Martha Maria Yeardley Smith is an American actress, voice actress and artist, best known for her long-running role as Lisa Simpson on the animated television series The Simpsons. She was born in Paris on July 3, 1964 and moved with her family to Washington, D. C. in 1966. As a child, Smith was teased because of her voice, she became a professional actress in 1982 after graduating from drama school and moved to New York City in 1984, where she appeared in the Broadway production of Tom Stoppard's The Real Thing. She made her film debut in 1985's Heaven Help Us, followed by roles in The Legend of Billie Jean and Maximum Overdrive, she received a recurring role in the television series Brothers. In 1987, she auditioned for a role in a series of animated shorts about the Simpson family on The Tracey Ullman Show. Smith intended to audition for the role of Bart Simpson, but the casting director felt her voice was too high, so she was assigned the role of Lisa, instead, she voiced Lisa for three seasons on The Tracey Ullman Show, in 1989, the shorts were spun off into their own half-hour show, The Simpsons.
For her work as the character, Smith received a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Voice-Over Performance in 1992. Alongside The Simpsons, Smith appeared in the sitcom Herman's Head as Louise, had recurring appearances as Marlene on Dharma & Greg and Penny in two episodes of Dead Like Me, she has appeared As Good as It Gets. In 2004, Smith performed her own off-Broadway one-woman show entitled More at the Union Square Theatre in New York City. Aside from The Simpsons, Smith has recorded few voice-over parts, only commercials and the film We're Back! A Dinosaur's Story. Smith starred in and served as executive producer for the independent romantic comedy Waiting For Ophelia, which had its world premiere at the Phoenix Film Festival in April 2009. Smith was married to actor Christopher Grove from 1990 to 1992 and Daniel Erickson from 2002 to 2008, she enjoys painting. During the first season of Herman's Head, Smith taught herself to paint by copying other artists, she released a children's book titled I, Lorelei in 2009 and her story "The Race" was included in the book Just Humor Me. Smith was born in Paris on July 3, 1964.
Her father, Joseph Smith, worked for United Press International in Paris and moved to Washington, D. C. in 1966, where he became The Washington Post's first official obituary editor. Her mother, Martha Mayor, was a paper conservator for the Freer and Sackler Galleries at the Smithsonian Institution. Smith's parents divorced. Smith labeled her family "upper crust and reserved"; as a child, Smith was teased because of her unusual voice. Smith has stated: "I've sounded pretty much the same way since I was six. Maybe a little deeper now." She made her acting debut in a sixth-grade play. Smith became a professional actress in 1982 after graduating from drama school. After appearances in a number of school plays, she joined the local Arena Stage theater group on an apprenticeship, featuring in their production of Peter Pan, she went on to star in several other plays in Washington. She moved to New York City in 1984 and appeared in the Broadway production of Tom Stoppard's play The Real Thing alongside Jeremy Irons and Glenn Close.
Smith's first film role came in Heaven Help Us. She played Putter in The Legend of Billie Jean; the film was a box office bomb and critically panned, although Smith "thought it would be the movie that launched my career. And it was out at the box office about 10 days before it died." When filming was over, she rejoined The Real Thing before being out of work for six months. Smith worried. However, the following year, she played Connie in Stephen King's Maximum Overdrive, noting it was "truly a dreadful film, but I had a great part in it."Smith moved to Los Angeles in 1986 on the "semi-promise" of a part in a TV film. After the audition, the role was given to another actress. Smith realized ``. It's not malicious, they just don't realize how much impact they have on an impressionable actor – and all actors are impressionable." From on, she decided to "just sort of build a wall around myself", to cope with the disappointment of not getting a part. In Los Angeles, Smith appeared in theatrical productions of Living on Salvation Street, for which she was paid $14 for each performance and Girls/Men and Women, How the Other Half Loves, played the recurring role of Louella Waters on the Showtime series Brothers.
