Taekwondo is a Korean martial art, characterized by its emphasis on head-height kicks and spinning kicks, fast kicking techniques. Taekwondo is a combative sport and was developed during the 1940s and 1950s by Korean martial artists with experience in martial arts such as karate, Chinese martial arts, indigenous Korean martial arts traditions such as Taekkyeon and Gwonbeop; the oldest governing body for taekwondo is the Korea Taekwondo Association, formed in 1959 through a collaborative effort by representatives from the nine original kwans, or martial arts schools, in Korea. The main international organisational bodies for taekwondo today are the International Taekwon-Do Federation, founded by Choi Hong Hi in 1966, the partnership of the Kukkiwon and World Taekwondo, founded in 1972 and 1973 by the Korea Taekwondo Association. Gyeorugi, a type of full-contact sparring, has been an Olympic event since 2000; the governing body for taekwondo in the Olympics and Paralympics is World Taekwondo.
Beginning in 1945, shortly after the end of World War II, new martial arts schools called kwans opened in Seoul. These schools were established by Korean martial artists with backgrounds in Japanese and Korean martial arts; the umbrella term traditional taekwondo refers to the martial arts practiced by the kwans during the 1940s and 1950s, though in reality the term "taekwondo" had not yet been coined at that time, indeed each Kwan was practicing its own unique style of martial art. During this time taekwondo was adopted for use by the South Korean military, which increased its popularity among civilian martial arts schools. After witnessing a martial arts demonstration by the military in 1952, South Korean President Syngman Rhee urged that the martial arts styles of the kwans be merged. Beginning in 1955 the leaders of the kwans began discussing in earnest the possibility of creating a unified style of Korean martial arts; the name Tae Soo Do was used to describe this unified style. This name consists of the hanja 跆 tae "to stomp, trample", 手 su "hand" and 道 do "way, discipline".
Choi Hong Hi advocated the use of the name Tae Kwon Do, i.e. replacing su "hand" by 拳 kwon "fist", the term used for "martial arts" in Chinese. The new name was slow to catch on among the leaders of the kwans. In 1959 the Korea Taekwondo Association was established to facilitate the unification of Korean martial arts. In 1966, Choi broke with the KTA to establish the International Taekwon-Do Federation - a separate governing body devoted to institutionalizing his own style of taekwondo. Cold War politics of the 1960s and 1970s complicated the adoption of ITF-style taekwondo as a unified style, however; the South Korean government wished to avoid North Korean influence on the martial art. Conversely, ITF president Choi Hong Hi sought support for the martial art from all quarters, including North Korea. In response, in 1973 South Korea withdrew its support for the ITF; the ITF continued to function as an independent federation headquartered in Toronto, Canada. After Choi's retirement, the ITF split in 2001 and again in 2002 to create three separate federations each of which continues to operate today under the same name.
In 1973 the South Korean government's Ministry of Culture and Tourism established the Kukkiwon as the new national academy for taekwondo. Kukkiwon now serves many of the functions served by the KTA, in terms of defining a government-sponsored unified style of taekwondo. In 1973 the KTA and Kukkiwon supported the establishment of the World Taekwondo Federation to promote taekwondo as an international sport. WT competitions employ Kukkiwon-style taekwondo. For this reason, Kukkiwon-style taekwondo is referred to as WT-style taekwondo, sport-style taekwondo, or Olympic-style taekwondo, though in reality the style is defined by the Kukkiwon, not the WTF. Since 2000, taekwondo has been one of only two Asian martial arts that are included in the Olympic Games, it started as a demonstration event at the 1988 games in Seoul, a year after becoming a medal event at the Pan Am Games, became an official medal event at the 2000 games in Sydney. In 2010, taekwondo was accepted as a Commonwealth Games sport.
