Linocut is a printmaking technique, a variant of woodcut in which a sheet of linoleum is used for a relief surface. A design is cut into the linoleum surface with a sharp knife, V-shaped chisel or gouge, with the raised areas representing a reversal of the parts to show printed; the linoleum sheet is inked with a roller, impressed onto paper or fabric. The actual printing can be done with a printing press. Although linoleum is a floor covering that dates to the 1860s, the linocut printing technique was used first by the artists of Die Brücke in Germany between 1905 and 1913, where it had been used for wallpaper printing. Since the material being carved has no directional grain and does not tend to split, it is easier to obtain certain artistic effects with lino than with most woods, although the resultant prints lack the angular grainy character of woodcuts and engravings. Lino is diced, much easier to cut than wood when heated, but the pressure of the printing process degrades the plate faster and it is difficult to create larger works due to the material's fragility.
Linocuts can be achieved by the careful application of arts on the surface of the lino. This creates a surface similar to a soft ground etching and these caustic-lino plates can be printed in either a relief, intaglio or a viscosity printing manner. Colour linocuts can be made by using a different block for each colour as in a woodcut, but, as Pablo Picasso demonstrated, such prints can be achieved using a single piece of linoleum in what is called the'reductive' print method. After each successive colour is imprinted onto the paper, the artist cleans the lino plate and cuts away what will not be imprinted for the subsequently applied colour. Due to ease of use, linocut is used in schools to introduce children to the art of printmaking, using it to complete many tasks in the art lesson rather than going straight for the pencil and eraser. However, in the contemporary art world the linocut is an established professional print medium, following its use by Pablo Picasso and Henri Matisse. In 1911 “linoleum art” was first displayed in New York City by the Czech émigré Vojtěch Preissig.
In his publications on linocuts the respected American printmaker, Pedro Joseph de Lemos, simplified the methods for art schools and introduced new techniques for color linocuts, including the printing of the key block first. The first large-scale colour linocuts made by an American artist were created ca. 1943–45 by Walter Inglis Anderson, exhibited at the Brooklyn Museum in 1949. Today, linocut is a popular technique among street art-related fine art. Josef Albers, German artist Peeter Allik, Estonian artist Valenti Angelo, American printmaker and illustrator Walter Inglis Anderson American artist Sybil Andrews English-Canadian artist Hans Anton Aschenborn, German painter Georg Baselitz, German artist Torsten Billman, Swedish artist Emma Bormann, Austrian printmaker and painter Horace Brodzky, Australian/British artist Angel Botello, Spanish-Puerto Rican artist Carlos Cortez, American poet and artist David Call, American Deaf artist Stanley Donwood, British artist Yvonne Drewry, English artist Janet Doub Erickson, American printmaker and artist M. C.
Escher, Dutch artist Bill Fick, American printmaker and illustrator Folly Cove Designers American design collective Jacques Hnizdovsky, Ukrainian American artist Helmi Juvonen, American artist William Kermode, Australian illustrator Gaga Kovenchuk, Russian artist Henri Matisse, French painter Nick Morley, British artist and illustrator Pablo Picasso, Spanish painter Cyril Edward Power, English artist] Zbigniew Rabsztyn, graphic artist, cartoonist, caricaturist and poster painter Everett Ruess, American painter, printmaker and poet Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, German Printmaker and Painter John Shaw, American/Canadian painter and printmaker Irena Sibley, Australian artist, children's book author, art teacher James Blanding Sloan, American printmaker and theatrical designer Ken Sprague, English artist and activist Hannah Tompkins, American artist and printmaker Tom Hazelmyer, American artist Gwen Frostic, American artist, printmaker, writer Block printing Gyotaku Letterboxing Printmaking Rubber stamp Through and through Woodcut Rice, William S.