She appeared in the films The Legend of Billie Jean and Ginger Ale Afternoon as "trailer-park girls". She spoke of her regrets of appearing in the latter in her one-woman show More. Smith's longest-running role is voicing Lisa Simpson on The Simpsons, she has voiced Lisa beginning with The Simpsons shorts on The Tracey Ullman Show. Smith had been asked to audition for the role of Lisa's brother Bart, but casting director Bonita Pietila thought her voice was too high. Smith recalled "I always sounded too much like a girl, I read two lines as Bart and they said,'Thanks for coming!'" Smith was given the role of Lisa, instead. She denies rumors that she turned down the role, though admits she had never planned a career in voice-over work. Pietila stated that, having seen her in Living on Salvation Street, Smith was always her preferred choice. Smith lifts her voice up to perform the role. Lisa is the only regular character voiced by Smith, although in some earlier episodes, she provided some of Maggie's squeaks and occasional speaking parts.
Smith has only voiced characters other than Lisa on rare occa
The Fugitive (1993 film)
The Fugitive is a 1993 American action thriller film based on the 1960s television series of the same name created by Roy Huggins. It stars Harrison Ford and Tommy Lee Jones. After being wrongfully convicted for the murder of his wife and unjustly sentenced to death, Dr. Richard Kimble escapes from custody and sets out to find his wife’s killer, catch him, prove his innocence, while being pursued by a team of U. S. Marshals led by Deputy Samuel Gerard; the Fugitive premiered in the United States on August 6, 1993, was a major critical and commercial success. It was the third-highest-grossing film of 1993 domestically, with an estimated 44 million tickets sold in the US, it was nominated for seven Academy Awards including Best Picture. It was followed by a 1998 spin-off, U. S. Marshals, in which Jones reprised his role as Gerard. Dr. Richard Kimble, a prominent Chicago vascular surgeon, arrives home to find his wife Helen fatally wounded by a one-armed man. Kimble struggles with the killer but he escapes.
The lack of evidence of a break-in, Helen's lucrative life insurance policy, a misunderstood 9-1-1 call result in Kimble's conviction of first-degree murder and a subsequent death sentence. Being transported to death row by bus, his fellow prisoners attempt an escape; the pandemonium sends the bus into the path of an oncoming train. Kimble escapes the collision and flees. Deputy U. S. Marshal Samuel Gerard and his colleagues Renfro, Biggs and Poole arrive at the crash site and begin the search for Kimble. Kimble sneaks into a hospital to alter his appearance, he eludes the authorities. Kimble escapes. Kimble returns to Chicago to hunt for the murderer and acquires money from his friend and colleague Dr. Charles Nichols. Posing as a janitor, Kimble enters the local county hospital's prosthetic department to obtain a list of people who had their prosthetic arm repaired shortly after his wife's murder. Following a police lead confirming Kimble's recent whereabouts, Gerard speculates that Kimble is searching for the one-armed man.
Kimble breaks into the residence of one of the people on the list, a former police officer named Fredrick Sykes. Kimble discovers that Sykes is the murderer and is employed by a pharmaceutical company, Devlin MacGregor, scheduled to release a new drug called Provasic. Kimble investigated the drug in the past and revealed that it caused liver damage, which would have prevented it from being approved by the FDA, he deduces that Nichols, leading the drug's development, arranged a cover-up and ordered Sykes to kill him. Gerard draws the same conclusion; as Kimble takes an elevated train to confront Nichols at the drug's presentation in a hotel, Sykes appears and attacks him. In the struggle, Sykes shoots a transit cop before being handcuffed to a pole by Kimble. Kimble arrives at the pharmacon conference and interrupts Nichols' speech, accusing him of falsifying his medical research and orchestrating his wife's murder, they fight while being chased through the hotel by the police. Gerard calls out to Kimble.
