Mexican Americans are Americans of full or partial Mexican descent. As of July 2016, Mexican Americans made up 11.2% of the United States' population, as 36.3 million U. S. residents identified as being of partial Mexican ancestry. As of July 2016, Mexican Americans comprised 63.2% of all Latinos in Americans in the United States. Many Mexican Americans reside in the American Southwest; as of 2016, Mexicans make up 53% of total percent population of Latin foreign-born. Mexicans are the largest foreign-born population, accounting for 25% of the total foreign-born population, as of 2017; the United States is home to the second-largest Mexican community in the world, second only to Mexico itself, comprising more than 24% of the entire Mexican-origin population of the world. Mexican American families of indigenous heritage have been in the country for at least 15,000 years, mestizo Mexican American history spans more than 400 years, since the 1598 founding of Spanish New Mexico. Spanish subjects of New Spain in the Southwest included New Mexican Hispanos and Pueblo Indians and Genizaros, Tejanos and Mission Indians have existed since the area was part of New Spain.
The majority of these primarily Hispanophone populations adopted English as their first language as part of their overall Americanization. Ten percent of the current Mexican-American population are descended from the early colonial settlers who became U. S. citizens in 1848 via the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo which ended the Mexican–American War. Although most of the original Mexican American population were deemed white citizens by the treaty, they have faced and continue to face discrimination in the form of Anti-Mexican sentiment and Hispanophobia rooted in the idea that Mexicans were "too Indian" to be citizens. Despite assurances to the contrary, the property rights of Mexican citizens were not honored by the U. S. in accordance with modifications to and interpretations of the Treaty. Continuous large-scale migration after the 1910 Mexican Revolution, added to this original population. During the Great Depression, Mexican Americans were scapegoated and subjected to an ethnic cleansing campaign of mass deportation which affected an estimated 500,000 to two million people.
In violation of immigration law, the federal government allowed state and local governments to unilaterally deport citizens without due process. An estimated 85% of those ethnically cleansed were United States citizens, with 60% being birthright citizens; the remaining population became more homogenous and politically active during the New Deal — which excluded Mexican Americans — and World War II era, which brought about the guest-worker Bracero Program. The 1965 Delano grape strike, sparked by Filipino American farmworkers, became an intersectional struggle when labor leaders and voting rights and civil rights activists Dolores Huerta, founder of the National Farm Workers Association, her co-leader César Chávez united with the strikers to form the United Farm Workers. Huerta's slogan "Sí, se puede", was popularized by Chávez's fast and became a rallying cry for the Chicano Movement, or Mexican American civil rights movement; the Chicano movement aimed for a variety of civil rights reforms, was inspired by the civil rights movement.
The Chicano walkouts of antiwar students is traditionally seen as the start of the more radical phase of the Chicano movement. Immigration from Mexico increased in the 1980s and 1990s, peaking in the mid-2000s. In 2008, "Sí, se puede" was adopted as the 2008 campaign slogan of Barack Obama, whose election and reelection as the first African American president underlined the growing importance of the Mexican American vote; the Great Recession led to a severe loss in Mexican American wealth, immigration from Mexico decreased. The failure of presidents of both parties to properly enact immigration reform in the United States led to an increased polarization of how to handle an diverse population as Mexican Americans spread out from traditional centers in the Southwest and Chicago. In 2015, the United States admitted 157,227 Mexican immigrants, as of November 2016, 1.31 million Mexicans were on the waiting list to immigrate to the United States through legal means. In 1900, there were more than 500,000 Hispanics of Mexican descent living in New Mexico, Nevada, Colorado and Texas.
