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A lingam, sometimes referred to as linga or Shiva linga, is an abstract or aniconic representation of the Hindu deity Shiva in Shaivism. It is the primary murti or cult image in Hindu temples dedicated to Shiva found in smaller shrines, or as self-manifested natural objects; the lingam is represented within a disc-shaped platform. Lingayats wear a lingam inside a necklace, called Ishtalinga."Lingam" is additionally found in Sanskrit texts with the meaning of "evidence, proof" of God and God's existence. Lingam iconography found at archaeological sites of the Indian subcontinent and southeast Asia includes simple cylinders set inside a yoni, mukhalinga rounded pillars with carvings such as of one or more mukha, anatomically realistic representations of a phallus such as at Gudimallam. In the Shaiva traditions, the lingam is regarded as a form of spiritual iconography. Lingam, states Monier Monier-Williams, appears in the Upanishads and epic literature, where it means a "mark, emblem, characteristic".

Other contextual meanings of the term include "evidence, symptom" of God and God's power. The term appears in early Indian texts on logic, where an inference is based on a sign, such as "if there is smoke, there is fire" where the linga is the smoke. According to James Lochtefeld, it is sometimes "simplistically called a phallic symbol", it is a religious symbol in Hinduism representing Shiva as the generative power, all of existence, all creativity and fertility at every cosmic level. The lingam of the Shaivism tradition is a short cylindrical pillar-like symbol of Shiva, made of stone, gem, clay or disposable material. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, the lingam is a votary aniconic object found in the sanctum of Shiva temples and private shrines that symbolizes Shiva and is "revered as an emblem of generative power", it is found within a lipped, disked structure, an emblem of goddess Shakti and this is called the yoni. Together they symbolize the union of the feminine and the masculine principles, "the totality of all existence", states Encyclopædia Britannica.

According to Rohit Dasgupta, the lingam symbolizes Shiva in Hinduism, it is a phallic symbol. Since the 19th-century, states Dasgupta, the popular literature has represented the lingam as the male sex organ; this view contrasts with the traditional abstract values they represent in Shaivism wherein the lingam-yoni connote the masculine and feminine principles in the entirety of creation and all existence. According to Wendy Doniger, for many Hindus, the lingam is not a "male sexual organ" but of a spiritual icon and their faith, just like for the Christians the cross is not an "instrument of execution" but a symbol of Christ and the Christian faith. According to Alex Wayman, given the Shaiva philosophical texts and spiritual interpretations, various works on Shaivism by some Indian authors "deny that the linga is a phallus". To the Shaivites, a linga is neither a phallus nor do they practice the worship of erotic penis-vulva, rather the linga-yoni is a symbol of cosmic mysteries, the creative powers and the metaphor for the spiritual truths of their faith.

According to Sivaya Subramuniyaswami, the lingam signifies three perfections of Shiva. The upper oval part of the Shivalingam represent Parashiva and lower part of the Shivalingam called the pitha represents Parashakti. In Parashiva perfection, Shiva is the absolute reality, the timeless and spaceless. In Parashakti perfection, Shiva is all-pervasive, pure consciousness and primal substance of all that exists and it has form unlike Parashiva, formless. According to Nagendra Singh, some believe. According to Chakrabarti, "some of the stones found in Mohenjodaro are unmistakably phallic stones"; these are dated to some time before 2300 BCE. States Chakrabarti, the Kalibangan site of Harappa has a small terracotta representation that "would undoubtedly be considered the replica of a modern Shivlinga." According to Encyclopædia Britannica, while Harappan discoveries include "short cylindrical pillars with rounded tops", there is no evidence that the people of Indus Valley Civilization worshipped these artifacts as lingams.

The colonial era archaeologists John Marshall and Ernest Mackay proposed that certain artifacts found at Harappan sites may be evidence of yoni-linga worship in Indus Valley Civilization. Scholars such as Arthur Llewellyn Basham dispute whether such artifacts discovered at the archaeological sites of Indus Valley sites are yoni. For example and Ryan state that lingam/yoni shapes have been recovered from the archaeological sites at Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, part of the Indus Valley Civilisation. In contrast, Indologist Wendy Doniger states that this rare artifact can be interpreted in many ways and has unduly been used for wild speculations such as being a linga. Another postage stamp sized item found and called the Pashupati seal, states Doniger, has an image with a general resemblance with Shiva and "the Indus people may well have created the symbolism of the divine phallus", but given the available evidence we cannot be certain, nor do we know that it had the same meaning as some project them to might have meant.

