Portuguese Timor refers to East Timor during the historic period when it was a Portuguese colony that existed between 1702 and 1975. During most of this period, Portugal shared the island of Timor with the Dutch East Indies; the first Europeans to arrive in the region were the Portuguese in 1515. Dominican friars established a presence on the island in 1556, the territory was declared a Portuguese colony in 1702. Following the beginning of a Lisbon-instigated decolonisation process in 1975, East Timor was invaded by Indonesia. However, the invasion was not recognized as legitimate by the United Nations, which continued to regard Portugal as the legal Administering Power of East Timor; the independence of East Timor was achieved in 2002 following a UN-administered transition period. Prior to the arrival of European colonial powers, the island of Timor was part of the trading networks that stretched between India and China and incorporating Maritime Southeast Asia; the island's large stands of fragrant sandalwood were its main commodity.
The first European powers to arrive in the area were the Portuguese in the early sixteenth century followed by the Dutch in the late sixteenth century. Both came in search of the fabled Spice Islands of Maluku. In 1515, Portuguese first landed near modern Pante Macassar. Portuguese merchants exported sandalwood from the island. In 1556 a group of Dominican friars established the village of Lifau. In 1613, the Dutch took control of the western part of the island. Over the following three centuries, the Dutch would come to dominate the Indonesian archipelago with the exception of the eastern half of Timor, which would become Portuguese Timor; the Portuguese introduced maize as coffee as an export crop. Timorese systems of tax and labour control were preserved, through which taxes were paid through their labour and a portion of the coffee and sandalwood crop; the Portuguese introduced mercenaries into Timor communities and Timor chiefs hired Portuguese soldiers for wars against neighbouring tribes.
With the use of the Portuguese musket, Timorese men became deer hunters and suppliers of deer horn and hide for export. The Portuguese introduced Roman Catholicism to East Timor, as well as the Latin writing system, the printing press, formal schooling. Two groups of people were introduced to East Timor: Portuguese men, Topasses. Portuguese language was introduced into church and state business, Portuguese Asians used Malay in addition to Portuguese. Under colonial policy, Portuguese citizenship was available to men who assimilated Portuguese language and religion. By the end of the colonial administration in 1974, 30 percent of Timorese were practising Roman Catholics while the majority continued to worship spirits of the land and sky. In 1702, Lisbon sent its first governor, António Coelho Guerreiro, to Lifau, which became capital of all Portuguese dependencies on Lesser Sunda Islands. Former capitals were Larantuka. Portuguese control over the territory was tenuous in the mountainous interior.
Dominican friars, the occasional Dutch raid, the Timorese themselves competed with Portuguese merchants. The control of colonial administrators was restricted to the Dili area, they had to rely on traditional tribal chieftains for control and influence; the capital was moved to Dili in 1769, due to attacks from the Topasses, who became rulers of several local kingdoms. At the same time, the Dutch were colonising the west of the island and the surrounding archipelago, now Indonesia; the border between Portuguese Timor and the Dutch East Indies was formally decided in 1859 with the Treaty of Lisbon. In 1913, the Portuguese and Dutch formally agreed to split the island between them; the definitive border was drawn by the Permanent Court of Arbitration in 1916, it remains the international boundary between East Timor and Indonesia. For the Portuguese, East Timor remained little more than a neglected trading post until the late nineteenth century. Investment in infrastructure and education was minimal.
Sandalwood remained the main export crop with coffee exports becoming significant in the mid-nineteenth century. In places where Portuguese rule was asserted, it tended to be exploitative. At the beginning of the twentieth century, a faltering home economy prompted the Portuguese to extract greater wealth from its colonies, resulting in increased resistance to Portuguese rule in East Timor. In 1910–12, a Timorese rebellion was quashed after Portugal brought in troops from its colonies in Mozambique and Macau, resulting in the deaths of 3,000 East Timorese. In the 1930s, the Japanese semi-governmental Nan’yō Kōhatsu development company, with the secret sponsorship of the Imperial Japanese Navy, invested in a joint-venture with the primary plantation company of Portuguese Timor, SAPT; the joint-venture controlled imports and exports into the island by the mid-1930s and the extension of Japanese interests concerned the British and Australian authorities. Although Portugal was neutral during World War II, in December 1941, Portuguese Timor was occupied by a small British and Dutch force, to preempt a Japanese invasion.