Taekwondo is characterized by its emphasis on head-height kicks and spinning kicks, fast kicking techniques. In fact, World Taekwondo sparring competitions award additional points for strikes that incorporate spinning kicks, kicks to the head, or both. To facilitate fast, turning kicks, taekwondo adopts stances that are narrower and taller than the broader, wide stances used by martial arts such as karate; the tradeoff of decreased stability is believed to be worth the commensurate increase in agility in Kukkiwon-style taekwondo. The emphasis on speed and agility is a defining characteristic of taekwondo and has its origins in analyses undertaken by Choi Hong Hi; the results of that analysis are known by ITF practitioners as Choi's Theory of Power. Choi based his understanding of power on biomechanics and Newtonian physics as well as Chinese martial arts. For example, Choi observed that the power of a strike increases quadratically with the speed of the strike, but increases only linearly with the mass of the striking object.
In other words, speed is more important than size in terms of generating power. This principle w
Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and
Days of Our Lives
Days of Our Lives is an American daytime soap opera broadcast on the NBC television network. It is one of the longest-running scripted television programs in the world, airing nearly every weekday since November 8, 1965, it has since been syndicated to many countries around the world. Until the network's closure in 2013, Soapnet rebroadcast episodes of Days on a same-day basis each weeknight at 8:00 and 10:00; the series was created by husband-and-wife team Ted Betty Corday. Irna Phillips was a story editor for Days of Our Lives and many of the show's earliest storylines were written by William J. Bell. Due to the series' success, it was expanded from 30 minutes to 60 minutes on April 21, 1975; the series focuses on the Hortons and the Bradys. Several other families have been added to the cast, many of them still appear on the show. Frances Reid, the matriarch of the series' Horton family remained with the show from its inception to her death on February 3, 2010, her last appearance however was in December 2007.
Suzanne Rogers celebrated 40 years on Days of Our Lives in 2013, appearing on the show more or less since her first appearance in 1973. Susan Seaforth Hayes is the only cast member to appear on Days of Our Lives in all six decades it has been on air. Days of Our Lives aired its 10,000th episode on February 21, 2005, its 12,000th episode aired on January 11, 2013; the soap was given the title of most daring drama in the seventies due to covering topics other soaps would not dare to do. The show's executive producer is Ken Corday, co-executive producers are Greg Meng and Albert Alarr. In 2019, NBC renewed the serial through September 2020. Days of Our Lives is the most distributed soap opera in the United States; the show has been parodied by SCTV and the television sitcom Friends, with some cast members making crossover appearances on the show, including Kristian Alfonso, Roark Critchlow, Matthew Ashford, Kyle Lowder, Alison Sweeney. The show has had high-profile fans such as actress Julia Roberts and Supreme Court justice Thurgood Marshall.
The Cordays and Bell combined the "hospital soap" idea with the tradition of centering a series on a family, by making the show about a family of doctors, including one who worked in a mental hospital. Storylines in the show follow the lives of middle- and upper-class professionals in Salem, a middle-America town, with the usual threads of love, marriage and family life, plus the medical story lines and character studies of individuals with psychological problems. Former executive producer Al Rabin took pride in the characters' passion, saying that the characters were not shy about "sharing what's in their gut."Critics praised the show for its non-reliance on nostalgia and its portrayal of "real American contemporary families." By the 1970s, critics deemed Days of Our Lives to be the most daring daytime drama, leading the way in using themes other shows of the period would not dare touch, such as artificial insemination and interracial romance. The January 12, 1976 cover of Time magazine featured Days of Our Lives' Bill Hayes and Susan Seaforth Hayes, the only daytime actors to appear on its cover.
The Hayeses themselves were a couple whose on-screen and real-life romance was covered by both the soap opera magazines and the mainstream press. In the 1990s, the show branched out into supernatural story lines, which critics panned, as it was seen as a departure from more realistic storylines for which the show had become known. However, these storylines did have the desired effect, making Days of Our Lives the most-watched daytime soap among young and middle-aged women becoming one of NBC's five most profitable shows in any time slot. In 2006, when asked about his character, Jack Deveraux, "coming back from the dead"—for the third time—actor Matthew Ashford responded, "It is hard to play that because at a certain point it becomes too unreal...actors look at that and think,'What is this — the Cartoon Network'?"In addition to receiving critical acclaim in print journalism, the series has won a number of awards, including a Daytime Emmy for Best Drama in 1978 and 2013 and a Writers Guild of America, East Award for Best Drama in 2000 and 2013.
