click links in text for more info

Line printer

A line printer prints one entire line of text before advancing to another line. Most early line printers were impact printers. Line printers are associated with unit record equipment and the early days of digital computing, but the technology is still in use. Print speeds of 600 lines per minute were achieved in the 1950s increasing to as much as 1200 lpm. Line printers print a complete line at a time and have speeds in the range of 150 to 2500 lines per minute; the different types of line printers are drum band-printers and chain printers. Other non-impact technologies have been used, as thermal line printers were popular in the 1970s and 1980s, some inkjet and laser printers produce output a line or a page at a time. Many impact printers, such as the daisywheel printer and dot matrix printer, used a print head that printed a character moved on until an entire line was printed. Line printers were much faster, as each impact printed an entire line. There have been five principal designs: Drum printers Chain printers Bar printers Comb printers Wheel printersBecause all of these printing methods were noisy, line printers of all designs were enclosed in sound-absorbing cases of varying sophistication.

Several designs of printers have similar characteristics. In a typical drum printer design, a fixed font character set is engraved onto the periphery of a number of print wheels, the number matching the number of columns the printer could print; the wheels, joined to form a large drum, spin at high speed and paper and an inked ribbon is stepped past the print position. As the desired character for each column passes the print position, a hammer strikes the paper from the rear and presses the paper against the ribbon and the drum, causing the desired character to be recorded on the continuous paper; because the drum carrying the letterforms remains in constant motion, the strike-and-retreat action of the hammers had to be fast. They were driven by voice coils mounted on the moving part of the hammer; the character sequences are staggered around the drum, shifting with each column. This obviates the situation whereby all of the hammers fire when printing a line that consists of the same character in all columns, such as a complete line of dashes.

Lower-cost printers did not use a hammer for each column. Instead, a hammer was provided for every other column and the entire hammer bank was arranged to shift left and right, driven by an additional voice coil. For this style of printer, two complete revolutions of the character drum were required with one revolution being used to print all the "odd" columns and another revolution being used to print all of the "even" columns. At least one low-cost printer, made by CDC, achieved the same end by moving the paper laterally while keeping the hammer bank at rest. Dataproducts was a typical vendor of drum printers selling similar models with both a full set of hammers and a half set of hammers. Chain printers place the type on a track; as with the drum printer, as the correct character passes by each column, a hammer is fired from behind the paper. Compared to drum printers, chain printers have the advantage that the type chain can be changed by the operator. A further advantage is that vertical registration of characters in a line is much improved over drum printers, which need precise hammer timing to achieve a reasonably straight line of print.

By selecting chains that have a smaller character set, the printer can print much faster than if the chain contains the entire upper- and lower-case alphabet and all special symbols. This is because, with many more instances of the numbers appearing in the chain, the time spent waiting for the correct character to "pass by" is reduced. Common letters and symbols appear more on the chain, according to the frequency analysis of the input, it is possible to play primitive tunes on these printers by timing the nonsense of the printout to the sequence on the chain, a rather primitive piano. IBM was the best-known chain printer manufacturer and the IBM 1403 is the most famous example of a chain printer. Band printers are a variation of chain printers, where a thin steel band is used instead of a chain, with the characters embossed or etched onto the band. Again, a selection of different bands are available with a different mix of characters so a character set best matched to the characters printed can be chosen.

Dataproducts was a well known manufacturer of band printers, with their B300, B600, B1000 range, the model number representing the lines per minute rate of the printer. Bar printers were slower and less expensive. Rather than a chain moving continuously in one direction, the characters were on fingers mounted on a bar that moved left-to-right and right-to-left in front of the paper. An example was the IBM 1443. In all three designs, timing of the hammers was critical, was adjustable as part of the servicing of the printer. For drum printers, incorrect timing of the hammer resulted in printed l

Harry Hawker

Harry George Hawker MBE, AFC was an Australian aviation pioneer. He was the chief test pilot for Sopwith and was involved in the design of many of their aircraft. After the First World War, he co-founded Hawker Aircraft, the firm that would be responsible for a long series of successful military aircraft, he died on 12 July 1921 when the aircraft he was to fly in the Aerial Derby crashed in a park at Burnt Oak, not far from Hendon Aerodrome. Hawker was born on 22 January 1889 at Moorabbin, Victoria in Australia, the second son of George Hawker, a blacksmith, Mary Ann Gilliard Anderson, he attended Moorabbin Primary School and in the 1970s five hundred commemorative First Day Covers were printed in his honour by Australia Post. As an 11-year-old, he worked at the Melbourne garage of Hall & Warden, helping to build engines for five shillings a week, moving on to the Tarrant Motor & Engineering Co, helping make Tarrant cars, where he qualified as a mechanic. In 1907, he moved again to become the chauffeur and mechanic for Ernest De Little in Caramut, Western Victoria.

