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Linden, Alabama

Linden is a city in and the county seat of Marengo County, United States. The population was 2,123 at the 2010 census. Settled prior to 1818, the community was first known as Screamersville, since the cry of wild animals could still be heard during the night, it became the county seat in 1819 and was known as the Town of Marengo. This was changed to Hohenlinden in 1823, to honor the county's earliest European settlers, French Bonapartist refugees to the Vine and Olive Colony; the name commemorated the battle in 1800 at Hohenlinden, where the French defeated the armies of both Austria and Bavaria. The spelling was shorten to just to Linden. Linden is located at 32°18′4″N 87°47′34″W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.6 square miles, of which 3.6 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,424 people, 938 households, 662 families living in the city; the population density was 675.6 people per square mile. There were 1,084 housing units at an average density of 302.1 per square mile.

The racial makeup of the city was 52.43% White, 46.20% Black or African American, 0.17% Native American, 0.33% Asian, 0.87% from two or more races. 1.07% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 938 households out of which 33.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.1% were married couples living together, 22.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.4% were non-families. 27.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 2.98. In the city, the population was spread out with 27.7% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 23.8% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, 19.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 81.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 74.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $22,303, the median income for a family was $30,733.

Males had a median income of $38,964 versus $17,857 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,536. About 23.8% of families and 29.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 46.8% of those under age 18 and 19.0% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,123 people, 877 households, 555 families living in the city; the population density was 589.7 people per square mile. There were 1,013 housing units at an average density of 281.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 51.1% White, 46.7% Black or African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.9% from two or more races. 2.0 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 877 households out of which 23.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.7% were married couples living together, 21.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.7% were non-families. 34.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.88. In the city, the population was spread out with 20.8% under the age of 18, 10.1% from 18 to 24, 21.2% from 25 to 44, 25.1% from 45 to 64, 22.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $20,145, the median income for a family was $35,714. Males had a median income of $30,833 versus $25,000 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,701. About 31.1% of families and 31.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 41.1% of those under age 18 and 8.7% of those age 65 or over. The Democrat-Reporter, a weekly newspaper, is based in Linden; the city runs Linden City Schools. It has one private school, Marengo Academy, founded in 1969. Ralph Abernathy, civil rights leader William J. Alston, United States Representative to the Thirty-first Congress Frank Evans, professional baseball player in the Negro Leagues Lucy Hannah, oldest African-American person the second-oldest person from the United States and the world's third oldest person Sean Richardson, safety for the Green Bay Packers Roy Rogers, professional basketball player and coach City of Linden

2010 Senior Open Championship

The 2010 Senior Open Championship was a senior major golf championship and the 24th Senior Open Championship, held from 22–25 July at Carnoustie Golf Links in Carnoustie, Scotland. It was the first Senior Open Championship played at the course and the 8th Senior Open Championship played as a senior major championship. World Golf Hall of Fame member Bernhard Langer won by one stroke over 1995 U. S. Open champion Corey Pavin; the 2010 event was Langer's first senior major championship victory. The 2010 event was the first Senior Open Championship played at Carnoustie. Carnoustie hosted the Senior Open Championship for a second time in 2016; the field consisted of 144 competitors: 136 professionals and 8 amateurs. An 18-hole stroke play qualifying round was held on Monday, 19 July for players who were not exempt. Thursday, 22 July 2010 Bernhard Langer, Jay Don Blake, Carl Mason posted four-under-par 67s on day one to share the lead by one stroke. Friday 23 July 2010 Corey Pavin shot a second consecutive 69 to tie Bernhard Langer for the lead.

