Lincoln, formally the Lincoln Motor Company, is the luxury vehicle division of American auto company Ford. Marketed among the top luxury brands in the United States, Lincoln has competed against Cadillac for nearly its entire existence. Lincoln has the distinction of establishing the personal luxury car segment, with the entry of the Lincoln Continental into mass production in 1940. Lincoln Motor Company was founded in 1917 by Henry M. Leland. Following World War II, Ford formed the Lincoln-Mercury Division, pairing Lincoln with its mid-range Mercury brand through 2010. In 2012, Ford rebranded the Lincoln division under Lincoln Motor Company. Founded as a freestanding division above Lincoln, Continental was integrated within Lincoln in 1959; the Continental-branded Mark Series was marketed through Lincoln starting in 1968, adapting the Lincoln name in 1986. The Lincoln star emblem is derived from a badge first used on the 1956 Continental Mark II. Following the divestiture of Jaguar, Land Rover, Aston Martin and Volvo and the closure of Mercury, Lincoln remains the sole luxury nameplate of Ford Motor Company.
The current product range of Lincoln consists of sedans, SUVs. Outside of retail markets, Lincoln has produced vehicles for limousine and livery use throughout its entire existence, with several examples used as official state limousines for Presidents of the United States. In 2017, Lincoln sold 188,383 vehicles globally. Outside of North America, Lincoln vehicles are sold in the Middle East and South Korea; the Lincoln Motor Company was founded in August 1917 by his son Wilfred. Among the founders of Cadillac, Leland had sold the company to General Motors in 1909, remaining on as an executive until 1917, when he left over a dispute with GM President William Durant. Naming Lincoln Motor Company after Abraham Lincoln, the first President for whom he voted, Leland financed the company by securing a $10 million contract to build Liberty V12 aircraft engines, breaking ground on the Lincoln Motor Company Plant. To build the Liberty engines, Lincoln sourced parts from other manufacturers. In total, 6,500 Liberty V12 engines were produced by Lincoln before the end of World War I ceased wartime production.
Following a complete retooling for automobile production, Lincoln Motor Company developed its first automobile, the Lincoln Model L on September 16, 1920. Intended as a rival for Cadillac and similar luxury car manufacturers, the Model L was powered by a L-head V8 engine, derived from the technology of the Liberty V12. During the early 1920s, Lincoln Motor Company struggled with the shift from military to automobile production, with some customers having to wait nearly a year for their vehicles to be completed from the time of purchase. By 1922, Lincoln was placed in receivership. On February 4, 1922, Lincoln Motor Company was acquired by Ford Motor Company for $8 million. Although Henry Ford had designed several luxury vehicles under the Ford brand, Ford sought to create a stand-alone luxury-vehicle division, as General Motors had done with Cadillac. With the acquisition of Lincoln, Ford Motor Company produced a rival for Cadillac, Pierce-Arrow, Peerless and Packard alongside the Ford Model T.
In addition to more competing against General Motors in different price segments, the purchase of Lincoln held personal value within Ford management. In 1902, Henry Ford had been forced out of his second company by a group of investors led by Leland. Henry Ford Company was renamed Cadillac Automobile Company. While Henry and Wilfred Leland were retained to manage Lincoln, on June 10, 1922, both Lelands were removed, with Edsel Ford brought in to manage the company. Following the introduction of Edsel Ford to Lincoln management, the fortunes of Lincoln began to improve. For 1923, the Lincoln Model L underwent extensive changes. While the chassis and drivetrain were left alone, several new bodystyles were introduced. In line with a Duesenberg or a Rolls-Royce, customers could purchase a Model L with coachbuilt bodywork. For 1923, Lincoln produced 7,875 cars. During the early 1920s, Lincoln steered away from the common American automotive industry practice of yearly model changes. While used to market fresh designs to customers, Lincoln found that its customers had begun to purchase multiple Lincolns in different bodystyles.