Nichols knocks out Renfro and takes his gun and attempts to shoot Gerard, but Kimble attacks him from behind, knocking him unconscious. Kimble surrenders to Gerard. Nichols and Sykes are arrested. Kimble is driven from the crime scene by Gerard. Harrison Ford was not cast for the role of Dr. Kimble. Instead, a number of actors were auditioned for the part, including Alec Baldwin, Nick Nolte, Kevin Costner, Michael Douglas. Nolte in particular felt. Although the role of Gerard went to Tommy Lee Jones, Gene Hackman and Jon Voight were both considered for the role; the character of Dr. Nichols was recast for Jeroen Krabbé after the original actor who landed the role, Richard Jordan, fell ill with a brain tumor. Jordan subsequently died three weeks after the film's release. Filming locations for the motion picture included Cherokee, North Carolina. Although half of the film is set in rural Illinois, a large portion of the principal filming was shot in Jackson County, North Carolina in the Great Smoky Mountains.
The scene involving Kimble's prison transport bus and a freight train wreck was filmed along the Great Smoky Mountains Railroad just outside Dillsboro, North Carolina. Riders on the excursion railroad can still see the wreckage on the way out of the Dillsboro depot; the train crash cost $1 million to film. A real train was used for the filming, done in a single take. Scenes in the hospital after Kimble escapes were filmed at Harris Regional Hospital in Sylva, North Carolina. Cheoah Dam in Deals Gap was the location of the scene. Deals Gap is a popular and internationally famous destination for motorcycle and sports car enthusiasts, as it is located along a stretch of two-lane road known since 1981 as "The Dragon" or the "Tail of the Dragon"; the rest of the film was shot in Chicago, including some of the dam scenes, which were filmed in the remains of the Chicago freight tunnels. The character Sykes lived in the historic Pullman neighborhood of Chicago. Harrison Ford uses the pay phone in the Pullman Pub, climbs a ladder and runs down the roofline of the historic rowhouses.
During the St. Patrick's Day Parade chase scene, Mayor Richard M. Dale
Wicked Witch of the West
The Wicked Witch of the West is a fictional character created by American author L. Frank Baum as the antagonist in his classic children's novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. In Baum's subsequent Oz novels, it is the Nome King, the principal villain; the witch's most popular depiction was in the classic 1939 film based on Baum's novel, where she was portrayed by Margaret Hamilton. Hamilton's characterization introduced green skin and this has been continued in literary and dramatic representations, including Gregory Maguire's revisionist Oz novel Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West and its musical stage adaptation Wicked, the 2013 film Oz the Great and Powerful, the television series Once Upon a Time and Emerald City; the Wicked Witch of the West is the malevolent ruler of the Winkie Country. Her castle is described as beautiful instead of being the sinister fortress shown in the movie. In all versions, she is aquaphobic; the Wicked Witch of the West was not related to the Wicked Witch of the East, but leagued together with her, the Wicked Witch of the South and Mombi to conquer the Land of Oz and divide it among themselves, as recounted in L. Frank Baum's Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz.
She shows no interest in the death of the Eastern Witch, all she cares about is obtaining the Silver Shoes which will increase her power. W. W. Denslow's illustrations for The Wonderful Wizard of Oz depict her as a paunched old hag with three pigtails and an eye-patch. L. Frank Baum himself specified that she only had one eye, but that it "was as powerful as a telescope", enabling the witch to see what was happening in her kingdom from her castle windows. Other illustrators, such as Paul Granger, placed her eye in the center of her forehead, as a cyclops, she is shown wearing an eye patch, however some illustrations show her with two eyes. Most of her power resides in the creatures, she has a pack of wolves, a swarm of bees, a flock of crows, an army of Winkies. She possesses the enchanted Golden Cap, which compels the winged monkeys to obey her on three occasions. First, the witch commanded the creatures to help her enslave the Winkies and to seize control of the western part of the Land of Oz.
