A Linux distribution is an operating system made from a software collection, based upon the Linux kernel and a package management system. Linux users obtain their operating system by downloading one of the Linux distributions, which are available for a wide variety of systems ranging from embedded devices and personal computers to powerful supercomputers. A typical Linux distribution comprises a Linux kernel, GNU tools and libraries, additional software, documentation, a window system, a window manager, a desktop environment. Most of the included software is free and open-source software made available both as compiled binaries and in source code form, allowing modifications to the original software. Linux distributions optionally include some proprietary software that may not be available in source code form, such as binary blobs required for some device drivers. A Linux distribution may be described as a particular assortment of application and utility software, packaged together with the Linux kernel in such a way that its capabilities meet the needs of many users.
The software is adapted to the distribution and packaged into software packages by the distribution's maintainers. The software packages are available online in so-called repositories, which are storage locations distributed around the world. Beside glue components, such as the distribution installers or the package management systems, there are only few packages that are written from the ground up by the maintainers of a Linux distribution. Six hundred Linux distributions exist, with close to five hundred out of those in active development; because of the huge availability of software, distributions have taken a wide variety of forms, including those suitable for use on desktops, laptops, mobile phones and tablets, as well as minimal environments for use in embedded systems. There are commercially-backed distributions, such as Fedora, openSUSE and Ubuntu, community-driven distributions, such as Debian, Slackware and Arch Linux. Most distributions come ready to use and pre-compiled for a specific instruction set, while some distributions are distributed in source code form and compiled locally during installation.
Linus Torvalds developed the Linux kernel and distributed its first version, 0.01, in 1991. Linux was distributed as source code only, as a pair of downloadable floppy disk images – one bootable and containing the Linux kernel itself, the other with a set of GNU utilities and tools for setting up a file system. Since the installation procedure was complicated in the face of growing amounts of available software, distributions sprang up to simplify this. Early distributions included the following: H. J. Lu's "Boot-root", the aforementioned disk image pair with the kernel and the absolute minimal tools to get started, in late 1991 MCC Interim Linux, made available to the public for download in February 1992 Softlanding Linux System, released in 1992, was the most comprehensive distribution for a short time, including the X Window System Yggdrasil Linux/GNU/X, a commercial distribution first released in December 1992The two oldest and still active distribution projects started in 1993; the SLS distribution was not well maintained, so in July 1993 a new distribution, called Slackware and based on SLS, was released by Patrick Volkerding.
Dissatisfied with SLS, Ian Murdock set to create a free distribution by founding Debian, which had its first release in December 1993. Users were attracted to Linux distributions as alternatives to the DOS and Microsoft Windows operating systems on IBM PC compatible computers, Mac OS on the Apple Macintosh, proprietary versions of Unix. Most early adopters were familiar with Unix from school, they embraced Linux distributions for their low cost, availability of the source code for most or all of the software included. As of 2017, Linux has become more popular in server and embedded devices markets than in the desktop market. For example, Linux is used on over 50% of web servers, whereas its desktop market share is about 3.7%. Many Linux distributions provide an installation system akin to that provided with other modern operating systems. On the other hand, some distributions, including Gentoo Linux, provide only the binaries of a basic kernel, compilation tools, an installer. Distributions are segmented into packages.
Each package contains service. Examples of packages are a library for handling the PNG image format, a collection of fonts or a web browser; the package is provided as compiled code, with installation and removal of packages handled by a package management system rather than a simple file archiver. Each package intended for such a PMS contains meta-information such as a package description, "dependencies"; the package management system can evaluate this meta-information to allow package searches, to perform an automatic upgrade to a newer version, to check that all dependencies of a package are fulfilled, and/or to fulfill them automatically. Although Linux distributions contain much more software than proprietary operating systems, it is normal for local administrators to install software not included in the distributio
Tadeusz Pieronek was a Polish Roman Catholic auxiliary bishop-emeritus, Catholic academic and professor of theology and civil law. Pieronek was a leading member of the Stefan Batory Foundation. Pieronek was born to Polish parents in the Żywiec Beskids village of Radziechowy near Żywiec in interbellum Poland. Ordained a priest in 1957 under the communist regime, from 1951–1954 he studied at the Theological Faculty of the Jagiellonian University in Cracow afters its dissolution by the Communist government at the major seminary of the archdiocese of Cracow, from 1956 until 1960 at the Faculty of Canon Law at the Catholic University of Lublin. From 1961 until 1965 he studied in Rome at the Pontifical Lateran University, specializing in civil law as well as canon law, he received his doctorate in 1975, was appointed theology professor in 1987. He was auxiliary bishop of the Sosnowiec from 1992 to 1998. From 1993 until 1998 he was secretary-general of the Polish bishops' conference. In 1998 he resigned his post after Piotr Libera was elected bishop and Pieronek was appointed titular bishop of Cufrura.