Block Prints: How to Make Them, Milwaukee: Bruce Publishing Company, 1941. Draffin, Australian Woodcuts and Linocuts of the 1920s and 1930s, South Melbourne: Sun Books, 1976. 30 Awesome and Fabulous Examples of Lino Printing articles by Artatm Creative Art Mazazine photo series: Linocut articles by German printmaker Joachim Graf Wheaton-Smith, Simon. Lino Cuts And Prints: How to screw them up, how to fix them once you have. Free 200 page book. Large scale hand printed linocut video Explanation of art term'Linocut' on Tate Gallery website
A generic trademark known as a genericized trademark or proprietary eponym, is a trademark or brand name that, due to its popularity or significance, has become the generic name for, or synonymous with, a general class of product or service against the intentions of the trademark's holder. The process of a product's name becoming genericized is known as genericide. A trademark is said to become genericized when it begins as a distinctive product identifier but changes in meaning to become generic; this happens when the products or services with which the trademark is associated have acquired substantial market dominance or mind share, such that the primary meaning of the genericized trademark becomes the product or service itself rather than an indication of source for the product or service. A trademark thus popularized has its legal protection at risk in some countries such as the United States and United Kingdom, as its intellectual property rights in the trademark may be lost and competitors enabled to use the genericized trademark to describe their similar products, unless the owner of an affected trademark works sufficiently to correct and prevent such broad use.
Thermos, Kleenex, Q-Tip, ChapStick, Dumpster, Band-Aid, Hoover, Jet Ski, Speedo are examples of trademarks that have become genericized in the US and elsewhere. Genericization or "loss of secondary meaning" may be either among the general population or among just a subpopulation, for example, people who work in a particular industry; some examples of the latter type from the vocabulary of physicians include the names Luer-Lok and Port-a-Cath, which have genericized mind share because: The users may not realize that the term is a brand name rather than a medical eponym or generic-etymology term. No alternative generic name for the idea comes to mind. Most genericization occurs because of heavy advertising that fails to provide an alternative generic name or that uses the trademark in similar fashion to generic terms. Thus, when the Otis Elevator Company advertised that it offered "the latest in elevator and escalator design," it was using the well-known generic term "elevator" and Otis's trademark "Escalator" for moving staircases in the same way.
The Trademark Office and the courts concluded that, if Otis used their trademark in that generic way, they could not stop Westinghouse from calling its moving staircases "escalators", a valuable trademark was lost through genericization. The pharmaceutical industry affords some protection from genericization of trade names due to the modern practice of assigning a nonproprietary name for a drug based upon chemical structure. Brand-name drugs have well-known nonproprietary names from the beginning of their commercial existence while still under patent, preventing the aforementioned problem of "no alternative generic name for the idea coming to mind". For example when Abilify was new, its nonproprietary name, was well documented. Another example is Warfarin, known as an ingredient in rat poison before it was approved for human use under the brand name of Coumadin. Examples of genericization before the modern system of generic drugs include aspirin, introduced to the market in 1897, heroin, introduced in 1898.
Both were trademarks of Bayer AG. However, U. S. court rulings in 1918 and 1921 found the terms to be genericized, stating the company's failure to reinforce the brand's connection with their product as the reason. Bayer's involvement in the Great Phenol Plot during World War I, subsequently the U. S. declaration of war on Germany, were involved in the case of aspirin and heroin. A different sense of the word genericized in the pharmaceutical industry refers to products whose patent protection has expired. For example, Lipitor was genericized in the U. S. when the first competing generic version was approved by the FDA in November 2011. In this same context, the term genericization refers to the process of a brand drug losing market exclusivity to generics. Trademark erosion, or genericization, is a special case of antonomasia related to trademarks, it happens when a trademark becomes so common that it starts being used as a common name and the original company has failed to prevent such use. Once it has become an appellative, the word cannot be registered any more.