Following the 1930 model year, Lincoln chose to withdraw the Model L in favor of a more modern vehicle. For 1931, the Lincoln Model K was introduced as a competitor to the Cadillac 355, Chrysler Imperial, Duesenberg Model J, Packard Eight. For 1932, Lincoln became an American manufacturer to produce a "multi-cylinder" engine as it introduced its first V12 engine. While not the first to produce a V12 engine in an American-produced car, in 1933, Lincoln became the first manufacturer to produce vehicles with V12 engines, as it retired the L-head V8 engine. During the 1930s, Lincoln expanded to two model lines for the first time; as Lincoln shifted the Model K upwards in price, Edsel Ford introduced the Linc
CSS Neuse was a steam-powered ironclad ram of the Confederate States Navy that served in the latter part the American Civil War and was scuttled to avoid capture by advancing Union Army forces. In the early 1960s, she produced 15,000 artifacts from her raised lower hull, the largest number found on a recovered Confederate vessel; the remains of her lower hull and a selection of her artifacts are on exhibit in Kinston, North Carolina at the CSS Neuse Interpretive Center State Historic Site, which belongs to the North Carolina Department of Natural and Cultural Resources. The ironclad is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. A contract for the construction of Neuse was signed on 17 October 1862 between the shipbuilding company of Thomas Howard and Elijah Ellis and the Confederate Navy. Work began in October of that year on the bank across the Neuse River from the small village of Whitehall, North Carolina; the gunboat's design was identical to her sister ironclad CSS Albemarle, but Neuse differed from Albemarle by having four additional gun ports added to her eight-sided armored casemate.
The hull was 158 feet long by 34 feet wide, she was constructed of locally abundant pine, with some 4 inches of oak used as sturdy backing for her 4-inch-thick wrought iron armor. Many delays in construction were incurred by a lack of available materials the iron plate for her armored casemate and deck. Due to continuing iron plate shortages, Neuse became the first of several Southern ironclads built with unarmored decks; this situation was compounded by the Confederate Army exercising priority over the Navy in the use of the South's inadequate railroad system for transporting vital war materiel. Neuse was equipped with two 6.4-inch Brooke rifled cannon. Both cannons were positioned along the ironclad's center-line in the armored casemate, one forward, the other aft; the field of fire for both pivot rifles was 180-degrees, from port to starboard: Each cannon could fire from one of five gun port positions or could deliver a two cannon broadside. Neuse's projectiles consisted of explosive shells, anti-personnel canister shot, grape shot, blunt-nosed, solid wrought iron "bolts" for use against Union armored ships.
Launched in November 1863 while still needing fitting out, Neuse got up steam in April 1864 for duty on the inland waters of North Carolina as part of the force under Commander R. F. Pinkney, CSN. Shortly thereafter, the ironclad grounded off Kinston due to her inexperienced crew, conscripted from the Confederate Army. After that, due to a lack of available Confederate Army shore support, she never left the river area around Kinston, serving instead as a floating ironclad fortification. In March 1865, with Kinston under siege by Union forces, gunpowder trails were laid down which led to a cache of explosives placed in her bow. Neuse burned to just below her waterline and sank into the river mud preventing capture by the advancing Union Army forces, commanded by Major General John M. Schofield. At some point following the war, her sunken hulk, lying in shallow river water and mud, was salvaged of its valuable metals: cannon and their fittings, iron ram, casemate armor, both propellers and their shafts, her steam power plant.
Whatever bits and pieces remained, including her projectiles, lay undisturbed in and around the wreck until Neuse was raised nearly a century later. After nearly a century, the remaining lower hull of the ironclad was discovered and raised in 1963. Neuse's hull was temporarily installed in the Governor Caswell Memorial, beside the river, in Kinston. Since 2013, Neuse and her artifacts have been on display in a new, climate-controlled building in downtown Kinston. There are only four recovered Civil War era ironclad wrecks, CSS Neuse, CSS Muscogee, USS Monitor, USS Cairo. Other Union and Confederate ironclad wreck sites remain untouched; the successful Confederate submarine H. L. Hunley, which sank the Union blockading sloop-of-war USS Housatonic, was recovered and is undergoing extensive restoration and long term conservation at the Warren Lasch Conservation Center in North Charleston, South Carolina. A replica of the CSS Neuse, better known as CSS Neuse II, was the brainchild of Kinston activist and businessman Ted Sampley and built by Alton Stapleford.
Neuse II is on grounds display at a separate site in Kinston and contains a complete fitted-out interior that shows all shipboard details. Neuse is the only Confederate ironclad that has a full-size replica on display. Since April 2002 Neuse's sister ironclad, CSS Albemarle has had a 3⁄8 scale replica, 63 feet long, at anchor near the Port O' Plymouth Museum in Plymouth, North Carolina; this ironclad replica is capable of sailing on the river. Bisbee, Saxon T.. Engines of Rebellion: Confederate Ir
Culture Factory Polymer was a multidisciplinary centre for artistic creation and diffusion in Tallinn, Estonia. Located in Lilleküla, Kristiine District, on the fringes of the Tallinn city centre, this former toy factory became in 2003 one of the main strong points for alternative un-institutionalized culture in Tallinn. Culture Factory Polymer closed in 2014. During the Soviet era, Polymer was a toy factory. In 1993, closed this branch of activities, leaving a large building in a state of abandonment. A few years after, a group of artists, intrigued by this big empty space, decided to turn a room into a rehearsal place. Step-by-step, other artists wished to rehearse; the new owner of the building gave its agreement for necessary renovations. Nowadays, the factory disposes of 3,000 m2 of space, dedicated to diffusion; the building aesthetics of Polymer are typical Soviet industrial style. Concrete production facilities were transferred over time to incorporate new space for living, artistic use and events, with the old flair and keeping its authenticity.