Days of Our lives actors have won awards: Macdonald Carey won Best Actor in 1974 and 1975. Susan Flannery and Eileen Davidson won Best Actress in 2014, respectively. Suzanne Rogers, Leann Hunley, Tamara Braun won Best Supporting Actress for 1979, 1986, 2009 and Billy Warlock won Best Younger Actor for 1988. In 2009, Darin Brooks took home the Emmy for Best Younger Actor", Tamara Braun won for Best Supporting Actress, the show's first acting victories in over 21 and 23 years, respectivelyAs with all other network programming, Days of Our Lives' ratings have declined somewhat since the 1990s. In January 2007 it was suggested by NBC that the show "is unlikely to continue past 2009." In November 2008, in an eleventh-hour decision, it was announced the show had been renewed through September 2010. The 18-month renewal was down from its previous renewal, for five years; the show made somewhat with ratings increasing as the year progressed. In March 2010, the show was renewed once again through September 2011.
Fort Lewis College
Fort Lewis College is a public liberal arts college in Durango, Colorado. Because of its unique origins as a military fort turned Indian boarding school turned state public school, Fort Lewis College follows a 1911 mandate to provide a tuition-free education for qualified Native Americans. Fort Lewis College awards 16 percent of the baccalaureate degrees earned by Native American students in the nation. In 2008, FLC was designated as one of six Native American-serving, non-tribal colleges by the U. S. Department of Education. FLC is a member of the Council of Public Liberal Arts Colleges and is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission, with additional program-level accreditations in Accounting, Business Administration and Marketing; the college offers 30 bachelor's degrees through its four academic units. The first Fort Lewis army post was constructed in Pagosa Springs, Colorado, in 1878, was relocated in 1880 to Hesperus, Colorado, on the southern slopes of the La Plata Mountains. In 1891, Fort Lewis was decommissioned and converted into a federal, off-reservation Indian boarding school.
In 1911, the fort's property and buildings in Hesperus were transferred to the state of Colorado to establish an "agricultural and mechanic arts high school." That deed came with two conditions: that the land would be used for an educational institution, “to be maintained as an institution of learning to which Indian students will be admitted free of tuition and on an equality with white students” in perpetuity. Both conditions have been the missions and guides for the Fort Lewis school's various incarnations over the past century. In the 1930s, the Fort Lewis high school expanded into a two-year college, in 1948 became Fort Lewis A&M College, under control of State Board of Agriculture; the "Aggies" studying at the Fort Lewis Branch of the Colorado State College of Agriculture and Mechanics could choose from courses including agriculture, engineering, veterinary science, home economics. Fort Lewis College underwent another period of growth and changes starting in 1956, when the college moved from its long-time home in Hesperus to its present location, 18 miles east, atop what was known as Reservoir Hill, overlooking Durango.
Here, FLC became a four-year institution, awarding its first baccalaureate degrees in 1964. In 1964, the college dropped the "A&M" moniker. At that time, the new Fort Lewis College changed its mascot from "Aggies" to the "Raiders," and changed the school's colors from the green and yellow of the Colorado State University system it had been affiliated with to the blue and gold it still sports today. In recent history: In 1994, the college's mascot became the Skyhawks, retaining the blue and gold. In 1995, Fort Lewis College joined the Council of Public Liberal Arts Colleges, in 2002, the College became independent of the Colorado State University system, formed its own governing Board of Trustees; the 247-acre Fort Lewis College campus is in southwestern Colorado is situated at 6,872 feet atop a mesa overlooking the Animas River Valley and downtown Durango. A network of trails as well as city bus service connects the town; the campus' distinctive architectural theme utilizes locally quarried sandstone to acknowledge the region's Native puebloan building style and evoke the Four Corners landscape and colors.
