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Lisp machine

Lisp machines are general-purpose computers designed to efficiently run Lisp as their main software and programming language via hardware support. They are an example of a high-level language computer architecture, in a sense, they were the first commercial single-user workstations. Despite being modest in number, Lisp machines commercially pioneered many now-commonplace technologies, including effective garbage collection, laser printing, windowing systems, computer mice, high-resolution bit-mapped raster graphics, computer graphic rendering, networking innovations such as Chaosnet. Several firms built and sold Lisp machines in the 1980s: Symbolics, Lisp Machines Incorporated, Texas Instruments, Xerox; the operating systems were written in Lisp Machine Lisp and partly in Common Lisp. Artificial intelligence computer programs of the 1960s and 1970s intrinsically required what was considered a huge amount of computer power, as measured in processor time and memory space; the power requirements of AI research were exacerbated by the Lisp symbolic programming language, when commercial hardware was designed and optimized for assembly- and Fortran-like programming languages.

At first, the cost of such computer hardware meant. As integrated circuit technology shrank the size and cost of computers in the 1960s and early 1970s, the memory needs of AI programs began to exceed the address space of the most common research computer, the DEC PDP-10, researchers considered a new approach: a computer designed to develop and run large artificial intelligence programs, tailored to the semantics of the Lisp language. To keep the operating system simple, these machines would not be shared, but would be dedicated to single users. In 1973, Richard Greenblatt and Thomas Knight, programmers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, began what would become the MIT Lisp Machine Project when they first began building a computer hardwired to run certain basic Lisp operations, rather than run them in software, in a 24-bit tagged architecture; the machine did incremental garbage collection. More since Lisp variables are typed at runtime rather than compile time, a simple addition of two variables could take five times as long on conventional hardware, due to test and branch instructions.

Lisp Machines ran the tests in parallel with the more conventional single instruction additions. If the simultaneous tests failed the result was discarded and recomputed; this simultaneous checking approach was used as well in testing the bounds of arrays when referenced, other memory management necessities. Type checking was further improved and automated when the conventional byte word of 32-bits was lengthened to 36-bits for Symbolics 3600-model Lisp machines and to 40-bits or more; the first group of extra bits were used to hold type data, making the machine a tagged architecture, the remaining bits were used to implement CDR coding, aiding garbage collection by an order of magnitude. A further improvement was two microcode instructions which supported Lisp functions, reducing the cost of calling a function to as little as 20 clock cycles, in some Symbolics implementations; the first machine was called the CONS machine. It was affectionately referred to as the Knight machine since Knight wrote his master's thesis on the subject.

It was subsequently improved into a version called CADR, based on the same architecture. About 25 of what were prototype CADRs were sold within and without MIT for ~$50,000, it was so well received at an AI conference held at MIT in 1978 that Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency began funding its development. In 1979, Russell Noftsker, being convinced that Lisp machines had a bright commercial future due to the strength of the Lisp language and the enabling factor of hardware acceleration, proposed to Greenblatt that they commercialize the technology. In a counter-intuitive move for an AI Lab hacker, Greenblatt acquiesced, hoping that he could recreate the informal and productive atmosphere of the Lab in a real business; these ideas and goals were different from those of Noftsker. The two negotiated at length; as the proposed firm could succeed only with the full and undivided assistance of the AI Lab hackers as a group and Greenblatt decided that the fate of the enterprise was up to them, so the choice should be left to the hackers.

The ensuing discussions of the choice divided the lab into two factions. In February 1979, matters came to a head; the hackers sided with Noftsker, believing that a commercial venture fund-backed firm had a better chance of surviving and commercializing Lisp machines than Greenblatt's proposed self-sustaining start-up. Greenblatt lost the battle, it was at th

OpenHMPP

OpenHMPP - programming standard for heterogeneous computing. Based on a set of compiler directives, standard is a programming model designed to handle hardware accelerators without the complexity associated with GPU programming; this approach based on directives has been implemented because they enable a loose relationship between an application code and the use of a hardware accelerator. The OpenHMPP directive-based programming model offers a syntax to offload computations on hardware accelerators and to optimize data movement to/from the hardware memory; the model is based on works initialized by CAPS, a common project from INRIA, CNRS, the University of Rennes 1 and the INSA of Rennes. OpenHMPP is based on the concept of functions that can be remotely executed on HWAs. A codelet has the following properties: It is a pure function, it does not contain static or volatile variable declarations nor refer to any global variables except if these have been declared by a HMPP directive “resident” It does not contain any function calls with an invisible body.

