interior. The first U. S. post office west of the Rocky Mountains was established in Astoria in 1847 and official state incorporation in 1876. Astoria attracted a host of immigrants beginning in the late 19th century: Nordic settlers Finns, Chinese soon became larger parts of the population.
The Finns lived in Uniontown, near the present-day end of the Astoria–Megler Bridge, took fishing jobs. By the late 1800s, 22% of Astoria's population was Chinese. In 1883, again in 1922, downtown Astoria was devastated by fire because it was wood and raised off the marshy ground on pilings. After the first fire, the same format was used, the second time around the flames spread again, as collapsing streets took out the water system. Frantic citizens resorted to dynamite, blowing up entire buildings to stop the fire from going further. Astoria has served as a port of entry for over a century and remains the trading center for the lower Columbia basin, although it has long since been eclipsed by Portland and Seattle, Washington, as an economic hub on the coast of the Pacific Northwest. Astoria's economy centered on fishing, fish processing, lumber. In 1945, about 30 canneries could be found along the Columbia; the lumber industry declined. From 1921 to 1966, a ferry route across the Columbia River connected Astoria with Pacific County, Washington.
In 1966, the Astoria–Megler Bridge was opened. The bridge completed U. S. Route 101 and linked Astoria with Washington on the opposite shore of the Columbia, replacing the ferry service. Today, Astoria's growing art scene, light manufacturing are the main economic activities of the city. Logging and fishing at a fraction of their former levels, it is a port of call for cruise ships since 1982, after $10 million in pier improvements to accommodate these larger ships. To avoid Mexican ports of call during the Swine Flu outbreak of 2009, many cruises were re-routed to include Astoria; the floating residential community MS The World visited Astoria in June 2009. The town's seasonal sport fishing tourism has been active for several decades and has now been supplanted with visitors coming for the historic elements of the city; the more recent microbrewery/brewpub scene and a weekly street market have helped popularized the area as a destination. In addition to the replicated Fort Clatsop
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Oregon Islands National Wildlife Refuge
Oregon Islands National Wildlife Refuge is a U. S. National Wildlife Refuge off the southwestern Oregon Coast, it is one of six National Wildlife Refuges comprising the Oregon Coast National Wildlife Refuge Complex. The Oregon Islands provides wilderness protection to 1,853 small islands and reefs plus two headlands, totaling 371 acres spanning 1,083 acres of Oregon's coastline from the Oregon–California border to Tillamook Head. There are sites in six of the seven coastal counties of Oregon. From north to south they are Clatsop, Lincoln, Lane and Curry counties; the Oregon Islands National Wildlife Refuge was created in 1935 by the federal government. Haystack Rock off Cannon Beach was added to the refuge in 1968, became a wilderness area in 1978; the first mainland addition to the refuge came in 1991. In 1999, the shipwreck of the New Carissa near Coos Bay spilled oil that killed some birds at the refuge, it is a sanctuary for nesting seabirds of thirteen species—some of the most important nesting seabird colonies in the U.
S. Over 1.2 million individuals nest in colonies here, more than on the California and Washington coasts combined. The most prevalent species are common murres, tufted puffins and Cassin's auklets, pigeon guillemots, Leach's storm-petrels, several species of gulls, Caspian terns. Four species of pinniped breed and rest on these lands, including harbor seals and California sea lions; the southern portion of the refuge provides the greatest number of breeding and pupping sites for Steller sea lions in the U. S. outside Alaska. Except for Tillamook Rock Light and its surrounding 1-acre rock, all the islands are closed to public access. Boats must remain at least 500 feet away, aircraft are asked to maintain at least 2,000 ft clearance. However, good viewing is possible from Coquille Point in Bandon and other locations suggested by the Oregon Coast Birding Trail; the area is managed by Wildlife Service. Pacific Flyway Important Bird Area List of National Wildlife Refuges in Oregon List of Oregon Wildernesses Wilderness Act List of U.
S. Wilderness Areas Official website