From 1998 to 2004 he was rector of the Pontifical Academy of Theology. In 2007 he celebrated his 50th priestly anniversary with Cardinal Stanislaw Dziwisz in his present residence in Cracow. In 2008, Pieronek received the Jan Karski Eagle Award to honour Pieronek's combat for tolerance and his efforts to fight against the "extremism" and alleged "antisemitic tendencies" of Radio Maryja, led by Redemptorist Father Tadeusz Rydzyk C. Ss. R. In his years, Pieronek supported the social project of the Children's Hospice „Father Józef Tischner” in the city of Cracow. Bishop Pieronek supported the work of the Open Society Institute of George Soros. In an interview in 2010, Pieronek claimed that Jews and the state of Israel "exploit" the Holocaust, which he labelled as such a "Jewish invention", but a crime he did not statistically or deny. Furthermore, Pieronek stated that the suffering of people at the hands of Nazis and in concentration camps was "not Jewish", pointing to Polish prisoners and treatment of Catholic priests by Nazi authorities.
In the interview he said that recent Israeli and Jewish claims that Poland is antisemitic and might consider reparation payments to Jewish Holocaust survivors, were calumnious, ridiculous and a falsification of the complex history of Polish society. S. media and politics are dominated by Jews. The Anti-Defamation League criticized Pieronek's statement. On January 26, bishop Pieronek stated, that his statements had been taken out of context and misunderstood. Bp. Pieronek at catholic-hierarchy.org'Holocaust was a Jewish invention', says top Polish bishop. In: The News.pl, 25 January 2010 Pacifici racconta barzellette: la Polonia non é antisemita. Gli Israeliani non rispettano i diritti umani dei palestinesi. La shoa non ma riguarda cattolici e polacchi. Israele gode di buona stampa: il potere economico, pontifex.roma.it, 25 gennaio 2010
Rabdophaga salicis is a gall midge which forms galls on sallows. It was first described by Franz von Paula Schrank in 1803; the gall is a smooth, globular or spindle-shaped swelling on a twig or stem and contains larvae or pupae in up to fifty separate chambers. The galls are 10–40 mm long and about 10 mm wide and the larvae feed on the pith inside the gall; the gall, does not contain frass, occurs on the petiole, midrib, or side veins of a leaf. The larva are reddish, over-winter in the gall and pupate in the spring. In Britain the gall is widespread and common and is found on creeping willow, eared willow, grey willow and goat willow. Correct identification of the host plant is necessary. Elsewhere the gall has been recorded on mountain willow, weeping willow, European violet willow, olive willow, S. excelsa, S. glabra and dark-leaved willow. Recorded from Belgium, Great Britain, the Netherlands and Slovakia; the inquiline Lestodiplosis gammae has been found in this gall and has been found in the gall of R. saliciperda.
Media related to Rabdophaga salicis at Wikimedia Commons
Canobie Lake Park is an amusement park in Salem, New Hampshire, located about 31 miles north of Boston. Founded as a trolley park on the shore of Canobie Lake on 1902, the park most prominently featured botanical gardens, with few amusement rides. Three local families run the park, which draws visitors from throughout the New England region. Canobie Lake Park's age and history inspired author Stephen King to use rides and elements from the park in his Joyland novel, it is one of only thirteen trolley parks still operating in the United States as of 2020. After the automobile became the most popular mode of travel in the United States, the trolley line serving the park was closed. Attendance in the park declined, he installed a wooden roller coaster named Yankee Cannonball in 1936, a ride, designated as an ACE Roller Coaster Landmark by American Coaster Enthusiasts in 2013. The park recovered, the Canobie Corkscrew was installed in 1987, after being relocated from the Old Chicago amusement park in Illinois.