This includes the use of libraries and system functions such as malloc, printf... Every function call must refer to a static pure function, it does not return any value. The number of arguments should be fixed, it is not recursive. Its parameters are assumed to be non-aliased, it does not contain other HMPP directives. These properties ensure that a codelet RPC can be remotely executed by a HWA; this RPC and its associated data transfers can be asynchronous. HMPP provides synchronous and asynchronous RPC. Implementation of asynchronous operation is hardware dependent. HMPP considers two address spaces: the HWA memory; the OpenHMPP directives may be seen. They are safe meta-information i.e.. They address the remote execution of a function as well as the transfers of data to/from the HWA memory; the table below introduces the OpenHMPP directives. OpenHMPP directives address different needs: some of them are dedicated to declarations and others are dedicated to the management of the execution. One of the fundamental points of the HMPP approach is the concept of directives and their associated labels which makes it possible to expose a coherent structure on a whole set of directives disseminated in an application.

There are two kinds of labels: One associated to a codelet. In general, the directives carrying this kind of labels are limited to the management of only one codelet. One associated to a group of codelets; these labels are noted as follow: “<LabelOfGroup>“, where “LabelOfGroup” is a name specified by the user. In general, the directives which have a label of this type relate to the whole group; the concept of group is reserved to a class of problems which requires a specific management of the data throughout the application to obtain performance. In order to simplify the notations, regular expressions will be used to describe the syntax of the HMPP directives; the color convention below is used for the description of syntax directives: Reserved HMPP keywords are in green. The general syntax of OpenHMPP directives is: For C language:#pragma hmpp <grp_label>? directive_type * For FORTRAN language:!$hmpp <grp_label>? directive_type * Where: <grp_label>: is a unique identifier naming a group of codelets.

In cases where no groups are defined in the application, this label can miss. Legal label name must follow this grammar: *. Note that the “< >” characters belong to the syntax and are mandatory for this kind of label. Codelet_label: is a unique identifier naming a codelet. Legal label name must follow this grammar: * directive: is the name of the directive; these parameters may be of different kinds and specify either some arguments given to the directive either a mode of execution. The parameters associated to a directive may be of different types. Below are the directive parameters defined in OpenHMPP: version = major.minor: specifies the version of the HMPP directives to be considered by the preprocessor. Args.size=: specifies the size of a non scalar parameter. Args.io =: indicates that the specified function arguments are output or both. By default, unqualified arguments are inputs. Cond = "expr": specifies an execution condition as a boolean C or Fortran expression that needs to be true in order to start the execution of the group or codelets.

Target = target _ name *: specifies. Asynchronous: specifies. Args.advancedload = true: indicates. Only in or inout parameters can be preloaded. Args.noupdate=true: this property specifies that the data is available on the

Nubieber, California

Nubieber is a census-designated place in Lassen County, California. It was located at the common terminus of the Western Pacific Railroad and the Great Northern Railway Bieber Line 3 miles southwest of Bieber, at an elevation of 4121 feet; the population was 50 at the 2010 census. The settlement was established in 1931; the first post office opened the same year. The name was a version of "New Bieber"; the first person born in the settlement was Shirley Patrica Warren, daughter of Rex and Beulah Warren. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 0.8 square mile, of which over 99% is land. The 2010 United States Census reported that Nubieber had a population of 50; the population density was 66.1 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Nubieber was 26 White, 0 African American, 13 Native American, 0 Asian, 0 Pacific Islander, 6 from other races, 5 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10 persons; the Census reported that 50 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized.

There were 18 households, out of which 7 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 8 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 2 had a female householder with no husband present, 2 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 2 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 0 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 5 households were made up of individuals and 1 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78. There were 12 families; the population was spread out with 12 people under the age of 18, 5 people aged 18 to 24, 13 people aged 25 to 44, 16 people aged 45 to 64, 4 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.0 years. For every 100 females, there were 163.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 137.5 males. There were 24 housing units at an average density of 31.7 per square mile, of which 10 were owner-occupied, 8 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 0%. 27 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 23 people lived in rental housing units.

