Christian Gottfried Daniel Nees von Esenbeck
Christian Gottfried Daniel Nees von Esenbeck was a prolific German botanist, physician and natural philosopher. He was born within the lifetime of Linnaeus, he described 7,000 plant species. His last official act as president of the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina was to admit Charles Darwin as a member, he was the author of numerous monographs on zoology. His best-known works deal with fungi. Nees von Esenbeck was born in Schloss Reichenberg near Reichelsheim, he showed an early interest in science and, after receiving his first education at Darmstadt, he went on to Jena, obtaining his degree in biology and medicine in 1800. He practiced as a physician for Francis I, but he had developed a great interest in botany during his university studies, he returned to academia. In 1816 he joined the Leopoldina Academy, one of the most prestigious institutions in Europe. In 1817 he was appointed professor of botany in Erlangen. Three years he became professor of natural history in Bonn, where he established the Botanische Gärten der Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, in 1831 he was appointed to the chair of botany at the university of Breslau.
In 1818 he was elected president of the Leopoldina Academy. He continued as president of the academy for the rest of his life. In botany he achieved notoriety for, among other things, contributions to the Acanthaceae and Lauraceae families. In 1848 he became politically active. In 1851 due to conflicts with the government he was deprived of his professorship and pension at Breslau. Seven years Nees von Esenbeck died penniless in Breslau, he was an older brother to botanist Theodor Friedrich Ludwig Nees von Esenbeck. Die Algen des süßen Wassers, nach ihren Entwickelungsstufen dargestellt Das System der Pilze und Schwämme Vorlesungen zur Entwickelungsgeschichte des magnetischen Schlafs und Traums Handbuch der Botanik. Band 1 Digital edition by the University and State Library Düsseldorf Handbuch der Botanik. Band 2 Digital edition by the University and State Library Düsseldorf Bryologia germanica Plantarum, in Horto medico Bonnensi nutritarum, Icones selectae Digital edition by the University and State Library Düsseldorf Agrostologia brasiliensis Genera Plantarum Florae Germanicae Genera et species Asterearum Naturgeschichte der europäischen Lebermoose mit Erinnerungen aus dem Riesengebirge Hymenopterorum Ichneumonibus affinium monographiae System der spekulativen Philosophie, Band 1 Systema Laurinarum Florae Africae australioris illustration monographicae Gramineae Die Naturphilosophie De Cinnamomo disputatio Synopsis hepaticarum Die allgemeine Formenlehre der Natur This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Nees von Esenbeck, Christian Gottfried". Encyclopædia Britannica. 19. Cambridge University Press. P. 342. Jahn: Geschichte der Biologie. Spektrum 2000 Karl Mägdefrau: Geschichte der Botanik. Fischer 1992 Bohley, Johanna: Christian Gottfried Daniel Nees von Esenbeck: ein Lebensbild. – Stuttgart: Wissenschaftl. VG, 2003. – ISBN 3-8047-2075-7 Engelhardt, Dietrich von: Christian Gottfried Nees von Esenbeck: Politik und Naturwissenschaft in der ersten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts. – Stuttgart: Wissenschaftl. VG, 2004. – ISBN 3-8047-2153-2 http://www.nees-von-esenbeck.de/ "History". Nees-Institut für Biodiversität der Pflanzen. Archived from the original on 2007-06-11. Retrieved 2008-07-24
The hermit thrush is a medium-sized North American thrush. It is not closely related to the other North American migrant species of Catharus, but rather to the Mexican russet nightingale-thrush; the specific name guttatus is Latin for "spotted". This species measures 15 to 18 cm in length, spans 25 to 30 cm across the wings and weighs 18 to 37 g. Among standard measurements, the wing chord is 7.8 to 11.1 cm, the bill is 1.6 to 1.9 cm and the tarsus is 2.7 to 3.3 cm. It is more compact and stockier than other North American Catharus thrushes, with longer wings; the hermit thrush has the white-dark-white underwing pattern characteristic of Catharus thrushes. Adults are brown on the upperparts, with reddish tails; the underparts are white with dark spots on grey or brownish flanks. They have a white eye ring. Birds in the east are more olive-brown on the upperparts. Hermit thrushes breed in coniferous or mixed woods across Canada, southern Alaska, the northeastern and western United States, they make a cup nest on the ground or low in a tree.
