A lintel or lintol is a structural horizontal block that spans the space or opening between two vertical supports. It can be a combined ornamented structural item, it is found over portals, doors and fireplaces. In the case of windows, the bottom span is instead referred to as a sill, unlike a lintel, does not serve to bear a load to ensure the integrity of the wall. Modern day lintels are made using prestressed concrete and are referred to as beams in beam and block slabs or ribs in rib and block slabs; these prestressed concrete lintels and blocks are components that are packed together and propped to form a suspended floor concrete slab. In worldwide architecture of different eras and many cultures, a lintel has been an element of post and lintel construction. Many different building materials have been used for lintels. In classical Western architecture and construction methods, by Merriam-Webster definition, a lintel is a load-bearing member and is placed over an entranceway. Called an architrave, the lintel is a structural element, rested on stone pillars or stacked stone columns, over a portal or entranceway.
An example from the Mycenaean Greece cultural period is the Treasury of Atreus in Greece. It weighs 120 tons, with one of the largest in the world. A lintel may support the chimney above a fireplace, or span the distance of a path or road, forming a stone lintel bridge; the use of the lintel form as a decorative building element over portals, with no structural function, has been employed in the architectural traditions and styles of most cultures over the centuries. Examples of the ornamental use of lintels are in the hypostyle halls and slab stelas in ancient Egypt and the Indian rock-cut architecture of Buddhist temples in caves. Preceding prehistoric and subsequent Indian Buddhist temples were wooden buildings with structural load-bearing wood lintels across openings; the rock-cut excavated cave temples were more durable, the non-load-bearing carved stone lintels allowed creative ornamental uses of classical Buddhist elements. Skilled artisans were able to simulate the look of wood, imitating the nuances of a wooden structure and the wood grain in excavating cave temples from monolithic rock.
In freestanding Indian building examples, the Hoysala architecture tradition between the 11th and 14th centuries produced many elaborately carved non-structural stone lintels in the Southern Deccan Plateau region of southern India. The Hoysala Empire era was an important period in the development of art and architecture in the South Indian Kannadigan culture, it is remembered today for its Hindu temples' mandapa and other architectural elements, such as at the Chennakesava Temple. The Maya civilization in the Americas was known for its sophisticated art and monumental architecture; the Mayan city of Yaxchilan, on the Usumacinta River in present-day southern Mexico, specialized in the stone carving of ornamental lintel elements within structural stone lintels. The earliest carved lintels were created in 723 CE. At the Yaxchilan archaeological site there are fifty-eight lintels with decorative pieces spanning the doorways of major structures. Among the finest Mayan carving to be excavated are three temple door lintels that feature narrative scenes of a queen celebrating the king's anointing by a god.
Lintels may be used to reduce scattered radiation in medical applications. For example, Medical linacs operating at high energies will produce activated neutrons which will be scattered outside the treatment bunker maze with a dose rate that depends on the maze cross section. Lintels may be visible or recessed in the roof of the facility, reduce dose rate in publicly accessible areas by reducing the maze cross section. Architrave – structural lintel or beam resting on columns-pillars Atalburu – Basque decorative lintel Dolmen – prehistoric megalithic tombs with structural stone lintels Dougong – traditional Chinese structural element I-beam – steel lintels and beams Marriage stone – decorative lintel Post and lintel Span
TER Midi Pyrénées was the regional rail network serving the Midi-Pyrénées region in southwest France. The centre of the network was Toulouse Matabiau station. In 2017 it was merged into the new TER Occitanie; the network has 173 train stations and rail stops, as well as 241 road stops. There is 1500 km of tracks, carrying about 30,000 passengers a day. Annual revenue in 2009 was €47.3 million. Rodez - Millau Millau - Saint-Affrique Villefranche-de-Rouergue - Decazeville Capdenac - Decazeville Souillac - Saint-Denis-lès-Martel Montauban - Albi Cahors - Figeac - Capdenac Cahors - Fumel - Monsempron-Libos Mazamet - Saint-Pons-de-Thomières Castelnaudary - Revel - Sorèze Boussens - Saint-Girons - Aulus-les-Bains - Guzet Lourdes - Argelès-Gazost - Pierrefitte-Nestalas - Cauterets Pierrefitte-Nestalas - Luz-Saint-Sauveur - Barèges Tarbes - Lannemezan - Arreau - Saint-Lary-Soulan - Piau-Engaly Tarbes - Bagnères-de-Bigorre - La Mongie Tarbes - Mont-de-Marsan - Dax Tarbes - Miélan - Auch Auch - Fleurance - Lectoure - Agen Muret - Longages - Saint-Sulpice-sur-Lèze SNCF Class Z 7300 SNCF Class Z 21500 SNCF Class X 2100 SNCF Class X 72500 SNCF Class X 73500 SNCF Class B 81500 Also called BGC B 81500 SNCF Class BB 7200 SNCF Class BB 8500 SNCF Class BB 9300 SNCF Class BB 67400 Viaduc du Viaur SNCF Transport express régional Réseau Ferré de France List of SNCF stations in Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées Official Website Transports in Midi-Pyrénées
Tommy Breen was an Irish footballer who played as a goalkeeper for, among others, Belfast Celtic, Manchester United and Shamrock Rovers. Breen was a dual international and played for both Ireland teams: the IFA XI and the FAI XI. Breen replaced Elisha Scott as first-choice goalkeeper for both Belfast Celtic and the IFA XI and was rated by Billy Behan, one of his predecessors at Manchester United and a renowned scout, as one of the best goalkeepers Ireland produced, he was the first Manchester United player to play for an FAI XI. During his career, Breen was involved in several controversies. In 1944, he transferred from Belfast Celtic to their rivals Linfield after a financial dispute; the Boys in Green – The FAI International Story: Sean Ryan Soccer at War – 1939 – 45: Jack Rollin DUFC A Claret and Blue History by Brian Whelan Northern Ireland Footballing Greats Ireland stats