Arrow Development designed the Canobie Corkscrew, known at the time as the Chicago Loop. Untamed, a Euro-Fighter coaster, is the only other coaster in the park besides the Corkscrew with an inversion. Canobie Lake Park opened on August 23, 1902 as a trolley park for the Massachusetts Northeast Street Railway Company; the amusement park has opened every summer since then. In its early years, the park was known for its flower gardens and gentle attractions. After the decline of trolley as a mode of travel, the park declined in popularity, culminating in the park's closure on St. Patrick's Day in 1929. In 1931, the park was auctioned off with the intent to subdivide the land into residential lots. Patrick J. Holland, a construction contractor from Ireland, bought the property for US$17,000, he and his workers restored the park with new gardens and modern electricity. In 1932, the park reopened, three years after its initial closure, its popularity recovered, the Yankee Cannonball was installed, becoming one of the park's most popular attractions for decades.
Holland died in 1943, leaving the park with his wife and son, who continued to own the park until 1958. The park is now owned by three families; some films and novels have used Canobie Lake Park as a filming location. Stephen King, an American author of horror novels, based the amusement park in his novel Joyland on Canobie Lake Park. A resident of the nearby state of Maine, King visited after searching for a park "that was nice and clean and sunlit, but wasn't too big". During a visit in 2012, King took photographs inside the dark ride attraction, "Mine of Lost Souls", because he wanted to incorporate a haunted dark ride into his novel; the park was used as a filming location for the 2013 film Labor Day, based on the novel of the same name by Joyce Maynard. It appeared in the reality TV Show Fetch! with Ruff Ruffman as well as in the season 6 intro to the TV Show Zoom. Canobie Lake Park features a variety of attractions; the Yankee Cannonball, a 1930s-era wooden roller coaster, is one of the park's best known rides.
The park has a looping, steel roller coaster named the Canobie Corkscrew, designed by Arrow Dynamics. Manufactured in 1975, the Canobie Corkscrew operated at Old Chicago from 1975 to 1980 as the "Chicago Loop", at the Alabama State Fairgrounds as "Corkscrew" from 1982 to 1986, before moving to Canobie Lake in 1987; the Canobie Corkscrew is one of the first steel looping roller coasters manufactured in the world and is part of a series of Arrow corkscrew models produced from 1975 to 1979. Other thrill rides in Canobie Lake Park include Starblaster, an S&S Double Shot, which replaced a ride called the Moon Orbiter in 2002; the park features a rotor ride named "Turkish Twist", a shoot-the-chutes ride named "The Boston Tea Party". Canobie has one dark ride, named "Mine of Lost Souls". Passengers board a ride train resembling mine car, the ride is themed around a fictional mine, beginning to collapse. Another flat ride at the park is the "Psychodrome", a scrambler ride located in a dome, with lighting and special effects.
In 2005, the park opened a small water park consisting of a water play structure. In October 2017, the park announced an expansion to the water ride complex, including a lazy river and a series of water slides; the park once had a simulator ride named "USA Missile", built early in the Space Age by John Taggart and Sam Daugherty. Passengers sit facing the nose of the rocket, inclined. A movie is shown on a screen at the front as a simulation of space flight. While at Canobie Lake Park, it was repainted to mimic the markings used on such launch vehicles as the Saturn rockets. In 2011, the park added a Gerstlauer Euro-Fighter 320 + model; this is the fourth Euro-Fighter to be added in the United States, the only one in the Northeast, the first roller coaster to be opened in Canobie Lake Park since the Canobie Corkscrew in 1987. The following year, park added Equinox, a ride that lifted and spun riders on a giant mechanical arm. Despite the ride's popularity, it was shut down in 2014 after persistent mechanical problems left the ride operating "sporadically".