In 1910 he travelled to Diggers Rest, north-west of Melbourne, to see the first public demonstrations of powered flight made in Australia, decided to go to England to become involved in aviation, arriving in May 1911. On 14 November 1917 Hawker married Muriel Alice Peaty at St Peter's Church. In England Hawker obtained a job with the Commer Car Company, moving to the Mercedes company in January 1912 and to Austro Daimler. During this time he spent much of his spare time at Brooklands the hub of British aviation, in June 1912 he got a job as a mechanic for the Sopwith Aviation Company, he soon persuaded Sopwith to teach him to fly, succeeded in making his first solo flight after only three lessons. He was awarded. 297, in September 1912 and shortly afterwards, on 24 October, he won the Michelin Cup for flight endurance with a flight lasting 8 hr 23 min. He appears to have been the first person to perform an intentional spin and recovery, demonstrating in 1914 one method to return to level flight from this unusual attitude.

Because spins had killed several pilots, this was a major advance in aviation safety. Having established his name as an aviator, he became chief test pilot for Tom Sopwith. At Sopwiths in 1916, Hawker had the personal use of the Sopwith Bee, he was a regular competitor in motor car and motorcycle races at Brooklands before and after the First World War. Among his competitive achievements were a number of altitude records set in June 1913, he won a £1,000 consolation prize in the Daily Mail Circuit of Britain Waterplane Race on 25 August 1913. In 1914, Harry Hawker returned to Australia to demonstrate the advanced Sopwith Tabloid, which he had helped design. A wild crowd nearly wrecked the plane on one occasion, he further damaged it during stunt flying. On his return to England he continued designing and testing aircraft with Sopwith throughout the First World War. After the war, together with navigator Kenneth Mackenzie Grieve, he attempted to win the Daily Mail £10,000 prize for the first flight across the Atlantic in "72 consecutive hours".

On 18 May 1919, they set off from Newfoundland, in the Sopwith Atlantic biplane. After fourteen and a half hours of flight, the engine overheated and they were forced to change course to intercept the shipping lanes, where they were able to locate a passing freighter, the Danish Mary; the Mary did not have a functioning radio, so that it was not until six days when the steamer reached Butt of Lewis, that word was received that they were safe. Hawker and Grieve were awarded a consolation prize of £5,000 by the Daily Mail. Hawker named his second daughter Mary after the ship that had rescued him and Grieve; the Atlantic was recovered by the US steamer Lake Charleville. The wheels from the undercarriage, jettisoned soon after takeoff were recovered by local fishermen and donated to the Rooms Provincial Museum in St John's. One wheel is on display at Admiralty House Communications Museum in Mount Pearl. In September 1920, Sopwith Aviation was liquidated because of fears the government would examine the wartime aircraft production contracts of companies like Sopwith and impose a crippling retrospective tax liability on them.

Harry Hawker, Tom Sopwith, Fred Sigrist, Bill Eyre formed a new company, each contributing £5,000. To avoid any possible claims against the new company for the wartime contracts of the old company, they chose to call it H. G. Hawker Engineering; as Tom Sopwith put it: to avoid any muddle if we had gone on building aeroplanes and called them Sopwiths—there was bound to be a muddle somewhere—we called the company the Hawker Company. I didn't mind, he was responsible for our growth during the war. Hawker was killed on 12 July 1921 when his Nieuport Goshawk crashed while he was climbing away from Hendon Aerodrome while practising for the Aerial Derby. "Medical examination led physicians to believe that Hawker had suffered a haemorrage and that he had tried to get back down on the ground." Fire in the air and spinal tuberculosis were considered contributing factors to his death. "The king sent a message of condolence, asserting'The nation had lost one of its most distinguished airmen.'"Hawker is buried in St Pauls' Church, Chessington, Surrey.

He was survived by his wife and two daughters. In 1978, he was honoured with a postage stamp depicting his portrait issued by Australia Post. In 1989, Moorabbin Airport at Mentone in Australia was renamed "Moorabbin Airport" In 2007, Kingston University

SM UC-12

SM UC-12 was a German Type UC I minelayer submarine or U-boat in the German Imperial Navy during World War I. A German Type UC I submarine, UC-1 had a displacement of 168 tonnes when at the surface and 182 tonnes while submerged, she had a length overall of 33.99 m, a beam of 3.15 m, a draught of 3.06 m. The submarine was powered by one Benz six-cylinder, four-stroke diesel engine producing 80 metric horsepower, an electric motor producing 175 metric horsepower, one propeller shaft, she was capable of operating at a depth of 50 metres. The submarine had a maximum submerged speed of 5.67 knots. When submerged, she could operate for 50 nautical miles at 4 knots. UC-1 was fitted with six 100 centimetres mine tubes, twelve UC 120 mines, one 8 millimetres machine gun, she was built by AG Weser Bremen and her complement was fourteen crew members. The U-boat was ordered on 23 November 1914, laid down on 27 January 1915, was launched on 29 April 1915, she was commissioned into the German Imperial Navy on 2 May 1915 as SM UC-12.

