Zwijndrecht is both a village and a municipality located in the Flemish province of Antwerp, in Belgium. As well as Zwijndrecht proper, the municipality includes the village of Burcht; as of January 1, 2006, Zwijndrecht had a total population of 18,231. The total area is 17.82 km² which gives a population density of 1,023 inhabitants per km². The name Zwijndrecht is derived from the old Germanic words “swina drifti.” The words "swina" and "drifti" are both mean creek. “Drifti” evolved from dhreghi>drigti>dricht to drecht. While little archaeological excavation has been done in the municipality of Zwijndrecht itself, numerous findings have been documented in the surrounding region, referred to as the Waasland; these have indicated occupation in the area from as early as the end of the Neolithic Period. Numerous indications of Roman occupation have been uncovered in the Waasland area. In the early Middle Ages, Zwijndrecht-Burcht was sparsely populated, its landscape consisting of wet woodland and small settlements separated by forests.
This situation remained until the latter half of the 11th century, when an increase in population necessitated changes in land use: the forests between settlements were cleared and fields were formed into communal agricultural spaces, using a three-course crop rotation system. These were referred to as ploughshares. Raised paths through the wetlands evolved into dikes, by the 14th century, polders were in use. On April 15, 1281, the Count of Flanders, Gwijde van Dampierre, granted manorial rights to Nikolaas van Kets, making him Lord of Zwijndrecht; the seat of the Lords of Zwijndrecht was a manor house called the Kraaienhof, located in what is now the village of Burcht. The van Kets held the manorial rights until 1445, they passed by inheritance to the van Montmorency family. Due to financial pressures, the heir Filips II de Montmorency, Count of Horne was forced to sell the title and rights to a conglomeration of four cities, Gent and the Brugse Vrije, known as the “Vier Leden”. After rebelling against Spanish rule during the Eighty Years War, the Vier Leden were forced to forfeit the property to the Spanish crown in 1585, but it was returned to them.
The dikes and infrastructure were so badly damaged and neglected during the Eighty Years War, that the Vier Leden were forced to loan money for repairs and restoration from Jan van Hove. When the Vier Leden defaulted on the loan, the property and title defaulted to Jan van Hove, making him the new Lord of Zwijndrecht-Burcht. Van Hove held the property until 1621, when the Staten van Vlaanderen was able to pay its debts and reacquire it. After regaining the property, the Staten van Vlaanderen promptly auctioned it off to the highest bidder, an Italian businessman named Jacomo Antonio Carenna, who became Lord of Zwijndrecht and Burcht. In 1666, he divided the property between Jan Francisco Carenna and Ignacius Carenna. Burcht and Zwijndrecht became separate villages and remained so until they were reunited as the municipality of Zwijndrecht in 1977. For the further history of Burcht, see the article on Burcht. Paulo Carenna, Lord of Zwijndrecht and grandson of Jacomo Carenna, auctioned off the property and title on Antwerp’s historical Vrijdagmarkt in 1699.
It was purchased by Jacques de Lannoy. It passed by inheritance through his daughter Anne Marie de Lannoy to his son-in-law, Daniel Gerardo Melijn in 1732. Daniel Malijn’s heir was a daughter, Anna Marie Isabella Melijn, therefore her husband Louis Balthasar de Heuvel became Lord of Zwijndrecht. Louis Balthasar de Heuvel's son, Louis Charles Joseph de Heuvel, fought for his mother’s inheritance in court as his father did not want to give it up to him. However, before the case could be resolved, the French Revolution and the resultant dissolution of feudal rights and titles made their legal conflict moot. At this point Louis Charles Joseph, who had become broken and paranoid of his father’s wrath, became a vagabond, he died in a French prison in 1800. Geographically and Zwijndrecht and Burcht were part of the province of East Flanders, which fell under the jurisdiction of the Count of Flanders. However, in 1923, the two villages were transferred to the Province of Antwerp; the villages were agrarian, but by the middle of the nineteenth century, Burcht had become the site of heavy industry.