Langer shot an even-par 71. Amateurs: Haag, Stubbs, Gilchrist, Lockwood, Rogers Saturday, 24 July 2010 Langer shot a third round 69 to take a three stroke lead into the final round. Corey Pavin shot a one-over-par 72, which included three bogies. Nine players finished the third round within five strokes of Langer's lead. Amateurs: Haag Sunday, 25 July 2010 After a birdie on the par-4 2nd hole, Corey Pavin cut Bernhard Langer's lead to two strokes with 16 holes to play. Langer birdied the par-4 5th hole to regain a three shot lead, extended his lead to four strokes after a bogey by Pavin. After bogies on the 8th and 9th holes, Russ Cochran and Pavin were within two strokes of Langer's lead, Pavin cut the lead to one after birdieing the 11th. After a late bogey by Pavin, Langer carried a two stroke lead into the 72nd hole. After Pavin made par on the 18th hole, Langer secured bogey to win his first senior major championship by one stroke. Source:Amateurs: Haag Cumulative tournament scores, relative to par Source: Results on European Tour website Results on PGA Tour website

Extended precision

Extended precision refers to floating point number formats that provide greater precision than the basic floating point formats. Extended precision formats support a basic format by minimizing roundoff and overflow errors in intermediate values of expressions on the base format. In contrast to extended precision, arbitrary-precision arithmetic refers to implementations of much larger numeric types using special software; the IBM 1130 offers two floating point formats: a 32-bit "standard precision" format and a 40-bit "extended precision" format. Standard precision format contains a 24-bit two's complement significand while extended precision utilizes a 32-bit two's complement significand; the latter format makes full use of the CPU's 32-bit integer operations. The characteristic in both formats is an 8-bit field containing the power of two biased by 128. Floating-point arithmetic operations are performed by software, double precision is not supported at all; the extended format occupies three 16-bit words, with the extra space ignored.

The IBM System/360 supports a 32-bit "short" floating point format and a 64-bit "long" floating point format. The 360/85 and follow-on System/370 add support for a 128-bit "extended" format; these formats are still supported in the current design, where they are now called the "hexadecimal floating point" formats. The Microsoft BASIC port for the 6502 CPU, such as in adaptations like Commodore BASIC, AppleSoft BASIC, KIM-1 BASIC or MicroTAN BASIC, supports an extended 40-bit variant of the floating point format Microsoft Binary Format since 1977; the IEEE 754 floating point standard recommends that implementations provide extended precision formats. The standard specifies the minimum requirements for an extended format but does not specify an encoding; the encoding is the implementor's choice. The IA32, x86-64, Itanium processors support an 80-bit "double extended" extended precision format with a 64-bit significand; the Intel 8087 math coprocessor was the first x86 device which supported floating point arithmetic in hardware.

It was designed to support a 32-bit "single precision" format and a 64-bit "double precision" format for encoding and interchanging floating point numbers. The temporary real format was designed not to store data at higher precision as such, but rather to allow for the computation of double results more reliably and by minimising overflow and roundoff-errors in intermediate calculations: for example, many floating point algorithms suffer from significant precision loss when computed using the most direct implementations. To mitigate such issues the internal registers in the 8087 were designed to hold intermediate results in an 80-bit "extended precision" format; the 8087 automatically converts numbers to this format when loading floating point registers from memory and converts results back to the more conventional formats when storing the registers back into memory. To enable intermediate subexpression results to be saved in extended precision scratch variables and continued across programming language statements, otherwise interrupted calculations to resume where they were interrupted, it provides instructions which transfer values between these internal registers and memory without performing any conversion, which therefore enables access to the extended format for calculations – reviving the issue of the accuracy of functions of such numbers, but at a higher precision.

The floating-point unit on all subsequent x86 processors have supported this format. As a result software can be developed which takes advantage of the higher precision provided by this format. William Kahan, a primary designer of the x87 arithmetic and initial IEEE 754 standard proposal notes on the development of the x87 floating point: "An Extended format as wide as we dared was included to serve the same support role as the 13-decimal internal format serves in Hewlett-Packard's 10-decimal calculators." Moreover, Kahan notes that 64 bits was the widest significand across which carry propagation could be done without increasing the cycle time on the 8087, that the x87 extended precision was designed to be extensible to higher precision in future processors: "For now the 10-byte Extended format is a tolerable compromise between the value of extra-precise arithmetic and the price of implementing it to run fast. That kind of gradual evolution towards wider precision was in view when IEEE Standard 754 for Floating-Point Arithmetic was framed."The Motorola 6888x math coprocessors and the Motorola 68040 and 68060 processors support this same 64-bit significand extended precision type.

