Lionel Jospin is a French politician. He served as prime minister of France from 1997 to 2002. Jospin was the Socialist Party candidate for president of France in the elections of 1995 and 2002. In 1995 he was narrowly defeated in the final runoff election by Jacques Chirac. In 2002 he was eliminated in the first round after finishing behind both Chirac and the far-right candidate Jean-Marie Le Pen, he announced his retirement from politics. Lionel Jospin was born to a Protestant family in a suburb of Paris, he is the son of Robert Jospin. He attended the Lycée Janson-de-Sailly before studying at the Institut d'études politiques de Paris and the École nationale d'administration, he was active in the UNEF students' union, protesting against the war in Algeria. He completed his military service as an officer in charge of armoured training in Trier. After his graduation from the ENA in 1965, he entered the Ministry of Foreign Affairs as secretary of Foreign Affairs, he became in charge of economic cooperation there, worked with Ernest-Antoine Seillière, future leader of the MEDEF employers' union.
Representative of a generation of left-wingers who criticized the old SFIO Socialist Party, he joined a Trotskyist group, the Internationalist Communist Organization in the 1960s, before entering the renewed Socialist Party in 1971. Joining François Mitterrand's circle, he became the second highest-ranking member of the party in 1979 its First Secretary when Mitterrand was elected president of France in 1981; when President Mitterrand decided, in 1982–83, to change his economic policy to give priority to the struggle against inflation and for a hard currency, Jospin justified his choice. After Laurent Fabius was chosen as prime minister in 1984, a rivalry between these two political heirs of Mitterrand broke out when they competed for the leadership of the 1986 legislative campaign. In 1988, after Mitterrand's reelection, Jospin left the PS leadership, though Mitterrand considered naming him prime minister, he was nominated for minister of education. Under Jospin's tenure as education minister, teacher training was consolidated, the lycees and universities were reformed, teachers’ salaries improved, technical and vocational education were reformed, which the socialists saw as a means of improving economic performance, tackling youth unemployment, attaining social justice.
Jospin's rivalry with Fabius intensified and caused an internal crisis, notably during the Rennes Congress. The party's mitterrandist faction split because Jospin's followers allied with the other factions to prevent Fabius's election as First Secretary; this damaged Jospin's relationship with Mitterrand and, after the Socialist Party's failure in the March 1992 local elections, Jospin was not included in the new government formed by Pierre Bérégovoy. As a member of the National Assembly, Jospin served first as a representative of Paris, of Haute-Garonne département, he lost his seat in the National Assembly in the Socialists' landslide defeat in the 1993 legislative election and announced his political retirement. In 1993, Jospin was appointed ministre plénipotentiaire, 2nd class, a position he held until his appointment as prime minister in 1997, but he was not appointed to any embassy. In 1995 Jospin claimed a necessity to "take stock" of the mitterrandist inheritance so as to restore the credibility of the Socialist Party.
He was selected as the Socialist candidate for president against the PS leader Henri Emmanuelli. In the run-up to the election, Jospin made various policy proposals, such as a programme for the environment, an extension of social services, a housebuilding programme, the rebuilding of run-down parts of cities, a 37-hour workweek. Following the Socialists' landslide defeats of 1992–94, Jospin was considered to have little chance of victory, but he did well, leading in the first round and losing only narrowly to Jacques Chirac in the final runoff election. His performance was seen to mark a revival of the Socialists as a strong force in French politics and he returned to being the party's First Secretary. Jospin built a new coalition with the other left-wing parties: the French Communist Party, the Greens, the Left Radical Party and the dissident Citizen and Republican Movement. Two years Chirac decided to call an early election for the National Assembly, hoping for a personal endorsement; the move backfired: the "Plural Left" won a parliamentary majority and Jospin became prime minister.