According to the Indologist Asko Parpola, "it is true that Marshall's and Mackay's hypotheses of linga and yoni worship by the Harappans has rested on rather slender grounds, that for instance the interpretation of the so-called ring-stones as yonis seems untenable". He quotes Dales 1984 paper, which states "with the single exception of the unidentified photography of a realistic phallic object in Marshall's report, there is no archaeological evidence to s

Crotone Airport

Crotone-Sant'Anna Airport is a minor Italian domestic airport serving Crotone in Calabria. The small airport features one two-storey passenger terminal a single runway; the terminal's main floor features the arrivals and departures areas as well as some basic passenger facilities while the upper level contains administration offices. The apron features three stands for mid-sized aircraft such as the Boeing 737-800 directly in front of the terminal building which are used by walk-boarding as well as four more bus-boarding stands to the north of the terminal; the airport is located next to European route E90 south of Crotone. The city can be reached by local bus service. List of airports in Italy Media related to Crotone Airport at Wikimedia Commons Official website Accident history for CRV at Aviation Safety Network

Messe Essen

The Messe Essen is the exhibition centre of the city of Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located in the Rüttenscheid borough near the Grugapark, it is the 9th largest exhibition centre in Germany. Though there had been a trade exhibition in the Saalbau Essen in 1893, the first real trade fair of the city was the Gewerbeschau Essen on 21 April 1913 near the Grugahalle. In 1921, an association was founded for the organization of the fairs. At the same time, Messehalle V was erected. Today, the Grugahalle stands on the foundation of this hall. In 1944, the Messe compound was destroyed by the allied bombings. Exhibitions were resumed in 1949. In 1971, the operating company of Gemeinnützige Ausstellungsgesellschaft mbH was renamed the Ausstellungs- und Messegesellschaft mbH Essen, since 1982 it is called Messe Essen GmbH. New halls were opened in 1983 and 1990. In 2000, Halle 3 went into operation. With a length of 230 meters, a width of 69 meters and a height of about 15 meters, it is considered as the longest free-spanning hall in Europe.

From 26 to 28 July 2013 the Star Wars Celebration Europe II took place at the Messe Essen. More than 20,000 people from over 40 countries attended it. In 2014, the Essen citizens voted against plans for a complete reconstruction of the Messe Essen. Instead, it was rebuilt to a smaller extent. Works are scheduled from 2016 to 2019 at a cost of around €88 million; the Messe Essen is connected to public traffic of Stadtbahn Essen by the Messe Ost/Gruga station and the Messe West/Süd/Gruga station, as well as Federal Motorway 52 and Federal highway 224. Official website

Polivanov system

Polivanov system is a system of transliterating the Japanese language into Russian cyrillic script, either to represent Japanese proper names or terms in Russian or as an aid to Japanese language learning in those languages. The system was developed by Yevgeny Polivanov in 1917. In terms of spelling the system is a middle ground between Kunrei-shiki and Hepburn romanisations, matching the former everywhere except for morae hu and tu, which are spelled as in Hepburn, moras starting with z and syllabic n, changed to m after b, p and m as in traditional Hepburn; the following cyrillization system for Japanese is known as the Yevgeny Polivanov system. Note that it has its own spelling conventions and does not constitute a direct phonetic transcription of the pronunciation into the standard Russian usage of the Cyrillic alphabet. Hiragana and Katakana to Polivanov cyrillization correspondence table, for single/modified kana. Syllabic n is spelled м before b, p and m. Grammar particles は and へ are written ва and э.

Syllable を is written either во or о depending on pronunciation. It is permitted to ei. Consonants are geminated as they are in romaji: e.g. -kk- > -кк-. Long vowels may be marked by macron as in Hepburn, but since letter ё has a diacritical mark it is permitted and much more common to mark long vowels by using a colon. Sequence ei may be written э:, эй or эи. In regular texts long vowels are unmarked. In English texts, Japanese names are written with the Hepburn system. Attempts may be made to transcribe these as if they were English, rather than following a dedicated Japanese Cyrillization scheme. A common example of this is attempting to transcribe shi as ши and ji as джи; this is inadvisable for use in Russian, because ши is pronounced like шы in Russian, джи like джы, thus making the vowel closer to Japanese /u/ than to Japanese /i/. Whereas, щи would be pronounced more like Japanese sshi. People transcribe cha, chu, cho as ча, чи, чу, чо; this is phonetically correct, but does not conform with the Polivanov scheme, which more resembles the Kunrei-siki romanisations for these particular characters.

Sometimes е, rather than э, is used despite е being pronounced ye in Russian. This is not done in the initial position, despite older romanisations such as "Yedo" doing so. In any case, it does not conform with the Polivanov scheme, although it is seen as more acceptable for words that are in general use. Replacing ё with е is incorrect, however, as it will change the Japanese word too much; the sound yo, when in the initial position or after a vowel, is written as йо, which has the same pronunciation: Ёкосука -> Йокосука, Тоёта -> Тойота. Although, the spelling "йо" is not common in Russian words, these are more accepted for Japanese names than the transliterations using "ё". "Ё" is not used in Japanese Cyrillization due to its facultative use in the Russian language, but professional translators use ё mandatory. Some personal names beginning with "Yo" are written using "Ё"; some proper names, for historical reasons, do not follow the above rules. Those include but are not limited to: Japanese language education in Russia Romanization of Japanese Cyrillization of Japanese Online Japanese→Polivanov transcription converter Proposal for a coordinated Japanese transcription system for several Slavic languages Automatic cyrillization of hiragana and katakana Kiriji and Yevgeny Polivanov