Second, she made the winged monkeys drive Oz out of the Winkie Country, when he attempted to overthrow her. When Dorothy Gale and her companions were sent by the Wizard to destroy her, the Witch attacked them with a pack of 40 great wolves, a flock of 40 crows, a swarm of black bees, a group of Winkie slaves; each of these attempts were thwarted, but the protagonists are subdued by the Witch's third and final permitted use of the Winged Monkeys. The old witch cannot kill Dorothy because the girl is protected by the Good Witch of the North's kiss, she therefore settles for enslaving Dorothy, tries to force the Cowardly Lion into submission by starving him, though Dorothy sneaks him food. Upon seeing the Silver Shoes on the girl's feet, the Wicked Witch decides to steal them, thereby acquire more power; when she succeeds in acquiring one silver shoe by making Dorothy trip over an invisible bar, the little girl angrily throws a bucket of water onto the Wicked Witch. This causes the old witch to melt away.
The Wicked Witch's dryness was enumerated in some clues before this. Furthermore, when Toto had bitten her, she had not bled. L. Frank Baum did not explain why water had this effect on her, nor did he imply that all evil witches could be destroyed. However, the wicked witch Mombi is disposed of in The Lost King of Oz and the wicked witch Singra is afraid of the same fate in the early chapters of The Wicked Witch of Oz; the most explanation of Baum making water the Achilles' heel of these witches is the long-held belief amongst major religions that water is effective for purifying the soul and combating evil. The Witch did not carry a broom in the novel, but rather an umbrella, which she uses on one occasion to strike Dorothy's dog Toto, her nature is a yet somewhat cowardly one. Despite her immense power, she avoids face-to-face contact with her enemies, is frightened of Dorothy at first when she sees the girl wearing the Silver Shoes, she is afraid of the dark in Baum's original story for reasons unknown.
For that reason, the Witch never tried to steal the Silver Shoes. Despite her fear of water and the dark, the Wicked Witch of the West was one of the most powerful witches in all of Oz. In ensuing Oz books, her power is described as having been so great that Glinda the Good Witch of the South feared her. In Alexander Melentyevich Volkov's 1939 novel The Wizard of the Emerald City, her given name is Bastinda. March Laumer uses this name for the witch in his novel Aunt Uncle Henry in Oz. Like in the 1939 movie, she is the sister of the Wicked Witch of the East. Sherwood Smith uses this name for a new Wicked Witch of the West in her 2005 book The Emerald Wand of Oz. Gregory Maguire's September 1996 revisionist novel Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West takes the familiar Oz story and inverts it, with the Wicked Witch as the novel's protagonist and Dorothy as a hapless child; the name is retained in the musical Wicked. In the novel The Unknown Witches of Oz, the Wicked Witch of the West is named Old Snarl-Spats.
In the comic book series Grimm Fairy Tales presents Oz, the Wicked Witch of the West is named Lynessa. The 1910 silent film The Wonderful Wizard of Oz features a character similar to the Wicked Witch of the West, identified in intertitles as
William Lloyd "Bill" Oakley is an American television writer and producer, known for his work on the animated comedy series The Simpsons. Oakley and Josh Weinstein became writing partners at high school, he worked on several short-term media projects, including writing for the variety show Sunday Best, but was unemployed for a long period. Oakley and Weinstein penned a spec script for Seinfeld, after which they wrote "Marge Gets a Job", an episode of The Simpsons. Subsequently, the two were hired to write for the show on a permanent basis in 1992. After they wrote episodes such as "$pringfield", "Bart vs. Australia" and "Who Shot Mr. Burns?", the two were appointed executive producers and showrunners for the seventh and eighth seasons of the show. They attempted to include several emotional episodes focusing on the Simpson family, as well as several high-concept episodes such as "Homer's Enemy", "Two Bad Neighbors" and "The Principal and the Pauper", winning three Primetime Emmy Awards for their work.
After they left The Simpsons and Weinstein created Mission Hill. The show was swiftly canceled, they worked as consulting producers on Futurama created The Mullets in 2003. The two wrote several unsuccessful TV pilots, were due to serve as showrunners on Sit Down, Shut Up in 2009. Oakley left the project over a contract dispute, he has since written without Weinstein. He served as co-executive producer and writer on Portlandia, sharing a Writers Guild of America Award with his fellow writers in 2013. In 2018, Oakley reunited with Weinstein as co-executive producer on Disenchantment, Matt Groening's series for Netflix. Oakley is married to fellow writer Rachel Pulido. William Lloyd Oakley was born on February 27, 1966 in Westminster and raised on a farm in Union Bridge, Maryland, he was a fan of Mad magazine from an early age. He attended St. Albans High School in Washington D. C. where he became best friends with Josh Weinstein in the eighth grade. The two created the school humor magazine The Alban Antic in 1983.