Jospin is a Member of the Club of Madrid. Jospin served as prime minister during France's third "cohabitation" government under President Chirac from 1997 to 2002. Despite his previous image as a rigid socialist, Jospin sold state-owned enterprises and lowered the VAT, income tax and company tax rates, his government introduced the 35-hour workweek, provided additional health insurance for those on the lowest incomes through the creation of Couverture maladie universelle, promoted the representation of women in politics, expanded the social security system, created the PACS – a civil partnership or union between two people of any genders. During his term, with the help of a favorable economic situation, unemployment fell by 900,000. There were several women but no ethnic minorities in Jospin's government; the "law against social exclusion" extended social security and introduced various measures to combat poverty. These included: The optimization of extra earnings for Revenu minimum d'insertion recipients.
The introduction of CMU. Guaranteeing
The 2012 European Cup, known as the Alitalia European Cup for sponsorship purposes, is a rugby league football tournament. Four teams competed in the 2012 event, with teams to be decided in November 2011 following the Four Nations; these were announced as Ireland, Scotland and the England Knights. In mid-2012, Italy had to withdraw from the competition due to travel commitments and were omitted from the league to leave 3 teams:- England Knights and Scotland; as they won both of their games the England Knights won the Alitalia European Cup and thus became European Champions. This would be England Knights 1st European Championship; however England have won 14 times
The Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission was a ten-member commission appointed by the leaders of the United States Congress with the goal of investigating the causes of the financial crisis of 2007–2010. The Commission has been nicknamed the Angelides Commission after Phil Angelides; the Commission has been compared to the Pecora Commission, which investigated the causes of the Great Depression in the 1930s, has been nicknamed the New Pecora Commission. Analogies have been made to the 9/11 Commission, which examined the September 11 terrorist attacks; the Commission had the ability to subpoena documents and witnesses for testimony, a power that the Pecora Commission had but the 9/11 Commission did not. The first public hearing of the Commission was held on January 13, 2010, with the presentation of testimony from various banking officials. Hearings continued during 2010 with "hundreds" of other persons in business and government testifying; the Commission reported its findings in January 2011.
In summarizing its main conclusions the Commission stated: "While the vulnerabilities that created the potential for crisis were years in the making, it was the collapse of the housing bubble—fueled by low interest rates and available credit, scant regulation, toxic mortgages—that was the spark that ignited a string of events, which led to a full-blown crisis in the fall of 2008. Trillions of dollars in risky mortgages had become embedded throughout the financial system, as mortgage-related securities were packaged and sold to investors around the world; when the bubble burst, hundreds of billions of dollars in losses in mortgages and mortgage-related securities shook markets as well as financial institutions that had significant exposures to those mortgages and had borrowed against them. This happened not just around the world; the losses were magnified by derivatives such as synthetic securities."The Commission was explicit in its concerns about insurance giant American International Group, financial giants Bear Stearns and Lehman Brothers, mortgage giants Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, each of which the government brought under consideration for financial rescue.
In April 2011, the United States Senate Homeland Security Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations released the Wall Street and the Financial Crisis: Anatomy of a Financial Collapse report, sometimes known as the "Levin-Coburn" report. The Commission was created by section 5 of the Fraud Enforcement and Recovery Act of 2009, signed into law by President Barack Obama on May 20, 2009; that section of the Act: Set the purpose of the Commission, i.e. "to examine the causes and global, of the current financial and economic crisis in the United States." Set its composition of 10 members, appointed on a bipartisan and bicameral basis in consultation with relevant Committees. Six members are to be chosen by the congressional majority, the Democrats and four by the congressional minority, the Republicans. Expressed the "sense of the Congress that individuals appointed to the Commission should be prominent United States citizens with national recognition and significant depth of experience in such fields as banking, regulation of markets, finance, consumer protection, housing" and provided that "no member of Congress or officer or employee of the federal government or any state or local government may serve as a member of the Commission."
Provided that Commission's chair be selected jointly by the congressional majority leadership and that the vice chair be selected jointly by the congressional minority leadership, that the chair and vice chair may not be from the same political party. Set the "functions of the Commission" as:To examine the causes of the current financial and economic crisis in the United States the role of fraud and abuse in the financial sector, including fraud and abuse towards consumers in the mortgage sector.