While most hermit thrushes migrate to wintering grounds in the southern United States and south to Central America, some remain in northern coastal US states and southern Ontario. They breed in forests, but will sometimes winter in parks and wooded suburban neighbourhoods, they are rare vagrants to western Europe and northeast Asia. They forage on the forest floor in trees or shrubs eating insects and berries; the hermit thrush's song has been described as "the finest sound in nature" and is ethereal and flute-like, consisting of a beginning note several descending musical phrases in a minor key, repeated at different pitches. It sings from a high open location. Analysis of the notes of its song indicates that they are related by harmonic simple integer pitch ratios, like most human music and unlike the songs of other birds that have been examined; the hermit thrush is the state bird of Vermont. Walt Whitman construes the hermit thrush as a symbol of the American voice and otherwise, in his elegy for Abraham Lincoln, "When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd," one of the fundamental texts in the American literary canon.
"A Hermit Thrush" is the name of a poem by the American poet Amy Clampitt. A hermit thrush appears in the fifth section of the T. S. Eliot poem The Waste Land. Former Canadian indie-rock band Thrush Hermit took their name from a reversal of the bird's name, it is shared by the American bands Hermit Thrushes and Hermit Thrush. Winker, Kevin & Pruett, Christin L.: "Seasonal migration and morphological convergence in the avian genus Catharus." Auk 123: 1052-1068. DOI: 10.1642/0004-80381232.0. CO. Internet Bird Collection. Hermit thrush photo gallery at VIREO Interactive range map of Catharus guttatus at IUCN Red List maps
The flowering plants known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 64 orders, 416 families 13,164 known genera and c. 369,000 known species. Like gymnosperms, angiosperms are seed-producing plants. However, they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within the seeds, the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant; the term comes from the Greek words sperma. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms in the Triassic Period, 245 to 202 million years ago, the first flowering plants are known from 160 mya, they diversified extensively during the Early Cretaceous, became widespread by 120 mya, replaced conifers as the dominant trees from 100 to 60 mya. Angiosperms differ from other seed plants in several ways, described in the table below; these distinguishing characteristics taken together have made the angiosperms the most diverse and numerous land plants and the most commercially important group to humans.
Angiosperm stems are made up of seven layers. The amount and complexity of tissue-formation in flowering plants exceeds that of gymnosperms; the vascular bundles of the stem are arranged such that the phloem form concentric rings. In the dicotyledons, the bundles in the young stem are arranged in an open ring, separating a central pith from an outer cortex. In each bundle, separating the xylem and phloem, is a layer of meristem or active formative tissue known as cambium. By the formation of a layer of cambium between the bundles, a complete ring is formed, a regular periodical increase in thickness results from the development of xylem on the inside and phloem on the outside; the soft phloem becomes crushed, but the hard wood persists and forms the bulk of the stem and branches of the woody perennial. Owing to differences in the character of the elements produced at the beginning and end of the season, the wood is marked out in transverse section into concentric rings, one for each season of growth, called annual rings.
Among the monocotyledons, the bundles are more numerous in the young stem and are scattered through the ground tissue. They once formed the stem increases in diameter only in exceptional cases; the characteristic feature of angiosperms is the flower. Flowers show remarkable variation in form and elaboration, provide the most trustworthy external characteristics for establishing relationships among angiosperm species; the function of the flower is to ensure fertilization of the ovule and development of fruit containing seeds. The floral apparatus may arise terminally from the axil of a leaf; as in violets, a flower arises singly in the axil of an ordinary foliage-leaf. More the flower-bearing portion of the plant is distinguished from the foliage-bearing or vegetative portion, forms a more or less elaborate branch-system called an inflorescence. There are two kinds of reproductive cells produced by flowers. Microspores, which will divide to become pollen grains, are the "male" cells and are borne in the stamens.