The style was crafted by prominent Boulder architect James M. Hunter, contracted to establish a campus building plan by the college in the late 1950s, following the college's move from Hesperus, Colorado, to its Durango location. Today, on-campus housing is in six residence halls and two apartment buildings, with singles and suites. On campus are 14 academic buildings, as well as a Student Life Center, Aquatic Center, Student Union. On-campus athletic facilities include Ray Dennison Memorial Field, Dirks Field, the Softball Complex, Whalen Gymnasium, the Factory Trails, an off-road bicycling race course; the new Student Union opened in Fall 2011, now hosts the college's cultural centers, the Native American Center and El Centro de Muchos Colores, as well as student government, the Environmental Center, the post office, the bookstore. The new Student Union offers several dining options, houses both a Leadership Center and a Media Center that includes the college's news magazine, literary journal, KDUR radio station.
The Student Union building was awarded LEED Gold status in August by the U. S. Green Building Council for its sustainability features, it is the third LEED Gold building on campus, along with the Berndt Hall Biology Wing and the residential Animas Hall. Those environmental awards helped FLC be named one of "America's Coolest Schools" by Sierra magazine, the official publication of the Sierra Club, in 2011. Fort Lewis College is divided into four academic units. Programs are accredited by the Higher Learning Commission, the Accreditation Board for Engineering & Technology, the American Chemical Society, the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education, the National Association of Schools of Music; the college's athletic teams, nicknamed the Skyhawks, compete in the NCAA at the Division II level as a member of the Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference. In 2017, Fort Lewis' cycling program won its 23rd national championship with an overall victory at the 2017 USA Cycling Collegiate Mounta
American Broadcasting Company
The American Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcast television network, a flagship property of Walt Disney Television, a subsidiary of the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company. The network is headquartered in Burbank, California on Riverside Drive, directly across the street from Walt Disney Studios and adjacent to the Roy E. Disney Animation Building, But the network's second corporate headquarters and News headquarters remains in New York City, New York at their broadcast center on 77 West 66th Street in Lincoln Square in Upper West Side Manhattan. Since 2007, when ABC Radio was sold to Citadel Broadcasting, ABC has reduced its broadcasting operations exclusively to television; the fifth-oldest major broadcasting network in the world and the youngest of the Big Three television networks, ABC is nicknamed as "The Alphabet Network", as its initialism represents the first three letters of the English alphabet, in order. ABC launched as a radio network on October 12, 1943, serving as the successor to the NBC Blue Network, purchased by Edward J. Noble.
It extended its operations to television in 1948, following in the footsteps of established broadcast networks CBS and NBC. In the mid-1950s, ABC merged with United Paramount Theatres, a chain of movie theaters that operated as a subsidiary of Paramount Pictures. Leonard Goldenson, the head of UPT, made the new television network profitable by helping develop and greenlight many successful series. In the 1980s, after purchasing an 80 percent interest in cable sports channel ESPN, the network's corporate parent, American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. merged with Capital Cities Communications, owner of several print publications, television and radio stations. In 1996, most of Capital Cities/ABC's assets were purchased by The Walt Disney Company; the television network has eight owned-and-operated and over 232 affiliated television stations throughout the United States and its territories. Some of the ABC-affiliated stations can be seen in Canada via pay-television providers, certain other affiliates can be received over-the-air in areas within the Canada–United States border.
ABC News provides news and features content for select radio stations owned by Citadel Broadcasting, which purchased the ABC Radio properties in 2007. In the 1930s, radio in the United States was dominated by three companies: the Columbia Broadcasting System, the Mutual Broadcasting System, the National Broadcasting Company; the last was owned by electronics manufacturer Radio Corporation of America, which owned two radio networks that each ran different varieties of programming, NBC Blue and NBC Red. The NBC Blue Network was created in 1927 for the primary purpose of testing new programs on markets of lesser importance than those served by NBC Red, which served the major cities, to test drama series. In 1934, Mutual filed a complaint with the Federal Communications Commission regarding its difficulties in establishing new stations, in a radio market, being saturated by NBC and CBS. In 1938, the FCC began a series of investigations into the practices of radio networks and published its report on the broadcasting of network radio programs in 1940.