In the state legislature, Nubieber is in the 1st Senate District, represented by Republican Brian Dahle, the 1st Assembly District, represented by Republican Megan Dahle. Federally, Nubieber is in California's 1st congressional district, represented by Republican Doug LaMalfa

Josh Johnson (cornerback)

Joshua Lutrail Johnson is an American professional Canadian football cornerback for the Winnipeg Blue Bombers of the Canadian Football League. He played college football at Purdue University. Johnson attended Pasco High School in Florida, he was a first team All-Sun Coast and All-Sunshine Athletic Conference after catching 32 passes for 466 yards and nine touchdowns and rushing for 204 yards on 39 carries as senior helping his team advanced to state semifinals. He played baseball and was named one of the top 100 juniors in the nation after leading the Tampa Bay area in home runs. Considered a two-star recruit by Rivals.com, he accepted a scholarship to Purdue over an offer from Vanderbilt. During his tenure, he started 36 of 49 games, where he accumulated 184 tackles, including 7.5 for a loss, 31 pass break ups and six interceptions. He was an all conference honorable mention as a senior. Johnson went undrafted during the 2013 NFL Draft, but signed with the San Diego Chargers after the draft ended.

Johnson played for the BC Lions of the Canadian Football League from 2014 to 2015. Johnson signed with the Jacksonville Jaguars on February 12, 2016. On August 14, 2017, Johnson was placed on injured reserve, he was released on October 10, 2017. Josh Johnson signed with the Ottawa Redblacks of the Canadian Football League on March 14, 2018, he was released on July 17, 2018. On August 19, 2018, Johnson signed with the Hamilton Tiger-Cats. Johnson was signed by the Eskimos as a free agent on May 17, 2019. Purdue Boilermakers Bio BC lions bio CFL stats

Les Misérables (1935 film)

Les Misérables is a 1935 American drama film starring Fredric March and Charles Laughton based upon the famous Victor Hugo novel of the same name. The movie was directed by Richard Boleslawski; this was the last film for Twentieth Century Pictures before it merged with Fox Film Corporation to form 20th Century Fox. The plot of the film follows Hugo's novel Les Misérables, but there are many differences; the film was nominated for the Oscar for Best Picture, the Academy Award for Best Assistant Director, the Academy Award for Best Cinematography, the Academy Award for Best Film Editing. The National Board of Review named the film the sixth best of 1935. Fredric March as Jean Valjean/Champmathieu Charles Laughton as Inspector Émile Javert Cedric Hardwicke as Bishop Myriel Rochelle Hudson as Cosette Marilyn Knowlden as Young Cosette Florence Eldridge as Fantine John Beal as Marius Frances Drake as Éponine Ferdinand Gottschalk and Jane Kerr as the Thénardiers Vernon Downing as Brissac Leonid Kinskey as Genflou Ian Maclaren as Head Gardener John Carradine as Enjolras Heinie Conklin as Drunk at Inn Harry Cording as Beam Warder Olaf Hytten as Pierre This adaptation made quite a lot of changes, many of which can be found in adaptations: Valjean's trial, life as a convict and release are presented chronologically, whereas in the novel his previous life is presented in flashback.

In addition, the novel begins by introducing the bishop, while in the film he does not appear until Valjean arrives at his door. The film begins with Valjean being sentenced in 1800 for ten years, rather than in 1796 for five years. While the word "galleys" was still used until the late 19th century to designate the French Bagnios, the actual penalty of sending someone to the galleys was abolished in mid-18th century; the galleys portrayed in this film are a huge anachronism. In the film, Javert is shown being assigned to the galleys, seeing Valjean's display of strength at the beginning. In the novel he is not introduced. Javert's first name is given as Émile. In the film, Valjean's prison number is 2906, while in the novel it is 24601. In the novel, Javert is described as a tall man, with a small head, sunken eyes, large sideburns and long hair hanging over his eyes, which differs from Charles Laughton's appearance, his version of Javert in the film wears different clothes than in the novel.

