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The Lipizzan, or Lipizzaner, is a breed of horse originating in Lipica in Slovenia. Established in 1580, the Lipica stud farm is the world's oldest continuously operating stud farm, it is closely associated with the Spanish Riding School of Vienna, where they demonstrate the haute école or "high school" movements of classical dressage, including the controlled, stylized jumps and other movements known as the "airs above the ground." The horses at the Spanish Riding School are trained using traditional methods that date back hundreds of years, based on the principles of classical dressage. The Lipizzan breed dates back to the 16th century, when it was developed with the support of the Habsburg nobility; the breed takes its name from one of the earliest stud farms established, located near the village of Lipica, in modern-day Slovenia. The breed has been endangered numerous times by warfare sweeping Europe, including during the War of the First Coalition, World War I, World War II; the rescue of the Lipizzans during World War II by American troops was made famous by the Disney movie Miracle of the White Stallions.

The breed has starred or played supporting roles in many movies, TV shows and other media. Today, eight stallions are recognized as the foundation bloodstock of the breed, all foaled the late 18th and early 19th centuries. All modern Lipizzans trace their bloodlines to these eight stallions, all breeding stallions have included in their name the name of the foundation sire of their bloodline. Classic mare lines are known, with up to 35 recognized by various breed registries; the majority of horses are registered through the member organizations of the Lipizzan International Federation, which covers 11,000 horses in 19 countries and at 9 state studs in Europe. Most Lipizzans reside in Europe, with smaller numbers in the Americas and Australia. Gray in color, the Lipizzan is a muscular breed that matures and is long-lived. Most Lipizzans measure between 15.2 hands. However, horses bred to be closer to the original carriage-horse type are taller, approaching 16.1 hands. Lipizzans have a long head, with a straight or convex profile.

The jaw is deep, the ears small, the eyes large and expressive, the nostrils flared. They have a neck, sturdy, yet arched and withers that are low and broad, they are a Baroque horse, with a wide, deep chest, broad croup, muscular shoulder. The tail is well set; the legs are strong, with broad joints and well-defined tendons. The feet are tough. Lipizzan horses tend to mature slowly. However, they live and are active longer than many other breeds, with horses performing the difficult exercises of the Spanish Riding School well into their 20s and living into their 30s. Aside from the rare solid-colored horse, most Lipizzans are gray. Like all gray horses, they have black skin, dark eyes, as adult horses, a white hair coat. Gray horses, including Lipizzans, are born with a pigmented coat—in Lipizzans, foals are bay or black—and become lighter each year as the graying process takes place, with the process being complete between 6 and 10 years of age. Lipizzans are not true white horses, but this is a common misconception.

A white horse has unpigmented skin. Until the 18th century, Lipizzans had other coat colors, including dun, chestnut, black and skewbald. However, gray is a dominant gene. Gray was the color preferred by the royal family, so the color was emphasized in breeding practices. Thus, in a small breed population when the color was deliberately selected as a desirable feature, it came to be the color of the overwhelming majority of Lipizzan horses. However, it is a long-standing tradition for the Spanish Riding School to have at least one bay Lipizzan stallion in residence, this tradition is continued through the present day; the ancestors of the Lipizzan can be traced to around 800 AD. The earliest predecessors of the Lipizzan originated in the seventh century when Barb horses were brought into Spain by the Moors and crossed on native Spanish stock; the result was other Iberian horse breeds. By the 16th century, when the Habsburgs ruled both Spain and Austria, a powerful but agile horse was desired both for military uses and for use in the fashionable and growing riding schools for the nobility of central Europe.