However, the Japanese did invade in the Battle of Timor in February 1942. Under Japanese occupation, the borders of the Dutch and Portuguese were overlooked with Timor island being made a single Japanese army administration zone. 400 Australian and Dutch commandos trapped on the island by the Japanese invasion waged a guerrilla campaign, which tied up Japanese troops and inflicted over 1,000
Liquiçá Church massacre
The Liquiçá Church massacre was a mass-killing that occurred in April 1999, during East Timor's bid for independence. It was the first case to be heard by the Second Special Panel. During the event, up to some 200 East Timorese people were murdered at the Liquica priest's house next to the local Catholic church; the event left many witnesses, including Raphael dos Santos. The total number of victims at the hands of pro-Indonesia militias and Indonesian soldiers and police in Liquica has never been determined, ranging from a low of five claimed by Indonesia, to more than 200 by local sources; the crime was first investigated by Australian diplomats at the invitation of the Indonesian Government, but the report wasn't released until 2001. It was investigated by a team of International Police which became known as the UNTAET Crime Scene Detachment, serving under the United Nations and representing the countries of the United States, Great Britain, the Philippines, as well as Australian and New Zealand Military Police Crime Scene Specialists.
The unit was commanded by police officer Steve Minhinett, of Great Britain. It was commanded by American police officer Karl Clark, relied on American intelligence officer Allen Williams; this investigation led to a large number of exhumations of the dead, witness statements taken, charges of assassination, forced deportation and murder being filed against 21 Indonesian Officers, pro-Indonesian East Timorese Militia. The Liquiçá Church massacre and the attack at Manuel Carrascalão's house were two of the ten priority investigations of the Serious Crimes Unit; this case was the first of several indictments arising from these investigations to reach trial. The trial was the first to be heard by the Second Special Panel, consisting of Judge Benfeito Mosso Ramos presiding, Judge Antero Luís and Judge António Helder; the hearing was conducted in five languages: Portuguese, Indonesian and Tokodede, the local language of the Liquiçá area. The court heard detailed testimony from the accused about involvement in the Besi Merah Putih militia, including a militia ceremony in which they were forced to drink a cocktail of alcohol, animal blood and drugs before killing, as a part of the attack on the Liquiçá Church.
Testimony implicated the direct participation in the attacks by Indonesian soldiers, who were dressed in civilian clothes to look like militia members. Leoneto Martins, Tomé Diogo, Eurico Guterres and João Tavares were the primary suspects and leading figures during the massacre, all were East Timorese. A prominent business associate of the Suharto family and "spokesman for the Indonesian Loyalist faction", Gil Alves, confirmed to the media that "the Red and White militia had conducted the attack, but he said. He claimed that the Red and White had surrounded the priest's home to disarm members of the CRNT, who had stored weapons there, he said the police fired tear gas in self-defence. He denied that the militia had been armed by the Indonesian military, as Mr Xanana has claimed.". However, in 2007 Xanana Gusmão, as Prime Minister, appointed Gil Alves his Minister for Commerce and Tourism. List of massacres in East Timor Sydney Herald and Other Investigators Estimates ABC Online article on negotiations with Australia about border Genocide Watch, Besi Merah Puti - Alan Williams Health Alliance International website - More information on health projects in East Timor by HAI Jornal Nacional - Semanário Links to Timor Leste government sites Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation Suara Timor Lorosae - CIA World Factbook on East Timor ETAN Links - Extensive links on East Timor Governo Timor Leste - Official governmental site
Maubara is a village in Maubara Subdistrict, just west of the city of Liquiçá. Most of the inhabitants speak Tocodede, it lies near the Maubara Important Bird Area. During the beginning of the Portuguese occupation, it was taken by the Netherlands. There is a historic Dutch fort, located at the entrance to the village on the seaside overlooking the bay. Portugal negotiated with Holland and regained the site in a trade for Flores in 1851, occupied by the Portuguese at that time; the village is the location in which the infamous Besi Merah Putih militia was created. In 2000, on the western outskirts of the village, the UNTAET Crime Scene Detachment conducted sixteen exhumations in two days, most being victims of the Manuel Carrascalão House Massacre in Dili. Maubara is linked to Dili by a good road, it has a market place with a health centre. Maubara is the administrative centre of suco de Vaviquinia. Maubara is famous for its fort, built by the Dutch around 1756; the fort with its two gates is quite well-preserved.
