A liqueur is an alcoholic drink composed of distilled spirits and additional flavorings such as sugar, fruits and spices. Served with or after dessert, they are heavily sweetened and un-aged beyond a resting period during production, when necessary, for their flavors to mingle. Liqueurs are historical descendants of herbal medicines, they were made in Italy as early as the 13th century prepared by monks. Today they are produced the world over served straight, over ice, with coffee, in cocktails, used in cooking. In some areas of the United States and Canada liqueurs are referred to as cordials or schnapps, though the terms refer to different beverages elsewhere; the French word liqueur is derived from the Latin liquifacere, which means "to dissolve". In some parts of the United States and Canada, liqueurs may be referred to as schnapps; this can cause confusion as in the United Kingdom a cordial would refer to a non-alcoholic concentrated fruit syrup diluted to taste and consumed as a non-carbonated soft drink.

Schnapps, on the other hand, can refer to any distilled beverage in Germany and aquavit in Scandinavian countries. In the United States and Canada, where spirits are called "liquor", there is confusion discerning between liqueurs and liquors, due to the many different types of flavored spirits that are available today. Liqueurs contain a lower alcohol content than spirits and it has sweetener mixed, while some can have an ABV as high as 55%. Under the Food and Drug Regulations, liqueurs are produced from mixing alcohol with plant materials; these materials include juices or extracts from fruits, leaves or other plant materials. The extracts are obtained by filtering or softening the plant substances. A sweetening agent should be added in an amount, at least 2.5 percent of the finished liqueur. The alcohol percentage shall be at least 23%, it may contain natural or artificial flavouring and color. The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau regulates liqueurs to Canada, requiring that alcohol be mixed with plant products and sweeteners be added to at least 2.5% by weight.

Some liqueurs are prepared by infusing certain woods, fruits, or flowers in either water or alcohol and adding sugar or other items. Others are distilled from flavoring agents. Anise and Rakı liqueurs have the property of turning from transparent to cloudy when added to water: the oil of anise remains in solution in the presence of a high concentration of alcohol, but crystallizes when the alcohol concentration is reduced. Liqueurs are sometimes mixed into cocktails to provide flavor. Layered drinks are made by floating different-colored liqueurs in separate layers; each liqueur is poured into a glass over the back of a spoon or down a glass rod, so that the liquids of different densities remain unmixed, creating a striped effect. The Liqueur Compounder's Handbook of Recipes for the Manufacture of Liqueurs, Alcoholic Cordials and Compounded Spirits. Bush, W. J. and Co. 1910. Kaustinen, E. M.. Production and stability of cream liqueurs made with whey protein concentrate. University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Liqueurs at The Cook's Thesaurus


Aidsmap known as the NAM Aidsmap, is a website which summarizes HIV and AIDS news for a layman audience. "NAM" stood for "national AIDS manual" and referred to a 1987 compendium of all information about HIV published for non-scientists in England. Since Aidsmap became an international organization, NAM is no longer used as an acronym and there is no longer any particular "aids manual" being maintained. NAM was founded in 1987 by Peter Scott, working for the London Lesbian and Gay Switchboard, he was seeking to address the public's demand for a source of information about HIV.. Subsequent Directors were Colin Nee, Caspar Thomson and Matthew Hodson. In 1992 the organization began publishing the newsletter now called the HIV Treatment Update, designed to give patients the information they need to help direct their choices for HIV treatment. In 1998 was launched as an online resource for all printed materials. It was a partnership project involving NAM and The British HIV Association, the International HIV/AIDS Alliance.

The original site editors were Keith Alcorn. Official website

Gods and Monsters (film)

Gods and Monsters is a 1998 period drama film that recounts the fictionalized last days of the life of film director James Whale, whose experience of war in World War I is a central theme. It stars Ian McKellen as Whale, along with Brendan Fraser, Lynn Redgrave, Lolita Davidovich and David Dukes. An international co-production between the United Kingdom and the United States, the film is written and directed by Bill Condon, based on Christopher Bram's 1995 novel Father of Frankenstein; the film is produced by Paul Colichman, Gregg Fienberg, Mark R. Harris. Gods and Monsters won the Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, was nominated for Best Actor in a Leading Role and Best Actress in a Supporting Role; the film features reconstructions of the production of the 1935 film Bride of Frankenstein, which Whale directed. The title Gods and Monsters is derived from a scene in Bride of Frankenstein, in which the character Dr. Pretorius toasts Dr. Frankenstein, "To a new world of gods and monsters!"