Therefore, in 1562, the Habsburg Emperor Maximillian II brought the Spanish Andalusian horse to Austria and founded the court stud at Kladrub. In 1580, his brother, Archduke Charles II, ruler of Inner Austria, established a similar stud at Lipizza, located in modern-day Slovenia, from which the breed obtained its name; when the stud farm was established, Lipizza was located within the municipal limits of Trieste, an autonomous city under Habsburg sovereignty. The name of the village itself derives from the Slovene word lipa, meaning "linden tree."Spanish and Arabian stock were crossed at Lipizza, succeeding generations were crossed with the now-extinct Neapolitan breed from Italy and other Baroque horses of Spanish descent obtained from Germany and Denmark. While breeding stock was exchanged between the two studs, Kladrub specialized in producing heavy carriage horses, while riding and light carriage horses came from the Lipizza stud. Beginning in 1920, the Piber Federal Stud, near Graz, became the main stud for the horses used in Vienna.

Breeding became selective, only allowing stallions that had proved themselves at the Riding School

Athletics at the 1980 Summer Olympics

Athletics at the 1980 Summer Olympics was represented by 38 events. They were held in the Grand Arena of the Central Lenin Stadium at Luzhniki between July 24 and August 1. There were a total number of 959 participating athletes from 70 countries. Polish gold medallist pole vaulter Władysław Kozakiewicz showed an obscene bras d'honneur gesture in all four directions to the jeering Soviet public, causing an international scandal and losing his medal as a result. There were numerous incidents and accusations of Soviet officials using their authority to negate marks by opponents to the point that IAAF officials found the need to look over the officials' shoulders to try to keep the events fair. There were accusations of opening stadium gates to advantage Soviet athletes, causing other disturbances to opposing athletes; the Soviet Union's Jaak Uudmäe and Viktor Saneyev won the first two places in the triple jump, ahead of Brazil's world record holder João Carlos de Oliveira. Both de Oliveira and Australia's Ian Campbell produced long jumps, but they were declared fouls by the officials and not measured.

Campbell insisted he hadn't scraped, it was alleged the officials intentionally threw out his and de Oliveira's best jumps to favor the Soviets to a number of other events. Similar allegations were made about a favorable call aiding Tatyana Kolpakova in the women's long jump. 1980 World Championships in Athletics 1980 in athletics International Olympic Committee results database Athletics Australia

Berlin: The Downfall 1945

Berlin: The Downfall 1945 is a narrative history by Antony Beevor of the Battle of Berlin during World War II. It was published by Viking Press in 2002 later by Penguin Books in 2003; the book achieved both commercial success. It has been a number-one best seller in seven countries apart from Britain, in the top five in another nine countries. Together with Beevor's Stalingrad, first published in 1998, they have sold nearly three million copies; the book revisits the events of the Battle of Berlin in 1945. The book narrates how the Red Army defeated the German Army and brought an end to Hitler's Third Reich, as well as an end to the war in Europe; the book was accompanied by a BBC Timewatch programme on his research into the subject. Beevor received the first Trustees' Award of the Longman-History Today Awards in 2003; the book was published in the United States under the title of The Fall of Berlin 1945, has been translated into 24 languages. The British paperback version was published by Penguin Books in 2003.

The book encountered criticism in Russia, centering on the book's discussion of atrocities committed by the Red Army against German civilians. In particular, the book describes widespread rape of German women and female Soviet forced labourers, both before and after the war; the Russian ambassador to the UK denounced the book as "lies" and "slander against the people who saved the world from Nazism". Oleg Rzheshevsky, a professor and the president of the Russian Association of World War II Historians, has stated that Beevor is resurrecting the discredited and racist views of Neo-Nazi historians, who depicted Soviet troops as subhuman "Asiatic hordes", he argues that Beevor's use of phrases such as "Berliners remember" and "the experiences of the raped German women" were better suited "for pulp fiction, than scientific research". Rzheshevsky stated that the Germans could have expected an "avalanche of revenge" after what they did in the Soviet Union, but "that did not happen". Beevor responded by stating that he used excerpts from the report of General Tsigankov, the chief of the political department of the 1st Ukrainian Front, as a source.

