Lincoln Memorial

The Lincoln Memorial is an American national memorial built to honor the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln. It is located on the western end of the National Mall in Washington, D. C. across from the Washington Monument. The architect was Henry Bacon. Dedicated in May 1922, it is one of several memorials built to honor an American president, it has always been a major tourist attraction and since the 1930s has been a symbolic center focused on race relations. The building is in the form of a Greek Doric temple and contains a large seated sculpture of Abraham Lincoln and inscriptions of two well-known speeches by Lincoln, The Gettysburg Address and his second inaugural address; the memorial has been the site of many famous speeches, including Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech, delivered on August 28, 1963, during the rally at the end of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. Like other monuments on the National Mall – including the nearby Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Korean War Veterans Memorial, National World War II Memorial – the memorial is administered by the National Park Service under its National Mall and Memorial Parks group.

It has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since October 15, 1966, was ranked seventh on the American Institute of Architects 2007 list of America's Favorite Architecture. The memorial is open to the public 24 hours a day, more than seven million people visit it annually; the first public memorial to United States President Abraham Lincoln in Washington, D. C. was a statue by Lot Flannery erected in front of the District of Columbia City Hall in 1868, three years after the Lincoln's assassination. Demands for a fitting national memorial had been voiced since the time of Lincoln's death. In 1867, Congress passed the first of many bills incorporating a commission to erect a monument for the sixteenth president. An American sculptor, Clark Mills, was chosen to design the monument, his plans reflected the nationalistic spirit of the time, called for a 70-foot structure adorned with six equestrian and 31 pedestrian statues of colossal proportions, crowned by a 12-foot statue of Abraham Lincoln.

Subscriptions for the project were insufficient. The matter lay dormant until the start of the 20th century, under the leadership of Senator Shelby M. Cullom of Illinois, six separate bills were introduced in Congress for the incorporation of a new memorial commission; the first five bills, proposed in the years 1901, 1902, 1908, met with defeat because of opposition from Speaker Joe Cannon. The sixth bill, introduced on December 13, 1910, passed; the Lincoln Memorial Commission had its first meeting the following year and United States President William H. Taft was chosen as the commission's president. Progress continued at a steady pace and by 1913 Congress had approved of the Commission's choice of design and location. There were questions regarding the commission's plan. Many thought that architect Henry Bacon's Greek temple design was far too ostentatious for a man of Lincoln's humble character. Instead they proposed a simple log cabin shrine; the site too did not go unopposed. The reclaimed land in West Potomac Park was seen by many to be either too swampy or too inaccessible.

Other sites, such as Union Station, were put forth. The Commission stood firm in its recommendation, feeling that the Potomac Park location, situated on the Washington Monument–Capitol axis, overlooking the Potomac River and surrounded by open land, was ideal. Furthermore, the Potomac Park site had been designated in the McMillan Plan of 1901 to be the location of a future monument comparable to that of the Washington Monument. With Congressional approval and a $300,000 allocation, the project got underway. On February 12, 1914, a dedication ceremony was conducted and the following month the actual construction began. Work progressed according to schedule; some changes were made to the plan. The statue of Lincoln designed to be 10 feet tall, was enlarged to 19 feet to prevent it from being overwhelmed by the huge chamber; as late as 1920, the decision was made to substitute an open portal for the bronze and glass grille, to have guarded the entrance. Despite these changes, the Memorial was finished on schedule.

Commission president William H. Taft –, Chief Justice of the United States – dedicated the Memorial on May 30, 1922, presented it to United States President Warren G. Harding, who accepted it on behalf of the American people. Lincoln's only surviving son, 78-year-old Robert Todd Lincoln, was in attendance; the Memorial was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. The exterior of the Memorial echoes a classic Greek temple and features Yule marble quarried from Colorado; the structure is 99 feet tall. It is surrounded by a peristyle of 36 fluted Doric columns, one for each of the 36 states in the Union at the time of Lincoln's death, two columns in-antis at the entrance behind the colonnade; the columns stand 44 feet tall with a base diameter of 7.5 feet. Each column is built from 12 drums including the capital; the columns, like the exterior walls and facades, are inclined toward the building's interior. This is to compensate for perspective distortions which would otherwise make the memorial appear to bulge out at the top when compared with the bottom, a common feature of Ancient Greek architecture.