Such would be the length of their partnership. Oakley attended Harvard University, where he wrote for and served as Vice President of the Harvard Lampoon, working on the famous 1986 USA Today parody issue, he graduated in 1988 after studying American history. Oakley did not land a job on a major comedy series, as previous Harvard graduates who wrote for the Lampoon had done, despite writing numerous spec scripts for shows such as Saturday Night Live and Late Night with David Letterman. There, he worked in publicity. In their free time and Weinstein wrote for local comedy groups, such as Gross National Product. In 1989, they moved to New York City after being hired to write for a game show on Ha!, before writing for a variety show on the network featuring Denis Leary. The two wrote for the National Lampoon and Spy. An editor of Spy was hired by NBC to run the variety show Sunday Best, took Oakley and Weinstein to Los Angeles with him in 1991; when the show was canceled after three episodes, they were unemployed for a lengthy period, Oakley lived on unemployment benefits.
He considered applying to join the United States Foreign Service. After changing their agent, they wrote a spec script for Seinfeld, well received. Amongst those who liked it were Al Jean and Mike Reiss, showrunners of The Simpsons. There were no openings on the staff at the time, but Oakley and Weinstein were hired to write the episode "Marge Gets a Job", based on an idea by Conan O'Brien; the episode aired as part of season four. Their Seinfeld script and The Simpsons episode caught the attention of Diane English, they were offered a job on a sitcom. Before they accepted this job, they were told that Jay Kogen and Wallace Wolodarsky were leaving The Simpsons, joined the writing staff on a permanent basis in 1992, in the third season of that show, they began as story editors. They were quiet and felt "intimidated", being in the same room as "10 of the greatest minds in comedy", but started pitching jokes with confidence, they wrote their scripts together. Their first episode as staff writers was "Marge in Chains", an existing idea that they were assigned.
The first draft of the script was based on research about women in prison conducted by Oakley and Weinstein, making it "slightly more realistic" than the final version of the episode, in which many realistic elements were replaced. After season four, most of the original staff left the show. Before David Mirkin arrived to take over as showrunner for season five, Weinstein, O'Brien and Dan McGrath were the only writers working on the show and spent a month mapping out most of the season's episodes. Oakley and Weinstein wrote several episodes for season five, penning the "Terror at 5½ Feet" segment of "Treehouse of Horror IV", "$pringfield", "Lisa vs. Malibu Stacy", the show's 100th episode "Sweet Seymour Skinner's Baadasssss Song" and "Lady Bouvier's Lover". For season six they wrote "Sideshow Bob Roberts", basing much of the episode on the Watergate scandal, in which they had a great interest, they wrote "Grampa vs. Sexual Inadequacy", "Bart vs. Australia"; the writing staff wanted to do an episode in which the Simpsons family traveled to a foreign country.
An apiary is a location where beehives of honey bees are kept. Apiaries can be rural or urban depending on the honey production operation. Furthermore, an apiary may refer to a hobbyist's hives or those used for commercial or educational usage, it can be a wall-less, roofed structure, similar to a gazebo which houses hives. Apiaries have been found in ancient Egypt prior to 2422 BCE where hives were constructed from moulded mud. Throughout history apiaries and bees have been kept for honey and pollination purposes all across the globe. Due to the definition of apiary as a location where hives are kept its history can be traced as far back as that of beekeeping itself. For more information on the history of beekeeping see the history and origins portions of the beekeeping article. First known usage of the word was in 1654; the base of the word comes from the Latin word "apis" meaning "bee", leading to "apiarium" or "beehouse" and "apiary"Beekeepers may be referred to as "apiarists" or "ones who tend apiaries."