UC-12 served with the Pola Flotilla based at Cattaro in the Adriatic. She operated as a minelayer, undertook seven patrols in this role. Mines laid by UC-12 were credited with sinking six ships. One of these, the Italian Marechiaro sunk on 21 February 1916, was listed as a hospital ship and sank with over 200 casualties. Since Germany was not at war with Italy at this stage, though Austria was, UC 12, like other German U-boats in the Mediterranean, operated under the Austro-Hungarian flag. On 16 March 1916 UC-12 was sunk by the detonation of one of her own mines while laying a mine fields off Taranto harbour. Italian divers established its identity; the knowledge that Germany, technically their ally, was assiduously mining their naval bases was a contributing factor in Italy’s decision in August 1916 to declare war on Germany. The submarine was raised by Italy and commissioned as X-1 in the Italian Royal Navy

Echorouk El Yawmi

Echorouk or Ech Chorouk El Youmi is a daily newspaper in Algeria published Saturday to Thursday in the tabloid format. It is the second-largest daily Arabophone newspaper. Echorouk El Yawmi was started in 1990 under the name of Echorouk Al Arabi, it is independent, critical of the government and the Islamist rebel movements which remain active after the Algerian Civil War. The newspaper publishes Echorouk El Ousboui, a weekly supplement; the newspaper's online version – Echorouk Online – was the third most visited website in 2010 in the MENA region. In July 2015, Echorouk El Yawmi partnered with the British Council in Algeria to launch a competition to learn English; the newspaper used to publish a series of weekly articles in English from July 24 to August 20, 2015. Participants had to read the articles answer the two asked questions on the newspaper's website, the British Council's website, or the Facebook page; the prizes were granted to five winners and were awarded in September in a ceremony held at the UK Ambassador's Residence in Algiers in presence of prominent personalities.

In a fall 2006 trial, the leader of neighbouring Libya, Muammar Gaddafi, took the unprecedented step of suing the paper in an Algerian court for defamation. The court decided on October 31 that Ech Chorouk's reporting of Qadhafi's attempts to induce Algerian Tuaregs to separatism had slandered the Libyan leader, suspended the paper for two months; the editor and the responsible reporter were both sentenced to six months in jail. The verdict was condemned as a strike against press freedom by the entire Algerian independent press and numerous political parties, as well as from international press watchdogs. Official website. Presse algerie


Pyroraptor is a genus of dromaeosaurid dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of what is now southern France, it lived during the late Campanian and early Maastrichtian stages 70.6 million years ago. It is known from a single partial specimen, found in Provence in 1992; the animal was named Pyroraptor olympius by Allain and Taquet in 2000. The first remains of Pyroraptor were discovered in southeastern France, at the La Boucharde locality of the Arc Basin in Provence. Finds of dromaeosaurid dinosaur remains are rare in Europe, provide little taxonomic information; the first dromaeosaurid fossils found in France were those of Variraptor, although the bones were referred to a new Megalosaurus species. Pyroraptor was described by French paleontologists Ronan Allain and Philippe Taquet in 2000, the type species is Pyroraptor olympius; the genus name is Greek for "Fire thief", due to its remains being discovered after a forest fire occurred. The species name is derived from Mont Olympe, a mountain in Provence at the foot of which the animal's remains were unearthed.

The holotype specimen, MNHN BO001, consists of the second toe claw of the left foot. The assigned paratypes include the equivalent claw of the right foot. Additional material was referred to Pyroraptor, including five pedal digits, one manual digit, a piece of a metacarpal, a right radius, a dorsal vertebra, a tail vertebra. Pyroraptor was a dromaeosaurid, a small, bird-like predatory theropod that possessed enlarged curved claws on the second toe of each foot. In Pyroraptor, these claws were 6.5 centimeters long. As in other dromaeosaurids, these claws might have been used as climbing aids, its two known teeth are flattened and curved backwards, with their rear margins having finer serrations than at the front. As a dromaeosaurid, Pyroraptor had well-developed forelimbs with curved claws, balanced the body with a long, thin tail. Pyroraptor was likely covered in feathers, as many of its relatives, like Microraptor and Sinornithosaurus had plumage. Timeline of dromaeosaurid research Pyroraptor official site, in French Pyroraptor computer animation, by Meteor Studios for Discovery Channel Pyroraptor computer animation stills by Meteor Studios for Discovery Channel