The building inside the fort was built in the second half of the 20th century. The Parish Church of Maubara is a small rectangular building built in a neoclassic style; the construction was organized by Padre Medeiros, the leading priest of the Timor Mission from 1877-1897. The Customs' house was built in 1920 opposite the fort on the main road. Today it is used as a cultural centre with a tourist information. Escola de Padre Medeiros, a former school built in the first half of the 19th century, was torn down by the Diocese of Maliana and rebuilt in the original style as a residential building
Dili is one of the 13 municipalities districts, of Timor-Leste, which includes the national capital Dili. It had a population of 277,279 as of 2015; the municipality has an area of 368.12 km2. The municipality continued the same name. Dili is the smallest municipality in East Timor by area, has the highest population, it lies on the north coast of the island of Timor on the Savu Sea. It borders the municipalities of Manatuto to the east, Aileu to the south, Liquiçá to the west. Atauro Island, to the north of the municipality opposite the capital, is one of its administrative posts. Dili is the political centre of East Timor; the municipality's administrative posts are: Atauro Cristo Rei Dom Aleixo Metinaro Nain Feto.
A militia is an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or members of a warrior nobility class. Unable to hold ground against regular forces, it is common for militias to be used for aiding regular troops by skirmishing, holding fortifications, or irregular warfare, instead of being used in offensive campaigns by themselves. Militia are limited by local civilian laws to serve only in their home region, to serve only for a limited time. With the emergence of professional forces during the Renaissance, Western European militias wilted; the civic humanist ideal of the militia was spread through Europe by the writings of Niccolò Machiavelli Beginning in the late 20th century, some militias act as professional forces, while still being "part-time" or "on-call" organizations. For instance, the members of some U.
S. Army National Guard units are considered professional soldiers, as they are trained to maintain the same standards as their "full-time" counterparts. Militias thus can be paramilitary, depending on the instance; some of the contexts in which the term "militia" is used include: Forces engaged in defense activity or service, to protect a community, its territory and laws. The entire able-bodied population of a community, county, or state, available to be called to arms. A subset of these who may be penalized for failing to respond to a call-up. A subset of these who respond to a call-up, regardless of legal obligation. A private, non-government force, not directly supported or sanctioned by its government. An irregular armed force enabling its leader to exercise military and political control over a subnational territory within a sovereign state. An official reserve army, composed of citizen soldiers. Called by various names in different countries, such as the Army Reserve, National Guard, or state defense forces.
The national police forces in several former communist states such as the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact countries, but in the non-aligned SFR Yugoslavia. The term was inherited in other former CIS countries, where they are known as militsiya. In France the equivalent term "Milice" has become tainted due to its use by notorious collaborators with Nazi Germany. A select militia is composed of a small, non-representative portion of the population politicized. Militia derives from Latin roots: miles /miːles/: soldier -itia /iːtia/: a state, quality or condition of being militia /mil:iːtia/: Military serviceThe word militia dates back to ancient Rome, more to at least 1590 when it was recorded in a book by Sir John Smythe, Certain Discourses Military with the meanings: a military force, it should be noted that the term is used by several countries with the meaning of "defense activity" indicating it is taken directly from Latin. In the early 1800s Buenos Aires, by the capital of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, was attacked during the British invasions of the Río de la Plata.