Most were Mexican Americans of Spanish descent and other Hispanicized European settlers who settled in the Southwest during Spanish colonial times, as well as local and Mexican Indians. As early as 1813, some of the Tejanos who colonized Texas in the Spanish Colonial Period established a government in Texas that desired independence from Spanish-ruled Mexico. In those days, there was no concept of identity as Mexican. Many Mexicans were more loyal to their states/provinces than to their country as a whole, a colony of Spain; this was true in frontier regions such as Zacatecas, Yucatán, New Mexico, etc. As shown by the writings of colonial Tejanos such as Antonio Menchaca, the Texas Revolution was a colonial Tejano cause. Mexico encouraged immigration from the United States to settle east Texas and, by 1831, English-speaking settlers outnumbered Tejanos ten to one in the re
Little Italy is a general name for an ethnic enclave populated by Italians or people of Italian ancestry in an urban neighborhood. The concept of "Little Italy" holds many different aspects of the Italian culture. There are shops selling Italian goods as well as Italian restaurants lining the streets. A "Little Italy" strives to have a version of the country of Italy placed in the middle of a big non-Italian city; this sort of enclave is the result of periods of immigration in the past, during which people of the same culture settled together in certain areas. As cities modernized and grew, these areas became known for their ethnic associations, towns like "Little Italy" blossomed, becoming the icons they are today. Little Italy, Melbourne Little Italy, Edmonton in Alberta Little Italy, Montreal, in Quebec Little Italy, Ottawa, in Ontario Little Italy, Toronto, in Ontario Corso Italia, Toronto, in Ontario Little Italy, Vancouver, in British Columbia Little Italy, Windsor, in Ontario Little Italy, Winnipeg, in Manitoba Little Italy in Bedford Little Italy, Hoddesdon, in Hertfordshire Scotland Road in Liverpool was known as Little Italy Clerkenwell in London was known as Little Italy Ancoats in Manchester was known as Little Italy Several Little Italys exist in New York City, including: Little Italy, Manhattan Italian Harlem Arthur Avenue, The Bronx Morris Park, Bronx Bensonhurst, Brooklyn Rosebank, Staten Island Little Italy, Chicago, in Illinois Little Italy, Arkansas Little Italy, Baltimore, in Maryland North End, Boston, in Massachusetts Little Italy, Bridgeport, in Connecticut Little Italy, Cleveland, in Ohio Little Italy, Connellsville, in Pennsylvania Little Italy in Erie, Pennsylvania Wooster Square, in New Haven, Connecticut Little Italy, Omaha, in Nebraska The Hill in St. Louis, Missouri Little Italy, San Diego, California North Beach, San Francisco, in California Little Italy, Schenectady, in New York Little Italy, Rochester, NY Little Italy, Syracuse, in New York Little Italy, Waterbury, in Connecticut Little Italy, Clay County, West Virginia Little Italy, Randolph County, West Virginia Little Italy, Wilmington, in Delaware Italian Quarter, Dublin Little Italy, Gothenburg Some Italian neighborhoods may have other names, but are colloquially referred to as "Little Italy," including: La Boca, Buenos Aires Norton Street: in the Sydney suburb of Leichhardt Ramsay Street: in the Sydney suburb of Haberfield Campbelltown/Athelstone in Adelaide New Farm in Brisbane New Italy, New South Wales Griffith, New South Wales Mooca, São Paulo Bexiga Jundiaí, São Paulo state Santa Felicidade, Paraná Savassi, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais Antonio Prado, Rio Grande do Sul St. Leonard, a borough of Montreal with a large Italian population LaSalle, a borough in Montreal with a large Italian population Rivière-des-Prairies–Pointe-aux-Trembles, another borough of Montreal with a prominent Italian population Corso Italia, a neighbourhood in Toronto Vaughan, Ontario, A city in north of Toronto with a high population of Italians Stoney Creek, Ontario North Burnaby, British Columbia Capitán Pastene, northwest Temuco Malindi District, Kilifi County Chipilo, Puebla Colonia Manuel Gonzalez, Veracruz La Merced barrio, Mexico City Colonia Roma, Mexico City Gutierrez Zamora, Veracruz Colonia Diez Gutierrez, San Luis Potosi San Pedro, Nuevo Leon Nueva Italia, Michoacán Lombardia, Michoacán Arandas, Jalisco Playa del Carmen, Quintana Roo Orange Grove, Johannesburg Clerkenwell, London Ancoats, Manchester North Beach, San Francisco, California Little Italy, San Diego, California Spaghetti Hill, California Thompsonville, Connecticut Town Plot in Waterbury, Connecticut Wooster Square in New Haven, Connecticut Italia in northern Florida Pompano Beach, a section is an Italian neighborhood Taylor Street Archives, Illinois Heat of Little Italy, Illinois Little Sicily, Illinois Bridgeport, Illinois Dunning, Chicago Indy Little Italy, Indiana Des Moines, South Des Moines is an Italian neighborhood Independence, Louisiana Old Forge, Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania Little Italy, Maryland North End, Massachusetts Columbus Park, Kansas City, Missouri The Hill, St. Louis, Missouri North East, Kansas City, Missouri Little Italy, Nebraska Seventh Avenue, New Jersey Varick Street, New York Dominick Street, New York North Side, New York, though "Little Italy" was considered the West Side of the city Schenectady, New York, proposed "Little Italy" from Hillary Clinton, to run through sections of downtown.