Permanent Settlement

The Permanent Settlement known as the Permanent Settlement of Bengal, was an agreement between the East India Company and Bengali landlords to fix revenues to be raised from land that had far-reaching consequences for both agricultural methods and productivity in the entire British Empire and the political realities of the Indian countryside. It was concluded in 1793 by the Company administration headed by Earl Cornwallis, it formed one part of a larger body of legislation, known as the Cornwallis Code. The Cornwallis Code of 1793 divided the East India Company's service personnel into three branches: revenue and commercial. Revenues were collected by native Indians who were treated as landowners; this division created. The Permanent Settlement was introduced first in Bengal and Bihar and in the south district of Madras and Varanasi; the system spread all over northern India by a series of regulations dated 1 May 1793. These regulations remained in place until the Charter Act of 1833; the other two systems prevalent in India were the Mahalwari System.

Many argue that the settlement and its outcome had several shortcomings when compared with its initial goals of increasing tax revenue, creating a Western-European style land market in Bengal, encouraging investment in land and agriculture, thereby creating the conditions for long-term economic growth for both the company and region's inhabitants. Firstly, the policy of fixing the rate of expected tax revenue for the foreseeable future meant that the income of the Company from taxation decreased in the long-term because revenues remained fixed while expenses increased over time. Meanwhile, the condition of the Bengali peasantry became pitiable, with famines becoming a regular occurrence as landlords sought to guarantee revenue by coercing the local agriculturalists to cultivate cash crops such as cotton and jute, while long-term private investment by the zamindars in agricultural infrastructure failed to materialise. Earlier zamindars in Bengal and Odisha had been functionaries who held the right to collect revenue on behalf of the Mughal emperor and his representative, the diwan, in Bengal.

The diwan supervised the zamindars to ensure. When the East India Company was awarded the diwani or overlordship of Bengal by the empire following the Battle of Buxar in 1764, it found itself short of trained administrators those familiar with local custom and law; as a result, landholders were reported to corrupt and indolent officials. The result was that revenues were extracted without regard for local welfare. Following the devastating famine of 1770, caused by this shortsightedness, Company officials in Calcutta better understood the importance of oversight of revenue officials. Warren Hastings governor-general, introduced a system of five-yearly inspections and temporary tax farmers, they did not want to take direct control of local administration in villages for several reasons, including that Company did not want to annoy those people who had traditionally enjoyed power and prestige in rural Bengal. The Company failed to consider the question of incentivisation. Many appointed tax farmers absconded with as much revenue as they could during the time period between inspections.

The British Parliament took note of the disastrous consequences of the system, in 1784, British Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger directed the Calcutta administration to alter it immediately. In 1786 Charles Cornwallis was sent out to India to reform the company's practices. In 1786, the East India Company Court of Directors first proposed a permanent settlement for Bengal, changing the policy being followed by Calcutta, attempting to increase taxation of zamindars. Between 1786 and 1790, the new Governor-General Lord Cornwallis and Sir John Shore entered a heated debate over whether or not to introduce a permanent settlement with the zamindars. Shore argued that the native zamindars would not trust the permanent settlement to be permanent and that it would take time before they realised it was genuine; the main aim of the Permanent Settlement was to resolve the problem of agrarian crisis and distress that had resulted in lower agricultural output. The British officials thought that investment in agriculture and the resources of the revenue of the State could be increased by agriculture.

For this, permanently fixing the revenue and securing the rights of property was done- a system came to be known as the'Permanent Settlement'. The British thought that once the revenue demands of the State were permanently set, there would be a regular flow of tax income. Furthermore, landholders would invest in their agricultural land as the producer can keep surpluses in excess of the fixed tax; the British officials thought that such a process would lead to the emergence of yeomen class of farmers and rich landowners who would invest their capital to generate further surpluses. This new emergent class would be loyal to the British, who were still gaining a foothold in the Indian subcontinent. While the policy was well-intentioned, it failed to identify individuals who were willing to contract to pay fixed revenue perpetually and to invest in the improvement of agriculture. After much discussion and disagreement between the officials, the Permanent Settlement was made with the existing Rajas and Taluqdars of Bengal who were now classified as Zamindars.

They had to pay fixed revenue in perpetuity. Thus, zamindars were not the landowners but rathe