Valjean is released despite mention of an escape attempt. In the novel he spends 19 years in prison, he still receives a yellow passport. In the film, there is no mention of Fantine selling her hair and teeth, or becoming a prostitute, to afford her payments to the Thénardiers; when she confronts Valjean, she does appear to be dressed like a prostitute, but neither Valjean nor Javert make any reference to her clothing. Valjean brings Cosette to Fantine before Fantine dies, while in the novel he does not fulfill this pledge to Fantine until on his own deathbed; the Thénardiers' inn is called "The Sergeant at Waterloo" in the novel, but is called "The Brave Sergeant" in the film. In the novel, Valjean pays Thénardier 1,500 francs to settle Fantine's debts and takes Cosette, the Thénardiers appear in Paris several years later. No discussion regarding Valjean's intentions takes place in the film. In the novel, only three prisoners identify Champmathieu in court; the film adds Genflou, to the witnesses.

In the film Valjean and Cosette go to the convent with a letter of introduction from M. Madeleine, whereas in the novel they came upon the convent purely coincidentally while fleeing from Javert. We see Valjean rescue a man whose cart had fallen on him, which arouses Javert's suspicion, but the film does not mention that this man and the gardener at the convent are the same person. Marius meets Valjean and Cosette while they ride into the park where he is giving a speech, while in the novel he is walking in the Luxembourg Garden when he sees them. Éponine's role is changed from the novel. In the film, she is the secretary of the revolutionary society. In the novel, she is the Thénardiers' daughter, is not connected to the revolutionary society; the film makes no mention of her being the Thénardiers' daughter. Gavroche is cut entirely. In the novel, Enjolras is the leader of the revolutionaries and Marius is not a faithful follower. In the film, Marius is the leader. In addition, the students' goal is not a democracy but to better the conditions in the French galleys.

Marius says himself: "We are not revolutionaries." In the film, Éponine delivers the message from Marius to Cosette, which Valjean intercepts, causing Valjean to come to the barricade to rescue Marius. In the novel, Gavroche delivers it. In the film, Javert pursues Valjean and Marius into the sewers, which he does not in the novel, although he does meet Valjean when he exits the sewers, having pursued Thénardier there. Valjean brings Marius to Valjean's house and Cosette, while in the novel Valjean brings Marius to the house of Marius' grandfather M. Gillenormand, who does not appear in the film. While Valjean thinks Javert is waiting for him and he is going away, he gives Marius and Cosette instructions, including to love each other always and leaving the candlesticks to Cosette, which in the novel appear in his deathbed scene. In the film, Valjean hides the

Oru Oodhappu Kan Simittugiradhu

Oru Oodhappu Kan Simittugiradhu is a Tamil language film starring Kamal Haasan in the lead role of the protagonist, Ravi. This movie is based on a novel by the same name written by Pushpa Thangadorai; this movie dubbed into Telugu language as Maroprema Katha and Malayalam as Anuragam. Ravi lives both fall in love with each other. Ravi's friend challenges him. Unable to prove himself right, the friend attempts to molest Radha. Ravi arrives at a fight ensues with Ravi killing his friend unintentionally. Ravi is sentenced to life sentence and he requests Radha to forget him and carry on with her life. Due to Gandhi's birthday, Ravi gets a pardon after spending six years in prison. Film begins with Ravi traveling back to his hometown. Ravi happens to meet Radha who in turn spurns him and asks him not to interfere with her life! Radha is married to Vijayakumar! Unable to forget her, Ravi lives a monotonous life. Radha pleads with him to forget her and start his life anew. Ravi says that it is impossible unless Radha spends one whole day with him like as if they were married!

"Don't mistake me," he pleads, "I will not touch you." He explains that he had built a lot of dreams on living together and this "one day" business will satisfy his "hunger.” Now Radha is overcome with emotions and is unable to forget Ravi!!! She now requests that there is only one solution.........! Radha requests Ravi to come over to her house and pick her up that night. Together they will run away and live together Ravi turns up Radha writes a long letter for her husband and leaves the house. What happens forms the story. Kamal Hasan as Ravi Sujatha as Radha Vijayakumar as Sundaram Vijayalakshmi as Swapna Vijayageetha as Meena A. K. Veerasami as Ravi's father Thayir Vadai Desigan as Train passenger Oru Oodhappu Kan Simittugiradhu is based on the novel of the same name by Pushpa Thangadorai; the soundtrack was composed by V. Dakshinamoorthy, while the lyrics for the songs were written by Kannadasan, Kumaradevan, R. Palani Samy; the song "Nalla Manam" is based on Kalyanavasantham raga. At the Filmfare Awards South, Muthuraman won in the Best Director – Tamil category, Kamal in Best Actor – Tamil.

Oru Oodhappu Kan Simittugiradhu on IMDb