Utica, New York, East Side considered to be city's "Little Italy" Brier Hill, Ohio Italian Village, Ohio Italian Market, Pennsylvania Bloomfield, Pennsylvania Easton, Pennsylvania Roseto, Pennsylvania Federal Hill, Rhode Island Johnston, Rhode Island has the highest percentage of Italian Americans of any municipality in the country. Galveston, south of Houston, highest Italian-American population in the Greater Houston as well as Texas. Judiciary Square, Washington, D. C. Turen Buzzelli, Michael. "From Little Britain to Little Italy: an urban ethnic landscape study in Toronto". Journal of Historical Geography. 27: 573–587. Doi:10.1006/jhge.2001.0355. Frunza, Bogdana Simina. Streetscape and Ethnicity: New York's Mulberry Street and the Redefinition of the Italian American Ethnic Identity Gabaccia, Donna R.. "Inventing'Little Italy'". Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era. 6: 7–41. JSTOR 25144462. Gabaccia, Donna R.. "Global Geography of'Little I
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The term refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States. Black and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of West/Central African and European descent, some have Native American ancestry. According to U. S. Census Bureau data, African immigrants do not self-identify as African American; the overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities. Immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not self-identify with the term. African-American history starts in the 16th century, with peoples from West Africa forcibly taken as slaves to Spanish America, in the 17th century with West African slaves taken to English colonies in North America.
After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, the last four million black slaves were only liberated after the Civil War in 1865. Due to notions of white supremacy, they were treated as second-class citizens; the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, only white men of property could vote. These circumstances were changed by Reconstruction, development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, the elimination of racial segregation, the civil rights movement which sought political and social freedom. In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States; the first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, founded by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526. The marriage between Luisa de Abrego, a free black domestic servant from Seville and Miguel Rodríguez, a white Segovian conquistador in 1565 in St. Augustine, is the first known and recorded Christian marriage anywhere in what is now the continental United States.
The ill-fated colony was immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic and the colony was abandoned; the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence. The first recorded Africans in British North America were "20 and odd negroes" who came to Jamestown, Virginia via Cape Comfort in August 1619 as indentured servants; as English settlers died from harsh conditions and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. An indentured servant would work for several years without wages; the status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery. Servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Unlike slaves, they were freed after their term of service expired or was bought out, their children did not inherit their status, on their release from contract they received "a year's provision of corn, double apparel, tools necessary", a small cash payment called "freedom dues".
Africans could raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom. They raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of lifetime slavery when they sentenced John Punch, a Negro, to lifetime servitude under his master Hugh Gwyn for running away. In the Spanish Florida some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos; the Spanish encouraged slaves from the southern British colonies to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. King Charles II of Spain issued a royal proclamation freeing all slaves who fled to Spanish Florida and accepted conversion and baptism.
Most went to the area around St. Augustine, but escaped slaves reached Pensacola. St. Augustine had mustered an all-black militia unit defending Spain as early as 1683. One of the Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black "slaves", John Casor, resulting from the court ruling of a civil case; the popular conception of a race-based slave system did not develop until the 18th century. The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery in 1625 with the importation of eleven black slaves into New Amsterdam. All the colony's slaves, were freed upon its surrender to the British. Massachusetts was the first British colony to recognize slavery in 1641. In 1662, Virginia passed a law that children of enslaved women took the status of the mother, rather than that of the father, as under English common law; this principle was called partus sequitur ventrum. By an act of 1699, the colony ordered all free blacks deported defining as slaves all people of African descent who remained in the c
Interstate 5 in California
Interstate 5 is a major north–south route of the Interstate Highway System in the U. S. state of California. It begins at the Mexican border at the San Ysidro crossing, goes north across the length of California, crosses into Oregon south of the Medford-Ashland metropolitan area, it is the more important and most-used of the two major north–south routes on the Pacific Coast, the other being U. S. Route 101, coastal; this highway links the major California cities of San Diego, Santa Ana, Los Angeles, Stockton and Redding. Among the major cities not directly linked by I-5, but which are connected by local highways to it, are San Francisco and San Jose, all of which are about 80 miles west of the highway. I-5 is referred to as "5" in Northern California, is called "the 5" in the Southern California area. I-5 has several named portions: the Montgomery Freeway, San Diego Freeway, Santa Ana Freeway, Golden State Freeway, West Side Freeway. I-5 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration.