The follow-on Coldfire processors do not support this 96-bit extended precision format. The x87 and Motorola 68881 80-bit formats meet the requirements of the IEEE 754 double extended format, as does the IEEE 754 128-bit format; the x86 extended precision format is an 80-bit format first implemented in the Intel 8087 math coprocessor and is supported by all processors that are based on the x86 design that incorporate a floating-point unit. This 80-bit format uses one bit for the sign of the significand, 15 bits for the exponent field and 64 bits for the significand; the exponent field is biased by 16383, meaning that 16383 has to be subtracted from the value in the exponent field to compute the actual power of 2. An exponent field value of 32767

Filly by Selim

The Filly by Selim was an unnamed British Thoroughbred racehorse who won the second running of the classic 1000 Guineas at Newmarket Racecourse in 1815. The filly was killed after falling in her only other race; the Selim Filly was brown in colour and was owned by the Whig politician Thomas Foley, 3rd Baron Foley. Her sire Selim won the Craven Stakes and the Oatlands Stakes at Newmarket and went on to have a successful stud career, siring the classic winners Azor, Nicolo and Turquoise as well as the British Champion sire Sultan. Selim was British champion sire in 1814; the Selim Filly's dam was an unnamed mare sired by Cesario out of Pea-hen, the sister of a good racemare named Plover who won a King's Plate at Newmarket 1810. Foley sent the filly into training at Newmarket with Richard Prince; until 1913 there was no requirement for British racehorses to have official names. In the early 19th century it was common for racehorses to be known by their owners or pedigrees and the 1815 1000 Guineas winner was variously known as "the Selim filly", "the Plover filly", "the filly by Selim" or "Lord Foley's filly".

The second running of the 1000 Guineas Stakes took place at Newmarket Racecourse on 27 April 1815. The race attracted an original entry of twelve, but only four fillies appeared to contest the race over the Ditch Mile. Making her racecourse debut the Selim Filly started the 3/1 second favourite behind Minuet a filly owned by the Duke of Grafton who had won the July Stakes in 1814; the field was made up by Minuet's stable companion Discord and an unnamed bay filly owned by Mr Rush. Ridden by Bill Clift, the Selim Filly won from Minuet with Discord in third. On 26 May the Selim Filly met Minuet again in the Oaks Stakes over one and a half miles at Epsom; the two were made joint-favourites at odds of 3/1 in a field of twelve. Just over a furlong from the finish the Selim Filly fell and dislocated a shoulder, the injury proving to be so serious that the filly was euthanised. Clift was not badly injured; the stallion Highflyer appears twice in the fourth generation of the Selim Filly's pedigree. This made her less inbred than most Thoroughbreds of the period

CuraƧao and Dependencies

The Colony of Curaçao and Dependencies was a Dutch colony from 1815 until 1828 and from 1845 until 1936. Between 1936 and 1948, the area was known as the Territory of Curaçao, after 1948 as the Netherlands Antilles. With the proclamation of the Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands on 15 December 1954, the Netherlands Antilles attained equal status with the Netherlands proper and Suriname in the overarching Kingdom of the Netherlands. Under the terms of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814, the Netherlands regained control over its West Indies colonies, with the exception of Demerara and Berbice. In the newly established United Kingdom of the Netherlands, these colonies were organized in the following way before October 10, 2010: As a cost-reducing measure, the three colonies were merged into a single West Indies colony ruled from Paramaribo, Suriname, in 1828; this proved to be an unhappy arrangement, causing it to be reverted in 1845. Sint Eustatius did not regain its status as a separate colony and came to be ruled from Willemstad, Curaçao: In 1865, Curaçao's government regulation was altered to allow for a limited autonomy for the colony.