The "female" cells called megaspores, which will divide to become the egg cell, are contained in the ovule and enclosed in the carpel. The flower may consist only of these parts, as in willow, where each flower comprises only a few stamens or two carpels. Other structures are present and serve to protect the sporophylls and to form an envelope attractive to pollinators; the individual members of these surrounding structures are known as petals. The outer series is green and leaf-like, functions to protect the rest of the flower the bud; the inner series is, in general, white or brightly colored, is more delicate in structure. It functions to attract bird pollinators. Attraction is effected by color and nectar, which may be secreted in some part of the flower; the characteristics that attract pollinators account for the popularity of flowers and flowering plants among humans. While the majority of flowers are perfect or hermaphrodite, flowering plants have developed numerous morphological and physiological mechanisms to reduce or prevent self-fertilization.
Heteromorphic flowers have short carpels and long stamens, or vice versa, so animal pollinators cannot transfer pollen to the pistil. Homomorphic flowers may employ a biochemical mechanism called self-incompatibility to discriminate between self and non-self pollen grains. In other species, the male and female parts are morphologically separated, developing on different flowers; the botanical term "Angiosperm", from the Ancient Greek αγγείον, angeíon and σπέρμα, was coined in the form Angiospermae by Paul Hermann in 1690, as the name of one of his primary divisions of the plant kingdom. This included flowering plants possessing seeds enclosed in capsules, distinguished from his Gymnospermae, or flowering plants with achenial or schizo-carpic fruits, the whole fruit or each of its pieces being here regarded as a seed and naked; the term and its antonym were maintained by Carl Linnaeus with the same sense, but with restricted application, in the names of the orders of his class Didynamia. Its use with any
Insects or Insecta are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum. Definitions and circumscriptions vary; as used here, the term Insecta is synonymous with Ectognatha. Insects have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body, three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae. Insects are the most diverse group of animals; the total number of extant species is estimated at between ten million. Insects may be found in nearly all environments, although only a small number of species reside in the oceans, which are dominated by another arthropod group, crustaceans. Nearly all insects hatch from eggs. Insect growth is constrained by the inelastic exoskeleton and development involves a series of molts; the immature stages differ from the adults in structure and habitat, can include a passive pupal stage in those groups that undergo four-stage metamorphosis. Insects that undergo three-stage metamorphosis lack a pupal stage and adults develop through a series of nymphal stages.
The higher level relationship of the insects is unclear. Fossilized insects of enormous size have been found from the Paleozoic Era, including giant dragonflies with wingspans of 55 to 70 cm; the most diverse insect groups appear to have coevolved with flowering plants. Adult insects move about by walking, flying, or sometimes swimming; as it allows for rapid yet stable movement, many insects adopt a tripedal gait in which they walk with their legs touching the ground in alternating triangles, composed of the front & rear on one side with the middle on the other side. Insects are the only invertebrates to have evolved flight, all flying insects derive from one common ancestor. Many insects spend at least part of their lives under water, with larval adaptations that include gills, some adult insects are aquatic and have adaptations for swimming; some species, such as water striders, are capable of walking on the surface of water. Insects are solitary, but some, such as certain bees and termites, are social and live in large, well-organized colonies.
Some insects, such as earwigs, show maternal care, guarding their eggs and young. Insects can communicate with each other in a variety of ways. Male moths can sense the pheromones of female moths over great distances. Other species communicate with sounds: crickets stridulate, or rub their wings together, to attract a mate and repel other males. Lampyrid beetles communicate with light. Humans regard certain insects as pests, attempt to control them using insecticides, a host of other techniques; some insects damage crops by feeding on sap, fruits, or wood. Some species are parasitic, may vector diseases; some insects perform complex ecological roles. Insect pollinators are essential to the life cycle of many flowering plant species on which most organisms, including humans, are at least dependent. Many insects are considered ecologically beneficial as predators and a few provide direct economic benefit. Silkworms produce silk and honey bees produce honey and both have been domesticated by humans.