By definition an apiary is a location. Many types of hives make up apiaries. In cases of urban beekeeping hives are located on high ground which requires less space than hives located at lesser altitudes. To direct the bees' path of flight in populous urban areas, concentrated bee populations could pose an issue. Beekeepers construct tall fences to direct the bees' flight higher and widen their search for food. Apiaries are situated on high ground in order to avoid moisture collection, though within proximity of a consistent water source—whether natural or man-made—to ensure the bees' access. Additionally, ample nectar supplies for the bees as well as large amounts of sun are considered, they are situated close to orchards and public gardens, which require frequent pollination to develop a positive feedback loop between the bees and their food sources. This economizes on the bees' pollination and the plants' supply of nectar. An apiary may have hive management objectives other than honey production, including queen rearing and mating.
In the northern hemisphere and south facing locations with full morning sun are preferred. In hot climates, shade may have to be artificially provided if trees are not present. Other factors include air and water drainage and accessibility by truck, distance from phobic people, protection from vandalism. In the USA there are beekeepers — from hobbyists to commercial — in every state; the most lucrative areas for American honey production are Florida, Texas and the Upper Midwest. For paid pollination, the main areas are California, the Pacific Northwest, the Great Lakes States, the Northeast. Rules and regulations by local ordinances and zoning laws affect apiaries. In recent years US honey production has dropped and the states import 16% of the world's honey. Internationally, the largest honey producing exporters are China and Mexico; as in the United States the location of apiaries varies internationally depending on available resources and the operational need. For more information on nation-specific beekeeping see their respective articles, such as the Beekeeping in Nepal article.
Apiary size refers not only to the spacial size of the apiary, but to the number of bee families and bees by weight. With ample space there is no limit to the number of hives or bee families which can be housed in an apiary; the larger the number of hives held in an apiary the higher the yield of honey relative to resources resulting in apiaries growing with time and experience. Additionally a higher number of hives within an apiary can increase the quality of the honey produced. Depending on the nectar and pollen sources in a given area, the maximum number of hives that can be placed in one apiary can vary. If too many hives are placed into an apiary, the hives compete with each other for scarce resources; this can lead to lower honey, flower pollen and bee bread yields, as well as higher transmission of disease and robbing. The size of an apiary is determined by not only the resources available but by the variety of honey being cultivated, with more complex types cultivated in smaller productions.
For more specific details on varieties see the classification portion of the honey article. The purpose of the apiary affects size: apiaries are kept by commercial and local honey producers, as well as by universities, research facilities, local organizations. Many such organizations provide educational opportunities; this results in varying sizes of apiaries depending on usage characteristics. The maximum size of a permanent apiary or bee yard may depend on the type of bee as well; some honey bee species or races fly farther than others. A circle around an apiary with a three-mile foraging radius covers 28 square miles. A good rule of thumb is to have no more than 25–35 hives in a permanent apiary, although migrating beekeepers may temporarily place one hundred hives into a location with a good nectar flow. Apiaries may decline due to a scarcity of resources; this is an issue in urban areas where there maybe a limited amount of resources for bees and a large number of hives may be affected. Apiaries may suffer from a wide variety of infestations.
Throughout history apiaries and bees have been kept for honey and pollination purposes all across the globe. Due to the definition of apiary as a location where hives are kept its history can be traced as far ba
1994 Northridge earthquake
The 1994 Northridge earthquake was a magnitude of 6.7, blind thrust earthquake that occurred on January 17 at 4:30:55 a.m. PST in the San Fernando Valley region of the County of Los Angeles, its epicenter was in a neighborhood in the north-central Valley. The quake had a duration of 10–20 seconds, its peak ground acceleration of 1.8g was the highest instrumentally recorded in an urban area in North America. Strong ground motion was felt as far away as Las Vegas, about 220 miles from the epicenter; the peak ground velocity at the Rinaldi Receiving Station was 183 cm/s, the fastest recorded. Two 6.0 Mw aftershocks followed, the first about one minute after the initial event and the second 11 hours the strongest of several thousand aftershocks in all. The death toll was 57, with more than 8,700 injured. In addition, property damage was estimated to be $13–50 billion, making it one of the costliest natural disasters in U. S. history. The earthquake struck in the San Fernando Valley about 20 miles northwest of downtown Los Angeles.