The report recommended that RCA give up control of either NBC NBC Blue. At that time, the NBC Red Network was the principal radio network in the United States and, according to the FCC, RCA was using NBC Blue to eliminate any hint of competition. Having no power over the networks themselves, the FCC established a regulation forbidding licenses to be issued for radio stations if they were affiliated with a network which owned multiple networks that provided content of public interest. Once Mutual's appeals against the FCC were rejected, RCA decided to sell NBC Blue in 1941, gave the mandate to do so to Mark Woods. RCA converted the NBC Blue Network into an independent subsidiary, formally divorcing the operations of NBC Red and NBC Blue on January 8, 1942, with the Blue Network being referred to on-air as either "Blue" or "Blue Network"; the newly separated NBC Red and NBC Blue divided their respective corporate assets. Between 1942 and 1943, Woods offered to sell the entire NBC Blue Network, a package that included leases on landlines, three pending television licenses, 60 affiliates, four operations facilities, contracts with actors, the brand associated with the Blue Network.
Investment firm Dillon, Read & Co. offered $7.5 million to purchase the network, but the offer was rejected by Woods and RCA president David Sarnoff. Edward J. Noble, the owner of Life Savers candy, drugstore chain Rexall and New York City radio station WMCA, purchased the network for $8 million. Due to FCC ownership rules, the transaction, to include the purchase of three RCA stations by Noble, would require him to resell his station with the FCC's approval; the Commission authorized the transaction on October 12, 1943. Soon afterward, the Blue Network was purchased by the new company Noble founded, the American Broadcasting System. Noble subsequently acquired the rights to the American Broadcasting Company name from George B. Storer in 1944. Meanwhile, in August 1944, the West Coast division of the Blue Network, which owned San Francisco radio station KGO, bought Los Angeles station KECA f
Morgan Seth Earp was a Tombstone, Arizona Special Policeman when he helped his brothers Virgil and Wyatt and Doc Holliday confront the outlaw Cochise County Cowboys in the Gunfight at the O. K. Corral on October 26, 1881. All three Earp brothers had been the target of repeated death threats made by the Cowboys who were upset by the Earps' interference in their illegal activities; the lawmen killed Cowboys Frank McLaury and Billy Clanton. All four lawmen were charged with murder by Billy's older brother, Ike Clanton, who had run from the gunfight. During a month-long preliminary hearing, Judge Wells Spicer exonerated the men, concluding they had been performing their duty. Friends of the slain outlaws retaliated, on December 29, Cowboys ambushed Virgil, leaving him maimed. Two and a half months on March 18, 1882, they ambushed Morgan, shooting him at night through the window of a door while he was playing billiards and killed him; the Cowboys suspected in both shootings were let off on technicalities or lack of evidence.
Wyatt Earp felt he could not rely on the criminal justice system and decided to take matters into his own hands. He concluded. Wyatt assembled a posse that included their brother Warren Earp and set out on a vendetta to kill those they felt were responsible. Morgan married Louisa Alice Houston sometime in the 1870s, they lived in Montana before joining his brothers in Tombstone. Louisa was staying with his parents in California. Morgan Earp was born in Pella, Iowa, to Nicholas Porter Earp, a cooper and farmer, his second wife Virginia Ann Cooksey; when elder brothers Newton and Virgil went off to the American Civil War, they left their young teenage brothers Wyatt and Morgan to tend the family farm. James and Morgan grew up close, with a dislike of farming. Before adulthood, teen-aged Morgan followed James Earp to Montana for a couple of years, he was with Wyatt on the Western frontier. In spring 1868, his father Nicholas Porter Earp and his siblings Ginnie and Adelia returned to the mid-west and Lamar, where Nick became the local constable.