The park has stated. Canobie Lake Park holds many events in the park throughout the year, including live performances and fireworks shows; the park has multiple venues for live entertainment, including the Country Stage, Midway Stage, Dancehall Theater. The park's Dancehall Theater has hosted performers such as Duke Ellington, Sonny & Cher, Frank Sinatra, Ella Fitzgerald; the Canobie Ramblers perform at the Log Flume Gazebo. On certain weekends in S
Alberto Rodríguez Baró known as Tachi, is a Spanish professional footballer who plays for Deportivo Alavés as a central defender. Born in Fuenlabrada, Tachi joined Atlético Madrid's youth setup in 2013, from Getafe CF. Promoted to the reserves ahead of the 2016–17 season, he made his senior debut on 28 August 2016 by starting in a 1–0 Tercera División away win against Fútbol Alcobendas Sport. Tachi scored his senior goal on 7 May 2017, he contributed with 33 apearances duting his first campaign, as his side achieved promotion to Segunda División B. On 19 July 2019, after being a regular starter for Atleti's B-side, Tachi signed a four-year contract with La Liga side Deportivo Alavés, he made his professional debut on 18 August, coming on as a late substitute for fellow debutant Luis Rioja in a 1–0 home defeat of Levante UD. Tachi at BDFutbol Tachi at La Preferente Tachi at Soccerway
Live rock is rock from the ocean, introduced into a saltwater aquarium. Along with live sand, it confers to the closed marine system multiple benefits desired by the saltwater aquarium hobbyist; the name sometimes leads to misunderstandings, as the "live rock" itself is not alive, but rather is made from the aragonite skeletons of long dead corals, or other calcareous organisms, which in the ocean form the majority of coral reefs. When taken from the ocean it is encrusted with coralline algae and inhabited by a multitude of marine organisms; the many forms of micro and macroscopic marine life that live on and inside of the rock, which acts as an ideal habitat, give it the name "live rock". Live rock is harvested for use in the aquarium trade from collections in the wild near reefs, where parts may become detached from the central body of coral by storms, it may be "seeded" from small coralline rocks by an aquaculturalist in warm ocean water, to be harvested later. Live rock can be seeded by adding base rock to an active reef aquarium that has live rock.
Live rock harbors a wide variety of corals, algae and other invertebrates, when they are collected. Corals added to the aquarium will become attached to the rock. Live rock is valued in the aquarium trade, it introduces a diverse array of bacteria and invertebrates to the closed marine environment and functions as a superior biological filter that hosts aerobic and anaerobic nitrifying bacteria required for the nitrogen cycle that processes waste. Live rock becomes the main biological nitrification base or biological filter of a saltwater aquarium. Additionally, live rocks have a stabilizing effect on the water chemistry, in particular on helping to maintain constant pH by release of calcium carbonate. Lastly, live rock when encrusted with multiple colors of coralline algae, becomes a major decorative element of the aquarium and provides shelter for the inhabitants, it is used to build caves, overhangs, or other structures in the tank, a practice known as aquascaping. In J. Charles Delbeek's article Your First Reef Aquarium, he states, Live rock must however be cured prior to aquarium installation.
Many of the organisms that lived in the rock would have died off during the harvesting and transportation process posing a risk to an immature aquarium of rapid ammonia production due to the dead organisms decomposing. To combat this a curing process must be carried out involving leaving the rock to sit in water for up to several weeks to ensure all dead organisms have decomposed and no longer pose a threat to water quality. There are many different types of live rock; each is named after the area. A large amount of live rock comes from the Southern Pacific region, in areas such as Fiji and the Marshall Islands, as well as from the Caribbean; each has its own distinct qualities. For instance, live rock from the Fiji region is porous and large, rock from the Tonga region is dense and elongated. Base rock, or dry rock, is a generic term for aragonite rock that has no organisms growing in or on the rock. Base rock is used as filler rock in the aquarium as it is much cheaper to purchase than live rock.
In time, base rock will become colonized by living organisms. Base rock, mined from inland ancient reefs has become a popular way to keep the aquarium trade going sustainably; this rock is either maricultured and sold as live rock, or can be purchased and grown in the home aquarium. Base rock can be made from artificial rock called aragocrete, a hand made concrete from combining crushed aragonite and Portland cement. After allowing the cement to dry, the pieces are sometimes acid washed to counteract the high pH of the materials, allowed to soak in clean water for one or more months, they tend to be heavier and less attractive when compared to natural base rock. As of August 4, 2008 CITES banned the collection of live rock from Tonga, the Marshall Islands, the Cook Islands; this is due to the over-collecting of rock in these areas. This ban remains in effect as of 2020. About Live Rock and its purpose