Although given the name "Northridge", where the quake was believed to have been centered and substantial damage occurred, the actual epicenter was pinpointed in the neighboring community of Reseda within several days. The National Geophysical Data Center placed the hypocenter's geographical coordinates at 34°12′47″N 118°32′13″W and at a depth of 11.4 miles. It occurred on a undiscovered fault, now named the Northridge blind thrust fault. Several other faults experienced minor rupture during the main shock and other ruptures occurred during large aftershocks, or triggered events. Damage occurred up to 85 miles away, with the most damage in the west San Fernando Valley, the cities of Santa Monica, Simi Valley and Santa Clarita; the exact number of fatalities is unknown, with sources estimating it at 60 or "over 60", to 72, where most estimates fall around 60. The "official" death toll was placed at 57; some counts factor in related events such as a man's suicide inspired by the loss of his business in the disaster.
More than 8,700 were injured including 1,600. The Northridge Meadows apartment complex was one of the well-known affected areas in which sixteen people were killed as a result of the building's collapse; the Northridge Fashion Center and California State University, Northridge sustained heavy damage—most notably the collapse of parking structures. The earthquake gained worldwide attention because of damage to the vast freeway network, which serves millions of commuters everyday; the most notable was to the Santa Monica Freeway, Interstate 10, known as the busiest freeway in the United States, congesting nearby surface roads for three months while the freeway was repaired. Farther north, the Newhall Pass interchange of Interstate 5 and State Route 14 collapsed as it had 23 years earlier in the 1971 Sylmar earthquake though it had been rebuilt with minor improvements to the structural components. One life was lost in the Newhall Pass interchange collapse: LAPD motorcycle officer Clarence Wayne Dean fell 40 feet from the damaged connector from southbound 14 to southbound I-5 along with his motorcycle.
Because of the early morning darkness, he did not realize that the elevated roadway below him had collapsed, was unable to stop in time to miss the fall and died instantly. When the interchange was rebuilt again one year it was renamed the Clarence Wayne Dean Memorial Interchange in his honor. Additional damage occurred about 50 miles southeast in Anaheim as the scoreboard at Anaheim Stadium collapsed onto several hundred seats; the stadium was vacant at the time. Although several commercial buildings collapsed, loss of life was minimized because of the early morning hour of the quake, because it occurred on a federal holiday; because of known seismic activity in California, area building codes dictate that buildings incorporate structural design intended to withstand earthquakes. However, the damage caused revealed; because of these revelations, building codes were revised. Some structures were not red-tagged until months because damage was not evident; the quake produced unusually strong ground accelerations in the range of 1.0 g.
Damage was caused by fire and landslides. The Northridge earthquake was notable for hitting the same exact area as the Mw 6.6 San Fernando earthquake. Estimates of total damage range between $13 and $40 billion. Most casualties and damage occurred in multi-story wood frame buildings. In particular, buildings with an unstable first floor performed poorly. Numerous fires were caused by broken gas lines from houses shifting off their foundations or unsecured water heaters tumbling. In the San Fernando Valley, several underground gas and water lines were severed, resulting in some streets experiencing simultaneous fires and floods. Damage to the system resulted in water pressure dropping to zero in some areas. Five days it was estimated that between 40,000 and 60,000 customers were still without public water service; as expected, unreinforced masonry buildings and houses on steep slopes suff
The word diorama can either refer to a 19th-century mobile theatre device, or, in modern usage, a three-dimensional full-size or miniature model, sometimes enclosed in a glass showcase for a museum. Dioramas are built by hobbyists as part of related hobbies such as military vehicle modeling, miniature figure modeling, or aircraft modeling; the word "diorama" originated in 1823 as a type of picture-viewing device, from the French in 1822. The word means "through that, seen", from the Greek di- "through" + orama "that, seen, a sight"; the diorama was invented by Louis Daguerre and Charles Marie Bouton, first exhibited in Paris in July 1822 and in London on September 29, 1823. The meaning "small-scale replica of a scene, etc." is from 1902. Daguerre's and Bouton's diorama consisted of a piece of material painted on both sides; when illuminated from the front, the scene would be shown in one state and by switching to illumination from behind another phase or aspect would be seen. Scenes in daylight changed to moonlight, a train travelling on a track would crash, or an earthquake would be shown in before and after pictures.