The conservation of the old factory's name, "Polymer", perpetuates the memory of this historic past. Polymer, it is nowadays: studios for artists, rehearsals rooms for music bands, a center for art courses, two exhibition galleries, a Media Lab, two concert halls, two spaces which can be converted for several kinds of events, a bar, two studios for guest artists. A traditional letterpress print shop was installed in the building. Polymer became a place for residencies and diffusion with multiple spaces, where live together about 30 artists and organizations, working on diverse artistic fields. Constituted as a non profit organization, Polymer works as a platform, as a venue for different events and activities, offering thus a new space for alternative culture in Tallinn. Public events take place every week, involving artist in residency and guest artist from Tallinn and Europe; every year in August, Polymer organizes its own festival, "Culture Factory Festival". Important is involving the audience in action through the workshops during the festival.
Polymer is an organization open to outwards contacts. Polymer leads different cultural and social actions at a local level, develops its partnerships in Tallinn, in Estonia and in Europe. Polymer was a member of the Trans Europe Halles network in years 2005-2013. Art ContainerThis collective develops alternative points of view of the society and trends dominating the artworld and enables an experimental times-space container in both-material and conceptual level for the creators. MARTU – Estonian Media Artists’UnionIt is the first umbrella organization for media artists in Estonia providing a platform for their activities and trying to meet their needs. Role playersAmong others, Estonian Role Players’ Society boasts a training hall here. LARP, tabletop games and re-enactment are practised. Kunstimooduste Keskus They bring out people from the world of two-dimensional vision and add an extra measure to the learning of art-emotional. MotorcyclesMC Madal Lend adds hard rock spice to the community.
But visual artists, jewellery artists, performances artists, multimedia artists
Lieutenant General Sagat Singh, PVSM was a General in the Indian Army notable for his participation in invasion of Goa and in Bangladesh. He held many prestigious staff appointments throughout his military career. Sagat Singh was born in the village of Kusumdesar in Churu district of Rajasthan on 14 July 1919 to Brijlal Singh Rathore of Kusumdesar and Jadao Kanwar of Hadla; the oldest of three brothers and six sisters, he completed his schooling from Walter Nobles High School at Bikaner in 1936. He joined Doongar College at Bikaner but was enrolled as a Naik in Bikaner Ganga Risala after his intermediate exam in 1938, he was promoted to Jamadar and commissioned as 2/Lt in Bikaner Ganga Risala, sent to Sindh in 1941 to deal with Hoor rebellion. It was sent to Jubair in Iraq and Ahwaz in Iran during the war, he was selected for the 12th War Staff course at Quetta from May to November 1945. On amalgamation of the State Forces in 1950, he joined Third Gorkha Rifles, he commanded the Third Battalions of the Third Gorkha Rifles.
In September 1961, he was promoted to the rank of brigadier and posted as the brigade commander of India's only parachute brigade, the 50th Parachute Brigade. The parachute brigade led by him played a prominent part in liberation of Goa, his men were the first to enter Panjim on 19 December 1961; as a Major General, he commanded a mountain division and a communication zone, where he played a pivotal role in taking counter-insurgency operations in Mizoram. For his distinguished services, the general officer was awarded the Param Vishisht Seva Medal. In December 1970, he took over the command of HQ IV Corps as a lieutenant general; the corps made the famous advance to Dacca over the River Meghna during Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. He witnessed in Dacca the signing of the surrender instrument by General Niazi. For his leadership and command for the race to Dacca, the Government of India honored Lt. Gen. Sagat Singh with the third highest civilian award of Padma Bhushan. Lt. Gen. Sagat Singh is the only other Corps commander besides Lt. Gen. T N Raina and Lt. Gen. Sartaj Singh to be so awarded in 1971.