He wrote: "the bulk of the evidence on the subject came from Soviet sources the NKVD reports in GARF, a wide range of reliable personal accounts". Beevor stated that he hopes Russian historians will "take a more objective approach to material in their own archives which are at odds to the heroic myth of the Red Army as'liberators' in 1945". UK historian Richard Overy, from the University of Exeter, has criticized Russian reaction to the book and defended Beevor. Overy accused the Russians of refusing to acknowledge Soviet war crimes, "Partly this is because they felt that much of it was justified vengeance against an enemy who committed much worse, it was because they were writing the victors' history". Antony Beevor, Berlin: The Downfall 1945 - Viking 2002 - ISBN 978-0-14-103239-9 Berlin The Downfall 1945 Battle for Berlin Timewatch

Hermann von Wartberge

Hermann von Wartberge was a chronicler of the Livonian Order. Born in Westphalia, Wartberge was a Catholic priest and author of the valuable Latin chronicle Chronicon Livoniale covering the history of the Livonian Crusade from 1196 to 1378. Wartberge used previous chronicles, archival documents, personal experiences; as the narrative became more detailed around 1358, it is believed that Wartberge joined the Order around the time and began describing the events as an eyewitness. For example, in 1366 he was sent on a diplomatic mission to Gdańsk and took part in numerous military campaigns against the pagan Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Wartberge provided extensive details on localities of the frequent raids and on construction of Livonian fortresses; the chronicle was preserved in the State Archives in Gdańsk and was first published in 1863 by Ernst Strehlke in Scriptores Rerum Prussicarum. Translations into Lithuanian and Latvian were published in 1991 and 2005. Anti Selart, Die livländische Chronik des Hermann von Wartberge, in: Matthias Thumser, Geschichtsschreibung im mittelalterlichen Livland, Berlin 2011, S. 59-86.

Full-text of the chronicle in German Full-text of the chronicle in Russian

Constance Flower

Constance Flower, Lady Battersea was a society hostess and philanthropist in London who established the Jewish Association for the Protection of Girls and Children in 1885 and was prominent in the Temperance movement in the United Kingdom. She was born in Piccadilly, London on 29 April 1843, the elder daughter of Sir Anthony and Lady Louise de Rothschild, she had a younger sister, Annie Henrietta, who married the Hon. Elliot Constantine Yorke, son of Charles Yorke, 4th Earl of Hardwicke. In 1877 she married Cyril Flower, a property developer and Liberal Party politician who became Lord Battersea, they had met in 1864 through his friendship with Leopold de Rothschild. They had no children. Lord and Lady Battersea were noted for their philanthropy towards working class people. After her husband was forced to retire early, Lady Battersea devoted most of her time and vast wealth to improving the living conditions of female prisoners. In 1888 Lord and Lady Battersea acquired two cottages at Overstrand, a village near Cromer, for the purpose of creating a holiday home.

In 1897 their architect, Edwin Lutyens and joined the cottages to form a large mansion in extensive gardens, The Pleasaunce. Lady Battersea is buried at Willesden Jewish Cemetery; the National Portrait Gallery, London holds several portraits of her in its collection

1981 Argentine Grand Prix

The 1981 Argentine Grand Prix was the third motor race of the 1981 Formula One season and was held at the Buenos Aires circuit in Argentina on 12 April 1981. This was the last Argentine Grand Prix until 1995. Thanks to designer Gordon Murray's alternative solution to flexible side skirts, the Brabham cars of Nelson Piquet and Héctor Rebaque were dominant in this race, with Piquet taking the lead from Alan Jones on the back straight and Rebaque climbing up from 5th to 2nd over 23 laps. 250th race entry for Michelin. This was the first race for an F1 car with a chassis made from carbon fibre composites, John Watson's McLaren MP4. During the podium ceremony, "Happy Birthday" was played through the PA for Carlos Reutemann, as it was Reutemann's 39th birthday. First podium: Alain Prost Note: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings. Lang, Mike. Grand Prix! Vol 4. Haynes Publishing Group. Pp. 26–28. ISBN 0-85429-733-2