The current, popular understanding of the term "diorama" denotes a three-dimensional, full-size replica or scale model of a landscape showing historical events, nature scenes or cityscapes, for purposes of education or entertainment. One of the first uses of dioramas in a museum was in Stockholm, where the Biological Museum opened in 1893, it had several dioramas, over three floors. They were implemented by the National Museum Grigore Antipa from Bucharest Romania and constituted a source of inspiration for many important museums in the world. Miniature dioramas are much smaller, use scale models and landscaping to create historical or fictional scenes; such a scale model-based diorama is used, for example, in Chicago's Museum of Science and Industry to display railroading. This diorama employs a common model railroading scale of 1:87. Hobbyist dioramas use scales such as 1:35 or 1:48. An early, exceptionally large example was created between 1830 and 1838 by a British Army officer. William Siborne, represents the Battle of Waterloo at about 7.45 pm, on 18 June, 1815.
The diorama used around 70,000 model soldiers in its construction. It is now part of the collection of the National Army Museum in London. Sheperd Paine, a prominent hobbyist, popularized the modern miniature diorama beginning in the 1970s. Modern museum dioramas may be seen in most major natural-history museums; these displays use a tilted plane to represent what would otherwise be a level surface, incorporate a painted background of distant objects, employ false perspective modifying the scale of objects placed on the plane to reinforce the illusion through depth perception in which objects of identical real-world size placed farther from the observer appear smaller than those closer. The distant painted background or sky will be painted upon a continuous curved surface so that the viewer is not distracted by corners, seams, or edges. All of these techniques are means of presenting a realistic view of a large scene in a compact space. A photograph or single-eye view of such a diorama can be convincing, since in this case there is no distraction by the binocular perception of depth.
Miniature dioramas may be used to represent scenes from historic events. A typical example of this type are the dioramas to be seen at Norway's Resistance Museum in Oslo, Norway. Landscapes built around model railways can be considered dioramas though they have to compromise scale accuracy for better operating characteristics. Hobbyists build dioramas of historical or quasi-historical events using a variety of materials, including plastic models of military vehicles, ships or other equipment, along with scale figures and landscaping. In the 19th and beginning 20th century, building dioramas of sailing ships had been a popular handcraft of mariners. Building a diorama instead of a normal model had the advantage that in the diorama, the model was protected inside the framework and could be stowed below the bunk or behind the sea chest. Nowadays, such antique sailing ship dioramas are valuable collectors' items. One of the largest dioramas created was a model of the entire State of California built for the Panama-Pacific International Exposition of 1915 and that for a long time was installed in San Francisco's Ferry Building.
Dioramas are used in the American educational system in elementary and middle schools. They are made to represent historical events, ecological biomes, cultural scenes, or to visually depict literature, they are made from a shoebox and contain a trompe-l'œil in the background contrasted with two or three-dimensional models in the foreground. The Diorama was a popular entertainment that originated in Paris in 1822. An alternative to the popular "Panorama", the Diorama was a theatrical experience viewed by an audience in a specialized theatre; as many as 350 patrons would file in to view a landscape painting that would change its appearance both subtly and dramatically. Most would stand; the show lasted 10 to 15 minutes, after which time the entire audience would rotate to view a second painting. Models of the Diorama theater held a third painting; the size of the proscenium was 24 feet wide by 21 feet high. Each scene was hand-painted on linen, made transparent in selected areas. A ser