General elections were held in Fiji in 1929. They were the first. Indo-Fijians had been able to vote in municipal elections, but when elections to the Legislative Council were introduced in 1905, the Governor noted that he "did not consider it necessary to provide for the representation of the Indians and Pacific Islanders because they had shown themselves open to corruption at the municipal elections." Subsequently, the community lost its right to vote in local elections in 1912. In 1916 provision was made for an Indo-Fijian member of the Legislative Council, but they were appointed by the Governor rather than elected. Constitutional amendments made on 1 May 1929 changed the composition of the Legislative Council; the number of appointed members was increased from 12 to 13, with all 13 now required to be civil servants. The number of elected members was increased from seven to nine, with the number of European elected members reduced from seven to six, three elected seats created for Indo-Fijians.
The number of appointed Fijian members was increased from two to three. The Governor sat in the Council as its President. Voter eligibility remained unchanged for Europeans, being restricted to men aged 21 or over, born to European parents, who were British subjects and had been continuously resident in Fiji for 12 months, who either owned at least £20 of freehold or leasehold property or had an annual income of at least £120. For Indo-Fijians, eligibility was restricted to men aged 21 or over, they had to be a British subject or from British India, have lived continuously in the Fiji for at least two years, be able to read or write in English, Gurmukhi, Tamil, Telegu or Urdu, for the previous six months, have either owned property with an annual value of five years, had a net annual cash income of at least £75, or held a Government or municipal licence worth at least £5 annually. In both ethnic categories, civil servants were barred from voting. Three sitting members of the Council contested the two seats in the redrawn Southern constituency.
Marks was unseated after 18 years on the Council. Popi Seniloli and Deve Toganivalu were appointed as Fijian members. After the Legislative Council was opened, Deo put forward a resolution for a common electoral roll on 5 November 1929. After it was defeated, the three Indo-Fijian members walked out of the Council. After missing three sittings, they were deemed to have forfeited their seats and by-elections were called. However, no nominations were received; as a result, the Indo-Fijian seats were left vacant until 1932
The Estonian Health Board is an Estonian governmental agency in the area of responsibility of the Ministry of Social Affairs. The agency contributes to health care and ensures health protection, environmental health, chemical safety, the safety of medical devices in Estonia through preemptive and complaint-based supervision in the aforementioned domains. Additionally, the agency provides chargeable laboratory services to for example determine drinking water quality; the Health Board was created by law in 2010 with three predecessor agencies merging into one. The Estonian Health Board has been publishing yearly overviews of its activities in the field of health protection since 2012. Apart from its headquarters in Tallinn, which inter alia hosts the department responsible for Northern Estonia, the agency has three other regional departments in Pärnu and Kohtla-Järve. Additionally, the Health Board has agencies in Rapla, Tartu, Põltsamaa, Räpina, Viljandi, Võru, Pärnu, Kuressaare, Kärdla, Kohtla-Järve and Narva.
The Health Board is managed by a general director. In 2017, Merike Jürilo followed Tiiu Aro in this position
Teddy Ebersol’s Red Sox Fields at Lederman Park is a series of fields along the Charles River in the city of Boston. The Boston Red Sox foundation and the Esplanade Association in conjunction with the Hill House, an NPO, helped fund the 1.8 million-dollar renewal project. The field reopened on September 2006, to the Hill House youth soccer program; the land includes two baseball/softball diamonds, a youth baseball diamond, a T-ball diamond, or up to five youth soccer fields, or a regulation-sized soccer field in a design that accommodates a variety of other athletic and community uses. Before the renovations, the fields were uneven and flooded; the fields are named after a young Red Sox fan, Teddy Ebersol, who died in a plane crash on November 28, 2004, in Colorado. Teddy was Kate & Allie actress Susan Saint James; as of mid-2008, the permitting process was guided by an eight-person advisory committee, with all weekday field use permitted to Hill House, a Beacon Hill community group. Utilization of the field was low.
In 2009, a large metal fence was constructed around the entire park. The fence was opposed by community groups including the Esplanade Association, but was requested by private donors and installed by the Department of Conservation and Recreation. Ebersol Field at redsoxfoundation.org