Nintendo is an example of a brand that fought trademark erosion, having managed to replace excessive use of its name by the then-neologism game console. Whether or not a mark is popularly identified as genericized, the owner of the mark may still be able to enforce the proprietary rights that attach to the use or registration of the mark, as long as the mark continues to identify the owner as the commercial origin of the applicable products or services. If the mark does not perform this essential function and it is no longer possible to enforce rights in relation to the mark, the mark may have become generic. In many legal systems a generic mark forms part of the public domain and can be commercially exploited by anyone. There exists the possibility of a trademark becoming a revocable generic term in German trademark law; the process by which trademark rights are diminished or lost as a result of common use in the marketplace is known as genericization. This process occurs over a period of time in which a mark is not used as a trademark (i.e. where it is not used to identify the pr
Staines-upon-Thames is a town on the River Thames in Surrey, England. Part of Middlesex, it was known to the Romans as Pontes or Ad Pontes as Stanes and subsequently Staines; the town is inside the M25 motorway, 17 miles south-west of Charing Cross. It is within the London Commuter Belt and the Greater London Urban Area, adjoins part of the Green Belt. Passing along the edge of the town and crossing Staines Bridge is the Thames Path National Trail. Parts of the large Staines-upon-Thames post town are whole villages: Laleham and Wraysbury; the post town includes, due to the long association of Staines Bridge with a medieval causeway on the opposite bank of the river, half of a large part of a neighbouring town, namely Egham Hythe, which contains a significant business area within the county, some of the town's oldest listed buildings. The longstanding parish boundaries are those of a strip parish that ranges from 12 to 17 metres above sea level, it has no remaining woods, but a large number of parks, leisure centres, a football club which has reached Conference level and some multinational research/technology company offices.
The centre of Heathrow airport is 3 miles to the north-east and Staines railway station is a main stop on the London Waterloo to Reading line and Windsor & Eton Riverside line. The name derives from Old English stānas. Evidence of neolithic settlement has been found at Yeoveney on Staines Moor. There has been a crossing of the River Thames at Staines since Roman times; the emperor Claudius invaded Britain in AD 43. Staines was settled the same year. Within a decade, the first Staines Bridge was constructed as a crossing for the Devil's Highway between Londinium and Calleva Atrebatum; the Romans knew the place as Pontes or Ad Pontes and it was mentioned in the early 3rd-century Antonine Itinerary. The Roman name implies the existence of more than one bridge; the Middlesex section of the Domesday Book records the manor "Stanes" as a property held by Westminster Abbey. It had 6 mills worth £ 3, 4s, 0d, it rendered £35. A boundary stone on the bank of the River Thames dated 1280 still remains, indicating the western limit of the City of London's jurisdiction over the Thames.
Although familiarly known as the'London Stone', it is not to be confused with the more famous – and more ancient – London Stone in Cannon Street in the City of London. The barons assembled at Staines before they met King John at Runnymede in 1215, Stephen Langton held a consecration there shortly after the sealing of Magna Carta. Sir Thomas More was tried in 1535 in a Staines public house, to avoid the outbreak of plague in London at that time. Kings and other important people must have passed through the town on many occasions: the church bells were rung several times in 1670, for instance, when the king and queen went through Staines. Between 1642 and 1648 during the Civil War, there were skirmishes on Staines Moor and numerous troop movements over Staines Bridge; the parish remained agricultural until the mid-19th century. Staines was a regular staging post with coaching inns, it was used for an overnight horse change on The Trafalgar Way in 1805, announcing the victory over the combined French and Spanish fleet and the death of Nelson.
Samuel Lewis mentions the place in his 1848 Topographical Dictionary of England, saying that "The town, much improved of late, consists principally of one wide street, containing several good houses, terminating at the river." In the 19th century the Church of England lost all relief functions. However, as Staines's local government is unparished, the parish boundary of the village of Laleham is the one used in road signs and official naming. Stanwell, forming its own wards, lost land in and around Leaside, north of the River Ash in the 20th century to Staines. Laleham remains as at the mid 19th century a long tranche beginning east of the north-south Sweep's Ditch which runs south to the tip of the Penton Hook peninsula of the River Thames. Spelthorne Borough Council is one of the few Surrey districts divided equally in terms of number of councillors per wards yet the population of Laleham is insufficient to elect three councillors. Laleham does share a post town, has a large sports ground named after Laleham and Staines.