It is eligible to be included in the State Scenic Highway System. I-5 begins at the San Ysidro Port of Entry from Mexico in the San Ysidro neighborhood of San Diego. After the border, I-805 splits off to the northeast and serves as a bypass of I-5 that avoids the downtown San Diego area. I-5 itself continues northwest and meets the western end of SR 905, a route that connects with the Otay Mesa border crossing. I-5 continues northward and joins the southern end of SR 75, a highway connecting to Coronado via the Silver Strand. I-5 enters Chula Vista leaving the San Diego city limits, it continues along the east side of San Diego Bay where it intersects with SR 54 and enters National City. From there, I-5 reenters the city limits of San Diego. I-5 subsequently intersects with four state routes: the southern end of SR 15, SR 75 and the Coronado Bay Bridge, the western end of SR 94, SR 163. In addition to serving downtown San Diego, I-5 provides access to Balboa Park from the Pershing Drive exit; the portion of I-5 from the Mexican border to downtown San Diego is named the Montgomery Freeway in honor of John J. Montgomery, a pioneer aviator who flew a glider from a location near Chula Vista in 1884.
I-5 continues northwest from downtown as the San Diego Freeway until it reaches its junction with I-8 turns to the north while passing SeaWorld and Mission Bay. Thereafter, I-5 intersections the western end of SR 52 near La Jolla before entering University City. At Nobel Drive, the San Diego LDS Temple towers over I-5. Shortly afterward, I-5 passes through the UC San Diego campus and intersects the northern terminus of I-805 before continuing north and intersecting the western end of SR 56. At this interchange, there is a local bypass that provides the only access to Carmel Mountain Road from both directions and provides the only direct access to SR 56 going northbound. North of the San Diego city limits, I-5 enters the city limits of Solana Beach, three incorporated cities to the north: Encinitas and Oceanside. In Oceanside, I-5 intersects the SR 78 freeway and the SR 76 expressway and continues through Camp Pendleton, it follows the Pacific Ocean coastline for the next 18 miles. Toward the northern end of its routing through Camp Pendleton, I-5 passes through San Onofre State Beach and near the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station.
This is near the site of the once-proposed interchange with the SR 241 toll road near Trestles, a result of the planned Foothill Toll Road extension. I-5 enters Orange County at the Christianitos Road exit. Upon entering Orange County, I-5 goes through San Clemente. At Dana Point, I-5 turns inland. I-5 heads due north through San Juan Capistrano and Mission Viejo, intersecting the SR 73 toll road heading northwest. I-5 continues to the El Toro Y interchange in southeastern Irvine, splitting into lanes for regular traffic as well as for truck traffic. From that point, I-405 takes over the San Diego Freeway designation, while I-5 becomes the Santa Ana Freeway as it runs southeast to northwest. After the El Toro Y junction, I-5 intersects SR 133, a toll road that connects to SR 241. Just before the Tustin city limits, I-5 passes over SR 261, the final toll road of the Eastern Transportation Corridor, but traffic must use Jamboree Road to access the latter. I-5 intersects SR 55 and enters Santa Ana, the county seat of Orange County.