Soccsksargen known as Central Mindanao, is an administrative region of the Philippines, located in south-central Mindanao. It is numerically designated as Region XII; the name is an acronym that stands for 1 city. The regional center is in Koronadal located in the province of South Cotabato, the center of commerce and industry is General Santos, the most populous city in the Region; the region is bounded on the north by Northern Mindanao, on the east by the Davao Region, on the southwest by the Celebes Sea. The region shares a maritime border with Gorontalo and North Sulawesi provinces of Indonesia; the province of Maguindanao is situated between Cotabato City, North Cotabato province, Sultan Kudarat. The region has extensive coastlines and mountain ranges. Known for its river system, the region is the drainage basin of Mindanao at the Cotabato Basin, a large depression surrounded by mountain ranges on three sides. Within the basin runs the Rio Grande de Mindanao, the longest river in Mindanao and the second longest in the Philippines.

The river empties into the Illana Bay of the larger Moro Gulf at the west of Cotabato City. At the south of the basin lie the Tiruray Highlands, a moderately high mountain range blocking the basin from the southern coastline. Southeast of the mountains lie the Sarangani Bay; the oldest civilization in the region is located in Maitum, where the Maitum Anthropomorphic Pottery were found. The jars have been declared as National Cultural Treasures, are subject to the high protections ensured by Philippine and international laws; the region used to be named Central Mindanao. Prior to the creation of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao it comprised the following provinces: Maguindanao North Cotabato Sultan Kudarat Lanao del Norte Lanao del SurWith the creation of ARMM, Lanao del Sur,and Maguindanao were removed from the region, leaving Lanao del Norte and Sultan Kudarat, Iligan and Cotabato City as constituent provinces and cities. Lanao del Norte and Iligan were transferred to Northern Mindanao, while Marawi became part of the ARMM.

On September 2001, Executive Order No. 36 was signed by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo transferring South Cotabato, General Santos, Koronadal from Southern Mindanao to Region XII, renaming the region, from Central Mindanao, to SOCCSKSARGEN. By virtue of Executive Order No. 304 signed by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, Koronadal City was named as the Regional political and socio-economic center of SOCCSKSARGEN on March 30, 2004. Regional departments and offices were ordered to move from Cotabato City, the former Regional Center of the Region. Traditionally resisting efforts for inclusion to the autonomous region in Muslim Mindanao despite serving as the government center of the ARMM, the January 21, 2019 Bangsamoro Autonomous Region creation plebiscite resulted in the surprise ratification of the Bangsamoro Organic Law; this means Cotabato City may now formally serve as the capital of the region and the offices of the current ARMM will be retained for use by the Bangsamoro Regional Government and now formally exited to the Soccsksargen Region.

Soccsksargen comprises 4 provinces, 1 urbanized city, 3 component cities, 45 municipalities and 1,195 barangays. Kidapawan — the only city of Cotabato province † Koronadal — the political regional center of Soccsksargen Tacurong — only city of Sultan Kudarat General Santos — a urbanized city, it serves as the center of the Metropolitan and Regional Center for trade and industry of Soccsksargen. Cotabato — Gov. Emmylou "Lala" J. Talino-Mendoza South Cotabato — Gov. Reynaldo S. Tamayo Jr. (Partido Federal ng Pilipinas Sultan Kudarat — Gov. Datu Suharto "Teng" T. Mangudadatu Sarangani — Gov. Steve C. Solon General Santos City — Mayor Ronnel “Nel” Rivera The region contributes to the national GDP with 2.6% with 5% growth compared to 2016. 18.3% of Mindanao Gross Regional Domestic Product. The culture of native Maguindanaon and other native groups, both Muslim and non-Muslim, revolves around kulintang music, a specific type of gong music, found in the SoCCSKSarGent. Media related to SOCCSKSARGEN at Wikimedia Commons National Statistical Coordination Board: REGION XII

Joshua Swain Jr.

Joshua Swain Jr. was an American politician and judge. Swain was born in 1804 and was the son of Joshua Swain, who served at the 1844 New Jersey constitutional convention, he had a brother, born in 1806, the county loan commissioner. The younger Joshua Swain was commissioned as a captain of the fourth company of the First Battalion on May 22, 1823. In 1829, Swain was listed as the master of a schooner in the Great Egg Harbor, he was chosen as clerk of the Board of Chosen Freeholders in Cape May County in 1831 and served in this capacity for the rest of his life. He served one term as Sheriff of Cape May County in 1834. Swain was elected vice president of the Cape May Agricultural Society in March 1846, he was elected to the New Jersey Assembly in 1850 and served until 1852. In 1852, Swain was elected to the New Jersey Senate and served until 1854. Swain led meetings in 1857 to bring a railroad to Cape May, he hired William G. Cook, an engineer for the Camden-Amboy Railroad, to survey the county looking for a route for the railway.

He was a judge on the Court of Errors and Appeals of New Jersey for six years. Swain is buried at the Calvary Baptist Church Cemetery in Seaville, his son Edward Y. Swain succeeded him as clerk of the Board of Chosen Freeholders. Dr. Edmund Levi Bull Wales was appointed judge of the Court of Errors and Appeals in the wake of Swain's death