By November 17, 1869, Nick resigned to become Justice of the Peace. Wyatt, who had followed them to Missouri, was appointed constable in place of his father. In early 1870, Wyatt married Urilla Sutherland, but she died that year shortly before she was due to have a baby. Shortly afterward, James and Morgan got into what witnesses described as a "20-minute street fight" with Urilla's brothers and other relatives over the alleged bootlegging activities of both families. Sometime between 1871 and 1877 Morgan met Louisa Alice Houston, the daughter of H. Samuel Houston and Elizabeth Waughtal. Louisa was the second eldest of 12 children. In 1875, Morgan left Wichita and became a deputy marshal under Charlie Bassett at Dodge City. In late 1877, Morgan and Louisa moved to Miles City, where they bought a home. Shortly after Wyatt and Virgil headed for Tombstone, Arizona and Louisa sold their home in Montana and headed west. Morgan didn't think the wild mining town of Tombstone was suitable for Louisa, a petite woman and suffered from rheumatoid arthritis.
He took her instead to stay with his parents in Colton, California, in March 1880. Morgan set out to meet his older brothers in Tombstone on July 20, 1880. Louisa followed him in early December. In 1878, the July 25 Daily Pioneer reported that Morgan had joined prospectors pursuing gold in the Bear Paw mountains on the Blackfeet Indian Reservation in northern Montana Territory, "Mr. Morgan Earpt arrived last evening from the Tongue River, which he left about three weeks ago." General John Gibbon had brought troops to the Teton River to keep prospectors from being "slaughtered by Indians." Morgan remained in Montana for an unknown amount of time. On December 16, 1879, he was selected as a policeman in Montana. A story has circulated that Billy Brooks competed for the job of policeman. During a confrontation over the job, they got in a gunfight; some accounts say Earp killed Brooks, that Earp was wounded. But other accounts report that Brooks died at the hands of a lynch mob, but no contemporary documentation of the shootout has been found.
Morgan served for only three months, until March 10, 1880. Morgan’s wife, wrote a letter to her sister Agnes on March 5, 1880: "We arrived in San Bernardino on Wednesday evening, Thursday we came by train to the Temescal Mountains Warm Springs.…I suppose I will have to live here now for some time, for there is no way to make enough money to get away." Morgan is listed in the June 1880 census for Temescal. In a July 19, 1880, Lou wrote, "My husband starts for Arizona in the morning."At different times in Arizona, both Wyatt and Morgan worked as shotgun messengers for Wells Fargo & Co. deputy sheriffs for Pima County, as deputies under Tombstone's town Marshal, Virgil Earp, their older brother. During December 1881, Wyatt was appointed by U. S. Marshal Crawley Drake as deputy U. S. marshal. Wyatt appointed his brother Morgan as a deputy. On Wednesday, October 26, 1881, the tension between the Earps and the Cowboys came to a head. Ike Clanton, Billy Claiborne, other Cowboys had been threatening to kill the Earps for several weeks.
Tombstone town Marshal Virgil Earp learned that the Cowboys were armed in violation of a city ordinance and had gathered near the O. K. Corral. Morgan was a deputy to his brother Virgil and on October 26, 1881, responded with Virgil and Wyatt to reports that Cowboys were armed on the streets of Tombstone. Ike Clanton had re
Karate is a martial art developed in the Ryukyu Kingdom. It developed from the indigenous Ryukyuan martial arts under the influence of Chinese Kung Fu Fujian White Crane. Karate is now predominantly a striking art using punching, knee strikes, elbow strikes and open-hand techniques such as knife-hands, spear-hands and palm-heel strikes, and in some modern styles, throws, joint locks and vital-point strikes are taught. A karate practitioner is called a karateka; the Ryukyu Kingdom was annexed by Japan in 1879. Karate was brought to Japanese archipelago in the early 20th century during a time of migration as Ryukyuans from Okinawa, looked for work in Japan, it was systematically taught in Japan after the Taishō era. In 1922, the Japanese Ministry of Education invited Gichin Funakoshi to Tokyo to give a karate demonstration. In 1924 Keio University established the first university karate club in mainland Japan and by 1932, major Japanese universities had karate clubs. In this era of escalating Japanese militarism, the name was changed from 唐手 to 空手 – both of which are pronounced karate in Japanese – to indicate that the Japanese wished to develop the combat form in Japanese style.