Insects are consumed as food in 80% of the world's nations, by people in 3000 ethnic groups. Human activities have effects on insect biodiversity; the word "insect" comes from the Latin word insectum, meaning "with a notched or divided body", or "cut into", from the neuter singular perfect passive participle of insectare, "to cut into, to cut up", from in- "into" and secare "to cut". A calque of Greek ἔντομον, "cut into sections", Pliny the Elder introduced the Latin designation as a loan-translation of the Greek word ἔντομος or "insect", Aristotle's term for this class of life in reference to their "notched" bodies. "Insect" first appears documented in English in 1601 in Holland's translation of Pliny. Translations of Aristotle's term form the usual word for "insect" in Welsh, Serbo-Croatian, etc; the precise definition of the taxon Insecta and the equivalent English name "insect" varies. In the broadest circumscription, Insecta sensu lato consists of all hexapods. Traditionally, insects defined in this way were divided into "Apterygota" —the wingless insects—and Pterygota—the winged insects.
However, modern phylogenetic studies have shown that "Apterygota" is not monophyletic, so does not form a good taxon. A narrower circumscription restricts insects to those hexapods with external mouthparts, comprises only the last three groups in the table. In this sense, Insecta sensu stricto is equivalent to Ectognatha. In the narrowest circumscription, insects are restricted to hexapods that are either winged or descended from winged ancestors. Insecta sensu strictissimo is equivalent to Pterygota. For the purposes of this article, the middle definition is used; the evolutionary relationship of insects to other animal groups remains unclear. Although traditionally grouped with millipedes and centiped
Herman Boerhaave was a Dutch botanist, Christian humanist, physician of European fame. He is regarded as the founder of clinical teaching and of the modern academic hospital and is sometimes referred to as "the father of physiology," along with Venetian physician Santorio Santorio. Boerhaave introduced the quantitative approach into medicine, along with his pupil Albrecht von Haller and is best known for demonstrating the relation of symptoms to lesions, he was the first to isolate the chemical urea from urine. He was the first physician to put thermometer measurements to clinical practice, his motto was Simplex sigillum veri:'The simple is the sign of the true'. He is hailed as the "Dutch Hippocrates". Boerhaave was born at Voorhout near Leiden; the son of a Protestant pastor, in his youth Boerhaave studied for a divinity degree and wanted to become a preacher. After the death of his father, however, he was offered a scholarship and he entered the University of Leiden, where he took his degree in philosophy in 1689, with a dissertation De distinctione mentis a corpore.
There he attacked the doctrines of Epicurus, Thomas Hobbes and Spinoza. He turned to the study of medicine, in which he graduated in 1693 at Harderwijk in present-day Gelderland. In 1701 he was appointed lecturer on the institutes of medicine at Leiden. In 1709 he became professor of botany and medicine, in that capacity he did good service, not only to his own university, but to botanical science, by his improvements and additions to the botanic garden of Leiden, by the publication of numerous works descriptive of new species of plants. On 14 September 1710, Boerhaave married Maria Drolenvaux, the daughter of the rich merchant, Alderman Abraham Drolenvaux, they had four children, of whom Maria Joanna, lived to adulthood. In 1722, he began recovering the next year. In 1714, when he was appointed rector of the university, he succeeded Govert Bidloo in the chair of practical medicine, in this capacity he introduced the modern system of clinical instruction. Four years he was appointed to the chair of chemistry as well.
In 1728 he was elected into the French Academy of Sciences, two years into the Royal Society of London. In 1729 declining health obliged him to resign the chairs of botany, his reputation so increased the fame of the University of Leiden as a school of medicine, that it became popular with visitors from every part of Europe. All the princes of Europe sent him pupils, who found in this skilful professor not only an indefatigable teacher, but an affectionate guardian; when Peter the Great went to Holland in 1716, he took lessons from Boerhaave. Voltaire travelled to see him, his reputation was not confined to Europe. The operating theatre of the University of Leiden in which he once worked as an anatomist is now at the centre of a museum named after him. Asteroid 8175 Boerhaave is named after Boerhaave. From 1955 to 1961 Boerhaave's image was printed on Dutch 20-guilder banknotes; the Leiden University Medical Centre organises. He had a prodigious influence on the development of chemistry in Scotland.