Towards the northern side of Santa Ana, I-5 intersects both SR 57 and SR 22 in what is known as the Orange Crush interchange. Following this, I-5 enters the city of Orange and traverses Anaheim, passing along the north side of Disneyland. I-5 intersects SR 91, passes through Buena Park and crosses into Los Angeles County. After crossing the county line, I-5 goes through several cities southeast of Los Angeles, including La Mirada, Santa Fe Springs, Norwalk. In Downey, I-5 intersects I-605, which serves as a north-south connector route between the cities east of Los Angeles, including those in the San Gabriel Valley. I-5 passes through Commerce and intersects I-710 before entering the large unincorporated community of East Los Angeles and the city proper of Los Angeles; when the freeway reaches the East Los Angeles Interchange one mile east
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Gentrification is a process of renovating deteriorated urban neighborhoods by means of the influx of more affluent residents. This is a common and controversial topic in urban planning. Gentrification can improve the material quality of a neighborhood, while potentially forcing relocation of current, established residents and businesses, causing them to move from a gentrified area, seeking lower cost housing and stores. Gentrification shifts a neighborhood's racial/ethnic composition and average household income by developing new, more expensive housing and improved resources. Conversations about gentrification have evolved, as many in the social-scientific community have questioned the negative connotations associated with the word gentrification. One example is that gentrification can lead to community displacement for lower-income families in gentrifying neighborhoods, as property values and rental costs rise; the gentrification process is the result of increasing attraction to an area by people with higher incomes spilling over from neighboring cities, towns, or neighborhoods.
Further steps are increased investments in a community and the related infrastructure by real estate development businesses, local government, or community activists and resulting economic development, increased attraction of business, lower crime rates. In addition to these potential benefits, gentrification can lead to population migration and displacement. However, some view the fear of displacement, dominating the debate about gentrification, as hindering discussion about genuine progressive approaches to distribute the benefits of urban redevelopment strategies; the term gentrification has come to refer to a multi-faceted phenomenon that can be defined in different ways. Gentrification is "a complex process involving physical improvement of the housing stock, housing tenure change from renting to owning, price rises and the displacement or replacement of the working-class population by the new middle class. Historians say that gentrification took place in ancient Rome and in Roman Britain, where large villas were replacing small shops by the 3rd century, AD.
The word gentrification derives from gentry—which comes from the Old French word genterise, "of gentle birth" and "people of gentle birth". In England, Landed gentry denoted the social class. Although the term was used in English in the 1950s - for instance by Sidney Perutz and by William Xenophon Weed and Oscar Le Roy Warren, British sociologist Ruth Glass coined the term "gentrification" in 1964 to describe the influx of middle-class people displacing lower-class worker residents in urban neighborhoods. Shabby, modest mews and cottages—two rooms up and two down—have been taken over, when their leases have expired, have become elegant, expensive residences... Once this process of'gentrification' starts in a district it goes on until all or most of the original working-class occupiers are displaced and the whole social character of the district is changed. In the US, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report Health Effects of Gentrification defines the real estate concept of gentrification as "the transformation of neighborhoods from low value to high value.
This change has the potential to cause displacement of long-time residents and businesses... when long-time or original neighborhood residents move from a gentrified area because of higher rents and property taxes. Gentrification is a housing and health issue that affects a community's history and culture and reduces social capital, it shifts a neighborhood's characteristics, e.g. racial-ethnic composition and household income, by adding new stores and resources in run-down neighborhoods."Scholars and pundits have applied a variety of definitions to gentrification since 1964, some oriented around gentrifiers, others oriented around the displaced, some a combination of both. The first category include Hackworth's definition "the production of space for progressively more affluent users"; the second category include Kasman's definition "the reduction of residential and retail space affordable to low-income residents". The final category includes Rose, who describes gentrification as a process "in which members of the'new middle class' move into and physically and culturally reshape working-class inner city neighbourhoods".
In the Brookings Institution report Dealing with Neighborhood Change: A Primer on Gentrification and Policy Choices, Maureen Kennedy and Paul Leonard say that "the term'gentrification' is both imprecise and quite politically charged", suggesting its redefinition as "the process by which higher income households displace lower income residents of a neighborhood, changing the essential character and flavour of that neighborhood", so distinguishing it from the different socio-economic process of "neighborhood revitalization", although the terms are sometimes used interchangeably. German geographers have a more distanced view on gentrification. Actual gentrification is seen as a mere symbolic issue happening in a low number of places and blocks, the symbolic value and visibility in public discourse being higher than actual migration trends. E.g. Gerhard Hard assumes that urban flight is still more im