It instead forms one half of the ward Riverside and Laleham, parts A and D of Spelthorne's 009 division in the United Kingdom Census 2011. The town was a major producer of linoleum after the formation of the Linoleum Manufacturing Company in 1864 by its inventor, Frederick Walton. Linoleum was a major employer in the area until the 1960s. In 1876 about 220 and in 1911 about 350 people worked in the plant. By 1957 it employed some 300 people and in 1956 the factory produced about 2675 m2 of linoleum each week; the term'Staines Lino' became a worldwide name but the factory was closed around 1970 and is the site is now occupied by the Two Rivers shopping centre, completed about 2000. A bronze statue of two lino workers in Staines High Street commemorates the Staines Lino Factory; the Spelthorne Museum has a display dedicated to the Linoleum Manufacturing Company. The Lagonda car factory was on the site of Sainsbury's supermarket in Egham Hythe; the town was the site of the Staines air disaster in 1972, at the time the worst air crash in Britain until the Lockerbie disaster of 1988.
(Since the Lockerbie crash was a terrorist act in Scotland, the Staines cras
A patent is a form of intellectual property. A patent gives its owner the right to exclude others from making, using and importing an invention for a limited period of time twenty years; the patent rights are granted in exchange for an enabling public disclosure of the invention. In most countries patent rights fall under civil law and the patent holder needs to sue someone infringing the patent in order to enforce his or her rights. In some industries patents are an essential form of competitive advantage; the procedure for granting patents, requirements placed on the patentee, the extent of the exclusive rights vary between countries according to national laws and international agreements. However, a granted patent application must include one or more claims that define the invention. A patent may include many claims; these claims must meet relevant patentability requirements, such as novelty and non-obviousness. Under the World Trade Organization's TRIPS Agreement, patents should be available in WTO member states for any invention, in all fields of technology, provided they are new, involve an inventive step, are capable of industrial application.
There are variations on what is patentable subject matter from country to country among WTO member states. TRIPS provides that the term of protection available should be a minimum of twenty years; the word patent originates from the Latin patere, which means "to lay open". It is a shortened version of the term letters patent, an open document or instrument issued by a monarch or government granting exclusive rights to a person, predating the modern patent system. Similar grants included land patents, which were land grants by early state governments in the USA, printing patents, a precursor of modern copyright. In modern usage, the term patent refers to the right granted to anyone who invents something new and non-obvious; some other types of intellectual property rights are called patents in some jurisdictions: industrial design rights are called design patents in the US, plant breeders' rights are sometimes called plant patents, utility models and Gebrauchsmuster are sometimes called petty patents or innovation patents.
The additional qualification utility patent is sometimes used to distinguish the primary meaning from these other types of patents. Particular species of patents for inventions include biological patents, business method patents, chemical patents and software patents. Although there is some evidence that some form of patent rights was recognized in Ancient Greece in the Greek city of Sybaris, the first statutory patent system is regarded to be the Venetian Patent Statute of 1474. Patents were systematically granted in Venice as of 1474, where they issued a decree by which new and inventive devices had to be communicated to the Republic in order to obtain legal protection against potential infringers; the period of protection was 10 years.. As Venetians emigrated, they sought similar patent protection in their new homes; this led to the diffusion of patent systems to other countries. The English patent system evolved from its early medieval origins into the first modern patent system that recognised intellectual property in order to stimulate invention.
By the 16th century, the English Crown would habitually abuse the granting of letters patent for monopolies. After public outcry, King James I of England was forced to revoke all existing monopolies and declare that they were only to be used for "projects of new invention"; this was incorporated into the Statute of Monopolies in which Parliament restricted the Crown's power explicitly so that the King could only issue letters patent to the inventors or introducers of original inventions for a fixed number of years. The Statute became the foundation for developments in patent law in England and elsewhere. Important developments in patent law emerged during the 18th century through a slow process of judicial interpretation of the law. During the reign of Queen Anne, patent applications were required to supply a complete specification of the principles of operation of the invention for public access. Legal battles around the 1796 patent taken out by James Watt for his steam engine, established the principles that patents could be issued for improvements of an existing machine and that ideas or principles without specific practical application could legally be patented.