British medical schools credit Boerhaave for developing the system of medical education upon which their current institutions are based. Every founding member of the Edinburgh Medical School had studied at Leyden and attended Boerhaave's lectures on chemistry including John Rutherford and Francis Home. Boerhaave's Elementa Chemiae is recognised as the first text on chemistry. Boerhaave first described Boerhaave syndrome, which involves tearing of the oesophagus a consequence of vigorous vomiting, he notoriously described in 1724 the case of Baron Jan van Wassenaer, a Dutch admiral who died of this condition following a gluttonous feast and subsequent regurgitation. This condition was uniformly fatal prior to modern surgical techniques allowing repair of the oesophagus. Boerhaave was critical of his Dutch contemporary, Baruch Spinoza, attacking him in his dissertation in 1689. At the same time, he admired Isaac Newton and was a devout Christian who wrote about God in his works. A collection of his religious thoughts on medicine, translated from Latin to English, has been compiled by the Sir Thomas Browne Instituut Leiden under the name Boerhaaveìs Orations.
Among other things, he considered nature as God's Creation and he used to say that the poor were his best patients because God was their paymaster. As a credible chemist and physician of European, the human body was a inquisitive and compelling component in agreed with other physicians of his time – like Borellis – and thus he devoted a diligent focus towards this subject matter. Boerhaave's ideas about the human body were influenced by French mathematician and philosopher René Descartes. Descartes contributed much to iatromechanical theories. Another influencer of Boerhaave's reasoning was Giovanni Borelli, he was a distinguished astronomer and mathematician in the 1600s and published writings on animal motions mirroring machinery principles. Inspired by this and Cartesianism, Boerhaave proposed tha
Papilio troilus, the spicebush swallowtail or green-clouded butterfly, is a common black swallowtail butterfly found in North America. It has two subspecies, Papilio troilus troilus and Papilio troilus ilioneus, the latter found in the Florida peninsula; the spicebush swallowtail derives its name from its most common host plant, the spicebush, members of the genus Lindera. The family to which spicebush swallowtails belong, Papilionidae, or swallowtails, include the largest butterflies in the world; the swallowtails are unique in that while feeding, they continue to flutter their wings. Unlike other swallowtail butterflies, spicebushes fly low to the ground instead of at great heights; the spicebush swallowtail is found only in the eastern US and southern Ontario, but strays as far as the American Midwest, Cuba and Colorado. While still larvae, spicebush swallowtails remain on the leaf of the plant; as adults, the butterflies do not limit their flight geographically and instead are motivated by availability of water and nectar and mates within the species' range.
This black swallowtail is found in deciduous woods or woody swamps, where they can be found flying low and fast through shaded areas. Females tend to stay in open plains, while males are found in swamp areas; the more widespread subspecies of spicebush swallowtail is prevalent throughout the Eastern United States, from New England to Wisconsin, west to Illinois, North Dakota and Nebraska. It abounds in Texas and Colorado. Temperature may be a limiting factor for the spread of P. t. troilus, as in experimental conditions, they do not fare well at or above 36 °C nor are they capable of flourishing at or below 14 °C. The smaller subspecies of P. troilus is confined to the Southeastern coastal United States, namely throughout Florida and along coastal Georgia and in places in Texas. The wingspan of a spicebush swallowtail ranges from 3 to 4 inches. Adults are black/brown in color, with a trademark green-blue or bright blue splotch in the shape of a half moon on the hindwings; the forewing has a border of oval spots.
In the middle portion of the wing, the spots can be a light blue in color. Both sexes have cream-yellow moon-shaped spots on the edges of the hindwings and a bright, orange spot at the base of the wings. In females, the orange spot at the base of the wings will turn a greenish-white shade in summer, but not the spring. On the underside of the hindwing, there will be a dual row of orange spots, which distinguishes it from the pipevine swallowtail, which only has a single row of spots. In between these rows, there is green coloring; the distinguishing difference in color between the two subspecies is evident where the spots, which are blue in color on the hindwing of the P. t. troilus, are more yellow in color in P. t. ilioneus. Additionally, splashes of blue can trail all the way down the tail of P. t. ilioneus. The host plants of the spicebush swallowtail are most either spicebush or white sassafras. Other possible host plants include prickly ash, as well as tulip tree, sweetbay and redbay. Redbay and swampbay are the primary host plants for members of the P. t. ilioneus strain, while spicebush and sassafras as the primary hosts for P. t. troilus.