The fertile land in Borgerweert was filled in with dredged slurry from the river Scheldt to accommodate the building of factories. Among the industries established there at the time were a guano factory, a linoleum factory, a cement factory, a pots and pans factory, a lard processing plant, it is the seat of the Ytong plant, which manufactures building blocks. The Lt. Thoumsin military base, which houses the 11th Battalion of Engineers of the Belgian army, is located in Burcht. In the nineteenth century, Zwijndrecht became a bedroom community for Antwerp, while maintaining its agrarian character, it became industrialized in the twentieth century, becoming the location for numerous industries, most of which are clustered around harbors on the Scheldt. During World War I, Zwijndrecht and Burcht and its two forts were part of the Belgian defensive line. By 1914, the two villages were full of Belgian soldiers, orders were issued to reinforce the Fort of Zwijndrecht and the Fort o
Antwerpen-Linkeroever railway station
Antwerpen Linkeroever was the name of two different historical railway stations located on line 59 Antwerp-Ghent, in the Linkeroever area, Antwerp. The station was closed in 1984; the oldest station to be constructed at the location was opened on November 3, 1844 as station Vlaams Hoofd. After the annexation of the village of Vlaams-Hoofd by Antwerp in the name changed to station Antwerpen-West. There was a ferry connection available to Antwerpen-Waas station on the right bank side of the river Scheldt. After the opening of the St.-Annatunnel in 1933, the station was renovated in 1935 and renamed station Antwerpen-Linkeroever. This station at the Beatrijslaan was closed on February 1, 1970, being replaced by a new station located more to the West at the Katwilgweg; this second station was taken out of service on June 3, 1984. Of the newer station, some remnants still remain in the form of two low-lying and non-maintained platforms located near the present building of the Gazet van Antwerpen
The Chicagoblok is a block of flats in the district of Linkeroever, Antwerp
Left Bank (film)
Left Bank is a 2008 Belgian horror film directed by Pieter Van Hees, starring Eline Kuppens and Matthias Schoenaerts. Marie, an aspiring track star on her way to the European Championships, suffers a devastating setback when she is diagnosed with an immune infection and forced to rest. To pass the time, Marie moves in with Bobby, her charismatic new boyfriend who lives in a deluxe apartment in Antwerp’s stylish Left Bank. After learning the apartment’s previous tenant mysteriously disappeared, Marie becomes obsessed with the mystery, all the while suffering from headaches, nausea and insomnia; as Bobby dismisses her theories and fears, Marie delves deeper into her investigation, growing suspicious of her loving boyfriend and the ritzy building, whose long-hidden secrets have nightmarish consequences. Eline Kuppens as Marie Matthias Schoenaerts as Bobby Tom De Wispelaere as Dirk Sien Eggers as Bieke Marilou Mermans as Jeanne Frank Vercruyssen as Gilbert Robbie Cleiren as Dokter Verbeke Ruth Becquart as Hella Tom Dewispelaere as Dirk Leslie Felperin from Variety wrote, "Pieter van Hees’ feature debut demonstrates promise in its spooky, suggestive first half, nicely showcases the talents and chiseled physiques of leads Eline Kuppens and Matthias Schoenaerts.
Film Threat gave the film a positive review, commending the film'ch characters and for its blend of "passion and head-scratches". Neil Young of The Hollywood Reporter wrote, "Overloaded with disturbing hallucinations and disorienting, wannabe-Lynchian dream-sequences, “Left Bank” spirals from intriguing chilliness to mood-killing, murkily-plotted silliness; the last scene is a real head-scratcher." HorrorNews.net called the film " A remarkable dark tale of the supernatural, which incorporates black magic along with the bizarre"' praising the film's atmosphere, authentic feel, provocative story and acting. Official website Left Bank at AllMovie Left Bank on IMDb Left Bank at Rotten Tomatoes
The Scheldt is a 350-kilometre long river in northern France, western Belgium, the southwestern part of the Netherlands. Its name is derived from an adjective corresponding to Old English sceald, Modern English shoal, Low German schol, West Frisian skol, Swedish skäll; the headwaters of the Scheldt are in the Aisne department of northern France. It flows north through Cambrai and Valenciennes, enters Belgium near Tournai. In Ghent, where it receives the Lys, one of its main tributaries, the Scheldt turns east. Near Antwerp, the largest city on its banks, the Scheldt flows west into the Netherlands towards the North Sea. There were two branches from that point: the Oosterschelde. In the 19th century, the river was cut off from its eastern branch by a dyke that connects Zuid-Beveland with the mainland. Today the river therefore continues into the Westerschelde estuary only, passing Terneuzen to reach the North Sea between Breskens in Zeelandic Flanders and Vlissingen on Walcheren; the Scheldt is an important waterway, has been made navigable from its mouth up to Cambrai.