Influenced by the philosophy of John Locke, the granting of patents began to be viewed as a form of intellectual property right, rather than the obtaining of economic privilege. The English legal system became the foundation for patent law in countries with a common law heritage, including the United States, New Zealand and Australia. In the Thirteen Colonies, inventors could obtain patents through petition to a given colony's legislature. In 1641, Samuel Winslow was granted the first patent in North America by the Massachusetts General Court for a new process for making salt; the modern French patent system was created during the Revolution in 1791. Patents were granted without examination. Patent costs were high. Importation patents protected new devices coming from foreign countries; the patent law was revised in 1844 - patent cost was lowered and importation patents were abolished. The first Patent Act of the U. S. Congress was passed on April 10, 1790, titled "An Act to promote the progress of
Frederick Edward Walton, was an English manufacturer and inventor whose invention of Linoleum in Chiswick was patented in 1863. He invented Lincrusta in 1877. Walton was born near Halifax, his father James Walton was a successful inventor and business owner from Haughton Dale near Manchester, where he owned the Haughton Dale Mill, which supplied wire for James's successful carding business. Frederick was educated in Bradford and at the Wakefield Proprietary School. In 1855, Frederick joined his father James and brother William in the family wire card-making business of Walton and Sons, in Haughton Dale, he spent much of his time working on new techniques for the business. In 1856, he was granted his first patent for wire brushes with ornamental backings. In 1857, he discovered how to solidify linseed oil, to lead to his most famous invention; however he disagreed with his father about, the value of his experimentation. Later in 1857, they dissolved the partnership and Frederick moved to Hammersmith, where he set up his own company to continue his work.
In 1860, he established an experimental factory in Chiswick where he worked on oxidisation of linseed oil, for which he was granted a patent in 1860.. He experimented with the oxidized oil as a replacement for rubber, he discovered that combining the oil with cork and colouring agents produced a useful material for floor covering, in 1863 patented this new material. Walton called this new cloth "linoleum", he moved his factory for Staines, in 1864, formed the Linoleum Manufacturing Company and by 1869 the factory in Staines was exporting to Europe and the United States. In the 1870s, Walton partnered with carpet manufacturer John Crossley to form the American Linoleum Company, they set up a factory at Linoleumville. Walton spent two years in America setting up the factory and starting the business, before returning to the United Kingdom; the America company was successful and profitable. Walton obtained further patents for processes related to the production of linoleum. In 1863, he patented a method of passing sheets of coloured linoleum through rollers to emboss a pattern on them.
In 1882, he patented machinery to make inlaid mosaic floor coverings. He invented a number of related products, most notably Lincrusta, an embossed wall-covering base on linoleum, launched in 1877. In all he obtained over 100 patents. Walton died in 1928, aged 94. In 1867, Walton married Alice Scruby, they had four children: Olive Mary Walton. Born 1871. Author and Photographer. Married Herbert Vivian in 1897. Frederick James Walton, born 1877. Clarice Walton, born 1879. Violet Walton. Company, Frederick Walton and. Lincrusta; the Sunbury wall decoration. LCCN unk82056986. Walton, Frederick; the infancy and development of linoleum floorcloth. Works by Frederick Walton at Open Library
Linseed oil known as flaxseed oil or flax oil, is a colourless to yellowish oil obtained from the dried, ripened seeds of the flax plant. The oil is obtained by pressing, sometimes followed by solvent extraction. Linseed oil is a drying oil. Owing to its polymer-forming properties, linseed oil can be used on its own or blended with combinations of other oils, resins or solvents as an impregnator, drying oil finish or varnish in wood finishing, as a pigment binder in oil paints, as a plasticizer and hardener in putty, in the manufacture of linoleum. Linseed oil use has declined over the past several decades with increased availability of synthetic alkyd resins—which function but resist yellowing. Linseed oil is an edible oil in demand as a nutritional supplement, as a source of α-Linolenic acid. In parts of Europe, it is traditionally eaten with potatoes and quark, it is regarded as a delicacy due to its hearty taste, that enhances the flavour of quark, otherwise bland. Linseed oil is a triglyceride, like other fats.