Lt. Gen. Sagat Singh died at the Army Hospital Research & Referral, New Delhi on 26 September 2001, he married Kamla Kumari on 27 January 1947. They had four sons, their eldest son, was born in February 1949. He was commissioned into 1 Garhwal, mechanised, re-designated as 6 MECH, he retired a Colonel. The second son, was born in October 1950, was commissioned into 2/3 Gorkha Rifles, the battalion his father had commanded, he died an untimely death while serving with the battalion in Poonch as a Captain on 4 March 1976, when the jeep in which he was travelling met with an accident. Their third son, Vir Vijay was born in August 1954. An ill-fated scooter accident in Delhi claimed his life just eight months before that of his elder brother; the loss of two sons in the prime of their lives within a short span of eight months was a terrible loss to Sagat and his wife. Their youngest son Chandra Vijay was born in April 1956, he became a business executive. Meghna Heli Bridge Col. C L Proudfoot, Flash of the Khukri: History of the 3rd Gorkha Rifles Regiment, Vision Books Air Chief Marshal P C Lal, My Years with the IAF, Lancer International Maj. Gen. Afsir Karim, The Story of India’s Airborne Troops, Lancer International Brigadier Siddiq Salik, Witness to Surrender, Vikas Publications Maj. Gen. Sukhwant Singh, The liberation of Bangladesh, Vikas Publications Maj. Gen. Lachman Singh Lehl, Victory in Bangladesh, Natraj Publications Maj Gen Randhir Sinh, A Talent for War: The Military Biography of Lt Gen Sagat Singh, Vij Books Maj Gen DK Palit, War in the High Himalayas, Lancers Brig RS Sodhi, Operation Windfall, Allied Publishers Brig Jagdev Singh, Dismemberment of Pakistan, Lancers Maj Gen VK Singh, Leadership in the Indian Army, Sage Publishers Maj Gen AK Verma, The Bridge on the River Meghna, KW Publishers A Talent for War: The Military Biography of Lt Gen Sagat Singh, Maj Gen Randhir Sinh, Vij Books India / United Service Institution of India, ISBN 978-93-82652-23-6 "Remembering Sagat Singh" by P.
V. S. Jagan Mohan, 12 October 2006 - Bharat Rakshak Memorial Service for General Sagat Singh - Press Information Bureau Official History of the 1971 India Pakistan War, History Division, Ministry of Defence - Bharat Rakshak
Lenore Raphael is an American jazz pianist and educator influenced by Oscar Peterson, Bill Evans, George Shearing. Raphael was born in New York City, she studied classical music at the High School of Music & Art in Manhattan, going on to New York University, where she received a Bachelor of Arts degree in music. As a teenage prodigy, she performed in a classical concert at Carnegie Hall, she gave up a career as a music teacher and switched to playing jazz professionally after hearing Oscar Peterson in concert. She studied jazz piano under Mike Longo. Raphael has performed with Ken Peplowski, Illinois Jacquet and Clark Terry. A composer as well as performer, her tribute tune to Oscar Peterson following his death premièred at a memorial concert for Peterson at the International Association for Jazz Convention in Toronto, Ontario, her compositions include the jazz standard "Johnny Jazz". Raphael records with bassist Hilliard Greene and drummer Rudy Lawless. Raphael has taught piano throughout her career, with the assistance of a string of long-established jazz musicians put together a program for elementary school students to teach them the history of jazz.
She and vocalist Janet Lawson created the videotaped lessons, had guest input from the likes of Clark Terry, Arnie Lawrence and Ray and Billy Drummond. The series has become a model for teaching young students the fundamentals of jazz in the curriculum of many schools. Committed to spreading the jazz message to children, Raphael has co-created with Marcia Hillman a book-and-tape series called Scat Cat's Adventures in Jazzland. Raphael has published a jazz theory book for senior students. An authorised and accredited Steinway Artist, Raphael has her own radio show that features guest artists chatting and performing with her on each hour-long program, her guests have included Jon Hendricks, Warren Vache, Harry Allen, Gene Bertoncini, Joel Frahm and Marlene VerPlanck. Her most popular CDs include The Whole Truth, Wingin' It, A Beautiful Friendship and Class Act
'Langula' Narasingha Deva I was a powerful monarch and warrior of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty of early medieval Odisha who reigned c. 1238–1264. He defeated the Muslim forces of Bengal who threatened the Eastern Ganga dynasty's rule over his kingdom of Kalinga from the times of his father Anangabhima Deva III, he was the first king from Kalinga and one of the few rulers in India who took the offensive against the Islamic expansion over India by Turko-Afghan invaders. His father had defended his kingdom against the Turko-Afghan rulers of Bengal and crossed into Rarh and Varendra in Bengal chasing the invaders on backfoot, he built the Konark temple to commemorate his victories over the Muslims besides multiple temples as architectural marvels along with the largest fort complex of Eastern India at Raibania in Balasore. The Kendupatana plates of his grandson Narasingha Deva II mention that Sitadevi, the queen of Narasingha Deva I was the daughter of the Paramara king of Malwa; the term Langula has been confused for many abrupt derivations about the name of Narasingha Deva I as many interpreters have compared the word with the Odia term Languda meaning tail in different ways.