The story has been adapted as a play of the same name which premiered in London at the Southwark Playhouse in February 2015. In the 1950s, James Whale, the director of Frankenstein and Bride of Frankenstein, has retired. Whale lives with his long-time housemaid, who loyally cares for him but disapproves of his homosexuality, he has suffered a series of strokes that have left him fragile and tormented by memories: growing up as a poor outcast, his tragic World War I service, the filming of Bride of Frankenstein. Whale slips into his past, indulges in his fantasies, reminiscing about gay pool parties and sexually teasing an embarrassed, starstruck fan, he battles depression, at times contemplating suicide, as he realizes his life, his attractiveness, his health are slipping away. Whale befriends his young, handsome gardener, Clayton Boone, the two begin a sometimes uneasy friendship as Boone poses for Whale's sketches; the two men bond while discussing their lives and dealing with Whale's spells of disorientation and weakness from the strokes.

Boone, impressed with Whale's fame, watches Bride of Frankenstein on television as his friends mock the movie, his friendship with Whale, Whale's intentions. Boone assures Whale that he is straight and receives assurance from Whale that there is no sexual interest, but Boone storms out when Whale graphically discusses his sexual history. Boone returns with the agreement that no such "locker room" discussions occur again. Boone is invited to escort Whale to a party hosted by George Cukor for Princess Margaret. There, a photo op has been arranged for Whale with "his Monsters": Boris Karloff and Elsa Lanchester from "ancient" movie fame; this event exacerbates Whale's depression. A sudden rain storm becomes an excuse to leave. Back at Whale's home, Boone needs a dry change of clothes. Whale can only find a sweater, so Boone wears a towel wrapped around his waist. Whale decides to try to sketch Boone one more time. After some minutes, he shows his sketches to Boone. After Boone drops his towel to pose nude, Whale makes him wear a World War I gas mask and uses the opportunity to make a sexual advance on Boone, kissing his shoulder.

An enraged Boone attacks Whale, who confesses that this had been his plan and begs Boone to kill him to relieve him of his suffering. Boone refuses, puts Whale to bed sleeps downstairs; the next morning, Hanna is alarmed when she cannot find Whale, prompting a search by Boone and Hanna. Boone finds Whale floating dead in the pool, as a distraught Hanna runs out clutching a suicide note. Boone and Hanna agree; the film closes a decade as Boone and his young son, watch Bride of Frankenstein on television. The son is skeptical of his father's claim that he knew Whale, but Clayton produces a sketch of the Frankenstein monster drawn by Whale, signed, "To Clayton. Friend?" "Friend?", being a plea from the original misfit, Frankenstein's monster, disclosing Whale's true intentions. Gods and Monsters received positive reviews from critics, with McKellen's and Redgrave's performances singled out for particular praise. Time Out called it "not a complicated film, but warm and clever"; the film has a 95% rating on Rotten Tomatoes, based on 63 reviews, with an average rating of 8.45/10.

The site's critical consensus states: "Gods and Monsters is a spellbinding, confusing piece of semi-fiction, featuring fine performances. On Metacritic the film has a score of 74 out of 100, based on reviews from 32 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews". James Whale did have several men pose nude for him, some of these are shown in the making-of featurette. Several of his paintings were bought by a collector and loaned to the studio for the making of this film. Whale did suffer from strokes towards the end of his life, which affected his mental abilities, was found dead in his pool. There were rumours that this was a homicide, it is a matter of speculation. Whale's household might have hired a male gardener, but what sort of relationship he had with his employer is in the realm of speculation. In the documentary included on the DVD and in interviews, novelist Christopher Bram explains that the character of Clayton Boone is fictitious. Official website Gods and Monsters on IMDb Gods and Monsters at AllMovie Gods and Monsters at Box Office Mojo Gods and Monsters at Rotten Tomatoes Gods and Monsters at Metacritic Gods and Monsters: A Queer Film Classic