Above the colonnade, inscribed on the frieze, are the names of the 36 states in the Uni


Portuñol or Portunhol is a portmanteau of the words Portugués/Português and Español/Espanhol, is the name given to any unsystematic mixture of Portuguese and Spanish. Close examination reveals it to be "a polyvalent term used to describe a wide range of phenomena, including spontaneous contact vernaculars in border regions, errors produced by speakers attempting to speak the L2 and idiosyncratic invented speech designed to facilitate communication between the two languages."Portuñol/Portunhol, is a pidgin, or simplified mixture of the two languages, that allows speakers of either Spanish or Portuguese who are not proficient in the other language to communicate with one another. When speakers of one of the languages attempt to speak the other language, there is interference from the native language, which causes the phenomenon of code-switching to occur, it is possible to conduct a moderately fluent conversation in this way because Portuguese and Spanish are related Romance languages. They have identical syntactic structures, as well as overlapping lexicons due to cognates, which means that a single macro-grammar is produced when the two mix.

An example for literary effect, "not based on accurate imitations of the speech of border regions", is the phrase en el hueco de la noite longa e langue, illustrating a code-mix of the Spanish article la and the Portuguese noun noite. Language contact between Spanish and Portuguese is the result of sustained contact between the two languages in border communities and multilingual trade environments; such regions include the border regions between Portugal and Spain in the Iberian Peninsula, as well as the ones between Brazil, whose official language is Portuguese, most of its neighboring countries whose official languages are Spanish. Because Portuñol is a spontaneous register resulting from the occasional mixing of Spanish and Portuguese, it is diverse. There does, tend to be a stronger presence of Spanish in Portuñol. In recent years, Portuñol has begun to appear in realms other than everyday speech, it has become a literary medium in Uruguay and Brazil. Language professor María Jesus Fernández García describes it as a linguistic recreation of the actual language.

However, she goes on to say that the literature only provides a true representation of Portuñol, that authors choose to select only some of the features that are characteristic of Portuñol. One important literary work written in Portuñol is Mar paraguayo by Brazilian author Wilson Bueno; the following passage shows the mixing of Portuguese in his novel. The appearance of Portuñol has prompted two opposing attitudes towards its existence. On the one hand, it is viewed as the product of laziness among speakers unwilling to learn a different language. On the other hand, it is seen as the logical product of globalization; as far as the future of Portuñol is concerned, according to Francisco A. Marcos-Marín, it is too difficult to evaluate possible repercussions that Portuñol could have on future linguistic maps because it is not easy to separate linguistic tendencies that are in style and those that are permanent. Castrapo Differences between Spanish and Portuguese Surzhyk Svorsk Trasianka

Kozhikode North (State Assembly constituency)

Kozhikode North State assembly constituency is one of the 140 state legislative assembly constituencies in Kerala state in southern India. It is one of the 7 state legislative assembly constituencies included in the Kozhikode Lok Sabha constituency. Kozhikode North Niyama Sabha constituency is composed of the following local self governed segments: The following list contains all members of Kerala legislative assembly who have represented Kozhikode North Niyama Sabha Constituency during the period of various assemblies:Key CPI Percentage change denotes the change in the number of votes from the immediate previous election. There were 1,69,752 registered voters in Kozhikode North Constituency for the 2016 Kerala Niyama Sabha Election. Kozhikode North Kozhikode district List of constituencies of the Kerala Legislative Assembly 2016 Kerala Legislative Assembly election