The structure established in this regulation remained in force until 1936, when the first Constitution of Curaçao was enacted. This new basic law followed on a revision of the Dutch constitution in 1922, in which all references to "colony" were deleted. In the new parliament established in the colony, the Estates of Curaçao, ten out of fifteen members were elected by popular vote, with the remaining five being appointed by the governor. Only about 5% of the population of both colonies was allowed to vote in the elections; the reforms in the government structure of the colony until the Second World War were superficial, thus Curaçao continued to be governed as a colony. This changed after the conclusion of the Second World War. Queen Wilhelmina had promised in a 1942 speech to offer autonomy to the overseas territories of the Netherlands, British and American occupation—with consent by the Dutch government—of the islands during the war led to increasing demands for autonomy within the population as well.

In May 1948, a new constitution for the territory entered into force, allowing the largest amount of autonomy allowed under the Dutch constitution of 1922. Among other things, universal suffrage was introduced; the territory was renamed to "Netherlands Antilles" as well. After the Dutch constitution was revised in 1948, a new interim Constitution of the Netherlands Antilles was enacted in February 1951. Shortly thereafter, on 3 March 1951, the Island Regulation of the Netherlands Antilles was issued by royal decree, giving substantial autonomy to the various island territories in the Netherlands Antilles. A consolidated version of this regulation remained in force until the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles in 2010; the new constitution was only deemed an interim arrangement, as negotiations for a Charter for the Kingdom were underway. On 15 December 1954, the Netherlands Antilles and the Netherlands acceded as equal partners to an overarching Kingdom of the Netherlands as established in the Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

With this move, the United Nations deemed decolonization of the territory complete and removed it from the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. Oostindie and Inge Klinkers Het Koninkrijk inde Caraïben: een korte geschiedenis van het Nederlandse dekolonisatiebeleid 1940-2000. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. Oostindie, Gert Decolonising The Caribbean: Dutch Policies In A Comparative Perspective. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. Kompagnie, Jan H.. Soldaten overzee: aanwijzingen voor het doen van onderzoek naar onderofficieren en minderen bij het Koninklijk Nederlandsch-Indisch Leger en bij het leger in West-Indië. Den Haag: Algemeen Rijksarchief. ISBN 9074920071

Ken Willard

Kenneth Henderson Willard is a former American football running back/fullback in the National Football League, where he was a four-time Pro-Bowler with the San Francisco 49ers in the 1960s. He attended the University of North Carolina after turning down Ted Williams and a contract with the Boston Red Sox, he went to Carolina on a football scholarship and played baseball for the Tar Heels. He led the ACC in home runs two times and is unofficially credited with the longest home run in Tar Heel history at 525 feet, he is the first UNC athlete to be named to the first-team Academic All-America team and had his portrait placed on Kenan Stadium in 2013 celebrating this honor. Willard was drafted with the second pick of the 1965 NFL Draft, by the San Francisco 49ers ahead of future NFL Hall of Famers Dick Butkus and Gale Sayers, he played nine seasons with one with the St. Louis Cardinals, he opted to pass on his eleventh season after two consecutive years of knee injuries in St. Louis. Willard was a four-time Pro Bowler, selected in 1965, 1966, 1968 and 1969 and scored 45 rushing and 17 receiving touchdowns.

His best year was 1968 when he ran for 7 touchdowns. He was a member of the 49ers when the team won the NFC West title in 1970, 1971 and 1972 and with the Cardinals when they won the division title in 1974. On the retirement of Leroy Kelly, Willard became the NFL's active leader in career rushing yards for most of the 1974 season, before being passed by O. J. Simpson in Game 11, he retired with 6,105 rushing 45 rushing touchdowns. Source In 1985, he was inducted into the Virginia Sports Hall of Fame and was honored as an ACC football Legend on May 6, 2013