Above Cambrai, the Canal de Saint-Quentin follows its course. The port of Antwerp, the second largest in Europe, lies on its banks. Several canals connect the Scheldt with the basins of the Rhine and Seine, with the industrial areas around Brussels, Liège, Lille and Mons; the Scheldt flows through the following departments of France, provinces of Belgium, provinces of the Netherlands, towns: Aisne: Gouy Nord: Cambrai, Valenciennes Hainaut: Tournai West Flanders: Avelgem East Flanders: Oudenaarde, Dendermonde, Temse Antwerp: Antwerp Zeeland: Hulst, Sluis, Vlissingen The Scheldt estuary has always had considerable commercial and strategic importance. In Roman times, it was important for the shipping lanes to Roman Britain. Nehalennia was venerated at its mouth; the Franks took control over the region about the year 260 and at first interfered with the Roman supply routes as pirates. They became allies of the Romans. With the various divisions of the Frankish Empire in the 9th century, the Scheldt became the border between the Western and Eastern parts of the Empire, which became France and the Holy Roman Empire.
This status quo remained intact—at least on paper—until 1528, although by both the County of Flanders on the western bank and Zeeland and the Duchy of Brabant on the east were part of the Habsburg possessions of the Seventeen Provinces. Antwerp was the most prominent harbour in Western Europe. After this city fell back under Spanish control in 1585, the Dutch Republic took control of Zeelandic Flanders, a strip of land on the left bank, closed the Scheldt for shipping; this shifted the trade to the ports of Amsterdam and Middelburg and crippled Antwerp—an important and traumatic element in the history of relations between the Netherlands and what was to become Belgium. Access to the river was the subject of the brief Kettle War of 1784, and—in the French Revolutionary era shortly afterwards—the river was reopened in 1792. Once Belgium had claimed its independence from the Netherlands in 1830, the treaty of the Scheldt determined that the river should remain accessible to ships heading for Belgian ports.
The Dutch government would demand a toll from passing vessels until 16 July 1863. The Question of the Scheldt, a study providing "a history of the international legal arrangements governing the Western Scheldt", was prepared for the use of British negotiators at the Treaty of Versailles in 1919. In the Second World War, the Scheldt estuary once again became a contested area. Despite Allied control of Antwerp, in September 1944 German forces still occupied fortified positions throughout the Scheldt estuary west and north, preventing any Allied shipping from reaching the port. In the Battle of the Scheldt, the Canadian First Army cleared the area, allowing supply convoys direct access to the port of Antwerp by November 1944. Western Scheldt or Honte Schijn Rupel Nete Kleine Nete Aa Wamp Grote Nete Wimp Molse Nete Laak Dijle Zenne Maalbeek Woluwe Maalbeek Molenbeek Neerpedebeek Zuun Geleytsbeek Linkebeek Molenbeek Senette Hain Samme Thines Vrouwvliet Demer Velp Gete Herk Melsterbeek Grote Gete Kleine Gete Voer IJse Nethen Laan Zilverbeek Thyle Durme Molenbeek Dender Mark Ruisseau d'Ancre Zulle Eastern Dender Western Dender Molenbeek-Ter Erpenbeek Lys/Leie Mandel Heulebeek Gaverbeek Douve Deûle/Deule or Feule Marque Souchez Carency Saint-Nazaire Laquette Lawe Brette, ruisseau de Caucourt, fossé d'Avesnes Clarence Nave, Grand Nocq Becque de Steenwerk Zwalm Rone Rhosne
Antwerp is a city in Belgium, is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders. With a population of 520,504, it is the most populous city proper in Belgium, with 1,200,000 the second largest metropolitan region after Brussels. Antwerp is on the River Scheldt, linked to the North Sea by the river's Westerschelde estuary, it is about 40 kilometres north of Brussels, about 15 kilometres south of the Dutch border. The Port of Antwerp is one of the biggest in the world, ranking second in Europe and within the top 20 globally; the city is known for its diamond industry and trade. Both economically and culturally, Antwerp is and has long been an important city in the Low Countries before and during the Spanish Fury and throughout and after the subsequent Dutch Revolt. Antwerp was the place of the world's oldest stock exchange building built in 1531 and re-built in 1872; the inhabitants of Antwerp are nicknamed Sinjoren, after the Spanish honorific señor or French seigneur, "lord", referring to the Spanish noblemen who ruled the city in the 17th century.