Linseed oil is distinctive for its unusually large amount of α-linolenic acid, which has a distinctive reaction with oxygen in air. The fatty acids in a typical linseed oil are of the following types: The triply unsaturated α-linolenic acid, The saturated acids palmitic acid and stearic acid, The monounsaturated oleic acid, The doubly unsaturated linoleic acid. Having a high content of di- and tri-unsaturated esters, linseed oil is susceptible to polymerization reactions upon exposure to oxygen in air; this polymerization, called "drying", results in the rigidification of the material. The drying process can be so exothermic. To prevent premature drying, linseed oil-based products should be stored in airtight containers. Like some other drying oils, linseed oil exhibits fluorescence under UV light after degradation. Most applications of linseed oil exploit its drying properties, i.e. the initial material is liquid or at least pliable and the aged material is rigid but not brittle. The water-repelling nature of the resulting hydrocarbon-based material is advantageous.
Linseed oil is a common carrier used in oil paint. It can be used as a painting medium, making oil paints more fluid and glossy, it is available in varieties such as cold-pressed, alkali-refined, sun-bleached, sun-thickened, polymerised. The introduction of linseed oil was a significant advance in the technology of oil painting. Traditional glazing putty, consisting of a paste of chalk powder and linseed oil, is a sealant for glass windows that hardens within a few weeks of application and can be painted over; the durability of putty is owed to the drying properties of linseed oil. When used as a wood finish, linseed oil dries and shrinks little upon hardening. Linseed oil does not cover the surface as varnish does, but soaks into the pores, leaving a shiny but not glossy surface that shows off the grain of the wood. A linseed oil finish is scratched, repaired. Only wax finishes are less protective. Liquid water penetrates a linseed oil finish in mere minutes, water vapour bypasses it completely.
Garden furniture treated with linseed oil may develop mildew. Oiled wood may be yellowish and is to darken with age; because it fills the pores, linseed oil protects wood from denting by compression. Linseed oil is a traditional finish for firearm stocks, though fine finish may require months to obtain. Several coats of linseed oil is the traditional protective coating for the raw willow wood of cricket bats. New cricket bats are coated with linseed knocked-in to perfection so that they last longer. Linseed oil is often used by billiards or pool cue-makers for cue shafts, as a lubricant/protectant for wooden recorders, used in place of epoxy to seal modern wooden surfboards. Additionally, a luthier may use linseed oil when reconditioning a guitar, mandolin, or other stringed instrument's fret board. Boiled linseed oil is used as sizing in traditional oil gilding to adhere sheets of gold leaf to a substrate It has a much longer working time than water-based size and gives a firm smooth surface, adhesive enough in the first 12–24 hours after application to cause the gold to attach to the intended surface.
Linseed oil is used to bind wood dust, cork particles, related materials in the manufacture of the floor covering linoleum. After its invention in 1860 by Frederick Walton, linoleum, or'lino' for short, was a common form of domestic and industrial floor covering from the 1870s until the 1970s when it was replaced by PVC floor coverings. However, since the 1990s, linoleum is on the rise again, being considered more environmentally sound than PVC. Linoleum has given its name to the printmaking technique linocut, in which a relief design is cut into the smooth surface and inked and used to print an image; the results are similar to those obtained by woodcut printing. Raw cold-pressed linseed oil – known as flax seed oil in nutritional contexts – is oxidized, becomes rancid, with an unpleasant odour, unless refrigerated. Antioxidants may be added to prevent rancidification. Linseed oil is not recommen
Kearny, New Jersey
Kearny is a town in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States and a suburb of Newark. As of the 2010 United States Census, the town's population was 40,684, reflecting an increase of 171 from the 40,513 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 5,639 from the 34,874 counted in the 1990 Census. Kearny is named after Civil War general Philip Kearny, it began as a township formed by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on April 8, 1867, from portions of Harrison Township. Portions of the township were taken on July 1895, to form East Newark. Kearny was incorporated as a town on January 19, 1899, based on the results of a referendum held two days earlier; the Arlington section of town was named for Arlington Station on the Erie Railroad at the Arlington Mill plant, owned by Arlington Mills of Lawrence, Massachusetts. The area of Kearny Township, created in 1867, had been part of the original Crown Grant of 30,000 acres obtained by Major William Sandford of Barbados on July 4, 1668.