However, when given the choice between spicebush and sassafras, the P. t. troilus showed no significant preference for either. Additionally, P. t. ilioneus live only on redbay because, the primary host plant within the Southern range. However, in a test of P. t. troilus and P. t. ilioneus on redbay and spicebush, although the P. t. ilioneus had higher growth and survival rates on redbay than the P. t. troilus, as a holistic group, both subspecies performed better on sassafras or spicebush over time. In general, spicebush swallowtails tend to stick to plants; the preference for Lauraceae is so consistent among spicebush swallowtails that under experimental conditions, when placed in an environment with leaves other than Lauraceae, P. troilus died without eating anything. This fact is noteworthy because Lauraceae are distantly related to the host plants of other species that are food for Papilio caterpillars; the fact that spicebush swallowtails live and feed on Lauraceae only is noteworthy because most other varieties of swallowtail butterflies are nowhere near as specific.
Part of the reason for the selective nature of P. troilus and host plants may have to do with the requirement of positive stimuli to confirm that a plant is Lauraceae among P. troilus before they will feed on it, while P. glaucus, for example, will at once try to feed on any plant presented to it. The insistence on feeding on Lauraceae has its advantages for spicebush swallowtails, they are able to feed two to four times more adeptly and efficiently on Lauraceae than P. glaucus on the same plant, for example, who feed on Lauraceae as well as other types of plants. In addition, there has not been any other Lepidoptera species which feeds as efficiently as the P. troilus on spicebush. However, none of the host plants of Papilio troilus occur throughout the full range of the spicebush swallowtail; as stated above, the P. t. ilioneus strain, found in Florida feeds on redbay, while P. t. troilus feeds on either sassafras or spicebush. In a study, it was found that those spicebush swallowtails that feed on redbay did not grow as well on spicebush or sassafras during the first instar of development, while all insects studied grew bette
The engrailed and small engrailed are moths of the family Geometridae found from the British Isles through central and eastern Europe to the Russian Far East and Kazakhstan. The western Mediterranean and Asia Minor and the Caucasus represent the southern limit of the distribution. In the north, the distribution area ends at the Arctic circle, it occurs in North America. Debate exists as to whether they make up one species, or whether E. crepuscularia refers only to the small engrailed, with the engrailed proper being separable as E. bistortata. The ground colour of the wings is buff or grey, variably marked with darker fascia and a pale postdiscal crossline; the darker markings are not as strong as in the rather similar willow beauty. Melanic forms occur frequently; the wingspan is 38–45 mm. One or two broods are produced each year. In the British Isles, the adults can be seen at any time between August; the species is attracted to light. The greyish caterpillar is polyphagous, feeding on a huge range of plants.
As a caterpillar, the species is known as the saddleback looper. The species overwinters as a pupa. Acer, maple Aconitum, monkshood Alnus, alder Aquilegia, columbine Betula, birch Calluna vulgaris, heather Camellia japonica, Japanese camellia Castanea, chestnut Centaurea, star thistle Cirsium arvense, creeping thistle Cornus, dogwood Daphniphyllum Diervilla, bush honeysuckle Frangula, alder buckthorn Fraxinus, ash Genista, broom Glycine, soybean Hypericum maculatum, imperforate St. John's wort Ilex, holly Juglans, walnut Larix, Larch Lindera, spice bush Lonicera, honeysuckle Lythrum salicaria, purple loosestrife Malus, apple Philadelphus, mock-orange Picea, spruce Pieris Pinus, pine Plectranthus Populus, poplar Pseudotsuga, Douglas fir Quercus, oak Ribes rubrum, redcurrant Rosa, rose Rubus idaeus, raspberry Rumex, dock Salix, willow Sambucus, elder Shepherdia canadensis, Canada buffaloberry Sorbus spp. rowans Spartina, cordgrass Thuja Trifolium, clover Tsuga, hemlock Ulmus, elm Vaccinium Zanthoxylum Chinery, Michael Collins Guide to the Insects of Britain and Western Europe 1986 Skinner, Bernard Colour Identification Guide to Moths of the British Isles 1984 Engrailed on UKMoths Savela, Markku.
"Ectropis crepuscularia". Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms. Retrieved February 5, 2019. Lepiforum e. V