The city hosted the 1920 Summer Olympics. According to folklore, notably celebrated by a statue in front of the town hall, the city got its name from a legend about a giant called Antigoon who lived near the Scheldt river, he extracted a toll from passing boatmen, for those who refused, he severed one of their hands and threw it into the river. The giant was killed by a young hero named Silvius Brabo, who cut off the giant's own hand and flung it into the river. Hence the name Antwerpen, from Dutch hand werpen, akin to Old English hand and wearpan, which has evolved to today's warp. A longstanding theory is that the name originated in the Gallo-Roman period and comes from the Latin antverpia. Antverpia would come from Ante Verpia, indicating land that forms by deposition in the inside curve of a river. Note that the river Scheldt, before a transition period between 600 and 750, followed a different track; this must have coincided with the current ringway south of the city, situating the city within a former curve of the river.
However, many historians think it unlikely that there was a large settlement which would be named'Antverpia', but more something like an outpost with a river crossing. However, John Lothrop Motley argues, so do a lot of Dutch etymologists and historians, that Antwerp's name derives from "anda" and "werpum" to give an't werf. Aan't werp is possible; this "warp" is a man-made hill or a river deposit, high enough to remain dry at high tide, whereupon a construction could be built that would remain dry. Another word for werp is pol hence polders. Alfred Michiels has suggested that derivations based on hand werpen, Antverpia, "on the wharf", or "at the warp" lack historical backing in the form of recorded past spellings of the placename, he points instead to Dado's Life of St. Eligius from the 7th century, which records the form Andoverpis, he sees in it a Celtic origin indicating "those who live on both banks". Historical Antwerp had its origins in a Gallo-Roman vicus. Excavations carried out in the oldest section near the Scheldt, 1952–1961, produced pottery shards and fragments of glass from mid-2nd century to the end of the 3rd century.
The earliest mention of Antwerp dates from the 4th century. In the 4th century, Antwerp was first named; the Merovingian Antwerp was evangelized by Saint Amand in the 7th century. At the end of the 10th century, the Scheldt became the boundary of the Holy Roman Empire. Antwerp became a margraviate in 980, by the German emperor Otto II, a border province facing the County of Flanders. In the 11th century, the best-known leader of the First Crusade, Godfrey of Bouillon, was Margrave of Antwerp, from 1076 until his death in 1100, though he was also Duke of Lower Lorraine and Defender of the Holy Sepulchre. In the 12th century, Norbert of Xanten established a community of his Premonstratensian canons at St. Michael's Abbey at Caloes. Antwerp was the headquarters of Edward III during his early negotiations with Jacob van Artevelde, his son Lionel, the Duke of Clarence, was born there in 1338. After the silting-up of the Zwin and the consequent decline of Bruges, the city of Antwerp part of the Duchy of Brabant, grew in importance.
At the end of the 15th century the foreign trading houses were transferred from Bruges to Antwerp, the building assigned to the English nation is mentioned in 1510. Antwerp became the sugar capital of Europe, importing the raw commodity from Portuguese and Spanish plantations; the city attracted Italian and German sugar refiners by 1550, shipped their refined product to Germany Cologne. Moneylenders and financiers developed a large business lending money all over Europe including the English government in 1544–1574. London bankers were too small to operate on that scale, Antwerp had a efficient bourse that itself attracted rich bankers from around Europe. After the 1570s, the city's banking business declined: England ended its borrowing in Antwerp in 1574. Fernand Braudel states that Antwerp became "the centre of the entire international economy, something Bruges had never been at its height." Antwerp was the richest city in Europe at this time. Antwerp's golden age is l