Some interpreters without looking at the living era depictions of the king himself from Konark sun temple, have abruptly narrated that the king was physically disabled, visible in the form of an extended spinal cord that looked like a tail. However, some other interpreters have described that the king used to wear a long sword which explained this name of his while others have associated the name with the river Vamsadhara, locally known as Languli or Languliya without any prevailing evidence. One correct interpretation comes from the late medieval period work of Gangavashanucharitam compiled by Vasudeva Somayaji in the eighteenth century of the small princedom of the rulers who were the descendants of the Eastern Gangas in southern Odisha. In one of the sections of this work, one of the court poets known as Vidyaranava has narrated that there were six kings by the name of Narasingha or Narasimha in the Ganga dynasty lineage before his time out of which the first was the son of Anangabhima Deva III and used to wear a long robe.
When he walked fast due to his aggressive nature, his long robe looked like a tail and hence the king came to be known as Langula Narasimha Deva who ruled for 27 years. Besides this accurate historical evidence in sync with the Konark sun temple's multiple stone panel depictions of the king, there is no other existing evidence that support any of the other interpretations about the term'Langula' as the name of the Narasingha Deva I. Narasingha Deva I is glorified in multiple phrases and sections of literary works by some of the eminent poets of his time besides being eulogized in the inscriptions of Kendupatna, Kenduli, Sikhareswara Temple, Panjabi math and Sankarananda Math found in Odisha. Poet Dimdima Jivadeva Acharaya in his work "Bhakti Bhagbata Mahakavyam" has praised him as a renowned warrior, the only one to have destroyed the invading Delhi Sultanate. Vidyadhara, the court poet of the king himself in his work'Ekavali' has praised the king's army as a victorious force the glory of which reached great heights while invoked sorrowfulness in the mind of the Delhi Sultan.
Narasingha Deva I is described to have caused apprehension in the ranks of the Truko-Afghan forces of Delhi that would surrender when they saw him appear on the battlefield with his sword. Multiple armies of regional kingdoms like that of Gauda, Gurjara, Malwa, etc. are described to have been decisively defeated due to the strength of his army. Narasimha Deva was victorious against the Turko-Afghan rulers of Mamluk dynasty in Bengal that had captured Bihar and Bengal, he not only repulsed their attacks but pushed them as far back as Padma River in current-day Bangladesh. According to the Sanskrit work of Ekavali of the poet Vidydhara, Narasingha Deva I's military achievements against the Muslim forces are decorated with titles like "Yavanabani Ballabha" meaning conqueror of Yavana or Muslim kingdom and "Hamira Mada Mardana" meaning vanquisher of the Muslim Amirs of Bengal. After his accession in 1238 A. D. Narasimha I followed the policy of aggressive imperialism. By that time, Tughril Tughan Khan had become the governor of Bengal as a vassal of the Delhi Sultanate.
After ascending the throne of Kalinga, Narasingha Deva marched with his grand army, aided by Paramadrideva, his Haihaya brother-in-law, towards Bengal in the years 1242 -1243 A. D; the Odishan army overran a number of semi-independent Hindu rajas of the neighbouring Southern regions of today's West Bengal, east of the river Ganges and made a calculated move to northern Rarh and Varendra, the subordinate territory of the Delhi Sultanate. At this juncture, Tughril Tughan gave a clarion call to all the Muslims for a jihad against the Hindus. A Qazi and chronicler by the name Minhaj-us-Siraj accompanied this holy war by the Muslims against the invading Hindus from the Odisha frontier, it is a fact that Narasingha Deva I had extended his sway up to Rarh by defeating Tughril-Tughan Khan. He intended to extend his sway up to Varendra by invading it. By that time, Lakhnauti consisted of two main divisions- Rarh and Varendra, situated on either side of the Ganges. Lakhnor was the headquarters of Turko-Afghan expansionist operations in Bengal, consisting of Rarh and Varendra subdivisions under direct authority of the Delhi Sultanate.
Having his sway over Rarh and southern parts of Gauda, Narasingha Deva I, directed his army against Varendra. The Odishan army ransacked the Muslim territory at Bengal and created panic