As regular military forces were insufficient to counter the British attackers, Santiago de Liniers drafted all males in the city capable of bearing arms into the military. These recruits included the criollo peoples, who ranked low down in the social hierarchy, as well as some slaves. With these reinforcements, the British armies were twice defeated; the militias became a strong factor in the politics of the city afterwards, as a springboard from which the criollos could manifest their political ambitions. They were a key element in the success of the May Revolution, which deposed the Spanish viceroy and began the Argentine War of Independence. A decree by Mariano Moreno derogated the system of promotions involving criollos, allowing instead their promotion on military merit; the Argentine Civil War was waged by militias again, as both federalists and unitarians drafted common people into their ranks as part of ongoing conflicts. These irregular armies were organized at a provincial level, assembled as leagues depending on political pacts.
This system had declined by the 1870s due to the establishment of the modern Argentine Army, drafted for the Paraguayan War by President Bartolome Mitre. Provincial militias were outlawed and decimated by the new army throughout the presidential terms of Mitre, Sarmiento and Roca. Armenian militia, or fedayi played a major role in the independence of various Armenian states, including Western Armenia, the First Republic of Armenia, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh. Armenian militia played a role in the Georgia-Abkhazia War of 1992–1993. In the Colony of New South Wales Governor Lachlan Macquarie proposed a colonial militia but the idea was rejected. Governor Ralph Darling felt. A military volunteer movement attracted wide
Ermera is one of the municipalities of East Timor, located in the west-central part of the country. It has a population of 117,064 and an area of 746 km²; the word Ermera means "red water" in the local Mambai language. Ermera is one of only two land-locked municipalities in the other being Aileu, it borders Liquiçá to the north, Dili to the northeast, Alieu to the east, Ainaro to the southeast, Bobonaro to the west. The boundaries of the municipality are identical to those of the district of the same name in Portuguese Timor, its capital is Gleno, located 30 km to the southwest of the national capital, Dili. The city of Ermera known as Vila Ermera, lies 58 km from the capital along the same road. In Marobo are the remains of a hot springs bath from colonial times; the pool is still in use. The municipality's administrative posts are: Atsabe Administrative Post Ermera Administrative Post Hatulia Administrative Post Letefoho Administrative Post Railaco Administrative Post Media related to Ermera at Wikimedia Commons
Bobonaro Municipality is a municipality in the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste known as East Timor. It is the second-most western municipality on the east half of the island, it has a population of 92,045 and an area of 1,376 km². The word Bobonaro is a Portuguese approximation of the Tetum language word Bobonaru, which means "tall eucalypt"; the Savu Sea lies to the north of Bobonaro. The municipality borders the municipalities of Liquiçá to the northeast, Ermera to the east, Ainaro to the southeast, Cova-Lima to the south. To the west lies the Indonesian province Nusa Tenggara Timur. In Portuguese Timor, the district had the same boundaries as the present municipality; the capital of Bobonaro is Maliana. As of 2004 it had a population of 13,200, it sits at 149 km from to the southwest of the national capital, Dili. The next two largest cities in the municipality are Bobonaro City, with 6,700 people. Another village is Atabae in Atabae Administrative Post. Mota'ain, East Timor's main road border crossing into Indonesia's West Timor, is located in this municipality.
The municipality had been a popular destination in Timor, due to its mountains and hot springs, but it suffered much violence in the war for independence. Balibó, located about 10 miles from the Indonesian border, was estimated by Human Rights Watch to be 70% destroyed during the militia violence that preceded the referendum for East Timorese independence, it was the site of the killing of five Australian-based journalists by Indonesian forces on 16 October 1975 during an incursion by Indonesia into what was Portuguese Timor. The municipality's administrative posts are: Atabae Balibó Bobonaro Cailaco Lolotoi. In addition to the official languages of Tetum and Portuguese, a large part of Bobonaro speaks the Malayo-Polynesian languages Bekais and Kemak and Papuan language Bunak, which are designated "national languages" by the constitution. Battle of Aidabasalala Media related to Bobonaro at Wikimedia Commons