After World War II, Okinawa became an important United States military site and karate became popular among servicemen stationed there. The martial arts movies of the 1960s and 1970s served to increase the popularity of martial arts around the world, in English the word karate began to be used in a generic way to refer to all striking-based Asian martial arts. Karate schools began appearing across the world, catering to those with casual interest as well as those seeking a deeper study of the art. Shigeru Egami, Chief Instructor of Shotokan Dojo, opined that "the majority of followers of karate in overseas countries pursue karate only for its fighting techniques... Movies and television... depict karate as a mysterious way of fighting capable of causing death or injury with a single blow... the mass media present a pseudo art far from the real thing." Shōshin Nagamine said, "Karate may be considered as the conflict within oneself or as a life-long marathon which can be won only through self-discipline, hard training and one's own creative efforts."On 28 September 2015, karate was featured on a shortlist along with baseball, skateboarding and sport climbing to be considered for inclusion in the 2020 Summer Olympics.
On 1 June 2016, the International Olympic Committee's executive board announced they were supporting the inclusion of all five sports for inclusion in the 2020 Games. Web Japan claims there are 50 million karate practitioners worldwide, while the World Karate Federation claims there are 100 million practitioners around the world. Karate began as a common fighting system known as te among the Pechin class of the Ryukyuans. After trade relationships were established with the Ming dynasty of China in 1372 by King Satto of Chūzan, some forms of Chinese martial arts were introduced to the Ryukyu Islands by the visitors from China Fujian Province. A large group of Chinese families moved to Okinawa around 1392 for the purpose of cultural exchange, where they established the community of Kumemura and shared their knowledge of a wide variety of Chinese arts and sciences, including the Chinese martial arts; the political centralization of Okinawa by King Shō Hashi in 1429 and the policy of banning weapons by King Shō Shin in 1477 enforced in Okinawa after the invasion by the Shimazu clan in 1609, are factors that furthered the development of unarmed combat techniques in Okinawa.
There were few formal styles of te, but rather many practitioners with their own methods. One surviving example is the Motobu-ryū school passed down from the Motobu family by Seikichi Uehara. Early styles of karate are generalized as Shuri-te, Naha-te, Tomari-te, named after the three cities from which they emerged; each area and its teachers had particular kata and principles that distinguished their local version of te from the others. Members of the Okinawan upper classes were sent to China to study various political and practical disciplines; the incorporation of empty-handed Chinese Kung Fu into Okinawan martial arts occurred because of these exchanges and because of growing legal restrictions on the use of weaponry. Traditional karate kata bear a strong resemblance to the forms found in Fujian martial arts such as Fujian White Crane, Tai Zu Quan, Five Ancestors, Gangrou-quan. Many Okinawan weapons such as the sai and nunchaku may have originated in and around Southeast Asia. Sakukawa Kanga had studied staff fighting in China.
In 1806 he started teaching a fighting art in the city of Shuri that he called "Tudi Sakukawa," which meant "Sakukawa of China Hand." This was the first known recorded reference to the art of "Tudi," written as 唐手. Around the 1820s Sakukawa's most significant student Matsumura Sōkon taught a synthesis of te and Shaolin styles. Matsumura's style would become the Shōrin-ryū style. Matsumura taught his art to Itosu Ankō among others. Itosu adapted two forms; these are chiang nan. He created the ping'an forms ("heian" or "pinan" in