Major Sandford named it New Barbadoes Neck after his old home. As was the custom of the time, the Major paid 20 pounds sterling to Chief Tantaqua of the Hackensack tribe for all their reserve rights and titles. Sanford's friend Major Nathaniel Kingsland acquired the property in 1708 and sold the upper western tract of the Grant for 300 pounds sterling to Captain Arent Schuyler two years later; the new purchase included present-day Kearny, North Arlington and Kingsland. Shortly after Schuyler's purchase of his new homestead, a peculiar green stone was uncovered, it was sent to England for analysis and he learned that it contained 80% copper. His opening of a copper mine brought the first steam engine to America from England; the engine was secretly delivered by Josiah Hornblower. The engine and mines remained idle for some years. Schuyler Mansion played a role during the American Revolutionary War Era; when Lord Howe of England took possession of New York Harbor, the proximity of Schuyler Mansion drew many of his officers.
They traveled over a road that today is referred to as the Belleville Turnpike, constructed in 1759 using cedar logs from the nearby swamps. During September 1777, General Henry Clinton, head of the British Expeditionary Forces in America, selected Schuyler Mansion for his headquarters during one of his more important raiding operations which included the famed Battle of Second River; the Mansion stood until 1924, a period of 214 years, when it was torn down by a land development company, despite the company's offers to transfer the land an organization that would be able to pay to maintain the property. In the middle 19th century, Kearny was the northern, section of the Township of Harrison. A prominent citizen and resident of the upper section, General N. M. Halsted, felt it was impossible under these political conditions for his section to obtain proper recognition, he engaged an energetic campaign for an independent township. He succeeded when the NJ Legislature of 1867 on March 14, adopted "an act creating the Township of Kearny".
The town was named to honor Major General Phil Kearny, Commander of the New Jersey Forces in the Civil War and the owner of the mansion known as Belle Grove, locally called "Kearny Castle". On April 8, 1867, the first election of town officers was held. General N. M. Halsted was elected Chairman; the first official seat of Government was three rooms in the old Lodi Hotel, on the northeast corner of Schuyler and Harrison Avenues. In the early 1870s, Kearny erected its first Town Hall, on the corner of Kearny and Woodland Avenues, the present site of the Knox Presbyterian Church Parish Hall; this served as a Town Hall, Court House, Schoolhouse. The Minute Book of the Township states on August 16, 1870, the first step toward establishing Kearny's present public school system was taken; the first schoolhouse was housed in the Town Hall built at Kearny and Woodland Avenues in 1873. The Highland Hose No. 4 firehouse, now on the National Register of Historic Places list was built in 1895. The town's nickname, "Soccer Town, U.
S. A." is derived from a soccer tradition that originated in the mid-1870s, when thousands of Scottish and Irish immigrants settled in the town, after two Scottish companies, Clark Thread Company and Nairn Linoleum, opened two local mills and a factory. When the town's growth demanded larger quarters, the present Kearny Town Hall, built of Indiana limestone, was erected in 1909; the early influx and development of industry in Kearny dates back to 1875 when the Clark Thread Company of Paisley in Scotland extended its activities to the United States by erecting two large mills in Kearny, adding two others in 1890. These mills brought to Kearny thousands of Scots immigrants. Many of them would play on Kearny's soccer teams in National Association Football League. Many are buried at Arlington Memorial Park in the Kearny Uplands. In 1876, the Mile End Thread Mills started operating, giving employment to several hundred operators. In 1883, the Marshall Flax Spinning Company of England erected a large plant in Kearny, known as the Linen Thread Company.
Their need for experienced flax spinners brought an influx of workers from other sections of the British Isles. Families of those early textile workers were the nucleus of Kearny's present population; the Puraline Manufacturing Company called the Arlington Company, which became a subsidiary of E. I. DuPont de Nemours Company, had purchased a large tract of land east of the Arlington Station on the Erie Railroad extending well out, north of the railroad embankment, into the meadowland. In 1887, Sir Michael Nairn established the Nairn Linoleum Company of Kirkcaldy in Scotland, now the