The mountains and hills of the British Isles are categorised into lists based on elevation and other criteria. These lists are used for peak bagging, whereby hillwalkers attempt to reach all the summits on a list, the oldest and best-known list being the 282 § Munros in Scotland, which are above 3,000 feet. A height above 2,000 ft, or more latterly 600 m, is considered necessary to be a "mountain" in the British Isles, apart from the Munros, all lists require a prominence of at least 15 metres. A prominence of between 15 and 30 metres – e.g. some § Nuttalls and § Vandeleur-Lynams – does not meet the UIAA definition of an "independent" peak. Most lists consider a prominence between 30 and 150 metres as a "top", not a mountain. A popular designation is the § Marilyns, with a prominence above 150 metres. Prominences above 600 metres, are the § P600, the international classification of a "major" mountain. There is no worldwide consensus on the definition of "mountain", but in Great Britain and Ireland it is taken to be any summit at least 2,000 feet high.
The UK government defines mountain as land over 600 metres for the purposes of freedom of access. When Calf Top in Cumbria, was re-surveyed in 2016 and confirmed to be exactly 2,000 ft, 6 millimetres above the 609.6 m threshold for a 2,000 ft peak, the Ordnance Survey described Calf Top as England's "last mountain". List of mountains of the British Isles by height, a ranking by height and prominence on the Simms classification List of Marilyns in the British Isles, a ranking by height and prominence on the Marilyn classification List of P600 mountains in the British Isles, a ranking by height and prominence on the P600 classification In addition, all British Isles definitions, with the exception of definitions that rely on § Isolation, include a minimum topographical prominence requirement, 30–600 m; the lowest minimum prominence is 15 metres, the Nuttalls and Vandeleur-Lynams, however most definitions do not consider prominences below 30 metres. Many definitions use the term Tops to refer to the sub-class of peaks that do not meet a 150 metres prominence threshold for the main definition, but have a prominence of between 30–150 metres.
Some definitions ignore height and just focus purely on prominence. Prominence requirements are strongly debated regarding UIAA classification of major Himalayan mountains. In 1994, regarding classification of summits, the UIAA stated that for a "peak" to be independent, it needed a prominence over 30 m, in addition, a "mountain" had to have a prominence over 300 m. Unlike the single measurement of elevation, prominence requires the detailed measurement of all contours around the peak, is therefore subject to change and revision over time, thus tables based on prominence are subject to revision; some definitions use an imperial measurement for height, but a metric measurement for the topological prominence. List of mountains of the British Isles by height, a ranking by height and prominence on the Simms classification List of Marilyns in the British Isles, a ranking by height and prominence on the Marilyn classification List of P600 mountains in the British Isles, a ranking by height and prominence on the P600 classification Classifications listed below which are based on the quantitative metrics of elevation and prominence are summarised in the diagram opposite.
No definition of a British Isles mountain or hill uses an explicit quantitative metric of topographic isolation, the concept of isolation is embedded in the qualitative definition of a Scottish Munro, from the Scottish Mountaineering Club requirement of "sufficient separation". Mountains in Scotland are referred to as "hills" no matter what their height, as reflected in names such as the Cuillin Hills and the Torridon Hills; the Database of British and Irish Hills was created in 2001 "with the intention of providing a comprehensive, up-to-date resource for British hillwalkers". It is now maintained by a team of eight editors, is described by the Long Distance Walkers Association as "now the most reliable online source for all Registers"; the DoBIH has been used as a source by books, hillwalking websites and smartphone apps, including Mark Jackson's 2010 book on the HuMPS, titled "More Relative Hills of Britain". DoBIH is available in an online version under the title Hill Bagging; as of August 2018 the database included 20,859 hills, including all Marilyns, HuMPs, TuMPs, Dodds and Tops, Corbetts and Tops and Tops, Donalds and Tops, Hewitts, Buxton & Lewis, Murdos, Donald Deweys, Highland Fives, Birketts, Fellrangers, County tops, SIBs, Arderins, Vandeleur-Lynams, Myrd
The Copper River or Ahtna River, Ahtna Athabascan ‘Atna’tuu, "river of the Ahtnas", Tlingit Eeḵhéeni, "river of copper", is a 290-mile river in south-central Alaska in the United States. It drains a large region of the Wrangell Mountains and Chugach Mountains into the Gulf of Alaska, it is known for its extensive delta ecosystem, as well as for its prolific runs of wild salmon, which are among the most prized stocks in the world. The river is the tenth largest in the United States, as ranked by average discharge volume at its mouth; the Copper River rises out of the Copper Glacier, which lies on the northeast side of Mount Wrangell, in the Wrangell Mountains, within Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park. It begins by flowing due north in a valley that lies on the east side of Mount Sanford, turns west, forming the northwest edge of the Wrangell Mountains and separating them from the Mentasta Mountains to the northeast, it continues to turn southeast, through a wide marshy plain to Chitina, where it is joined from the southeast by the Chitina River.
The Copper River is 290 miles long. It drops an average of about 12 feet per mile, drains more than 24,000 square miles —an area the size of West Virginia; the river runs at an average of 7 miles per hour. Downstream from its confluence with the Chitina it flows southwest, passing through a narrow glacier-lined gap in the Chugach Mountains within the Chugach National Forest east of Cordova Peak. There is an extensive area of linear sand dunes up to 250 feet in height radiating from the mouth of the Copper River. Both Miles Glacier and Childs Glacier calve directly into the river; the Copper enters the Gulf of Alaska southeast of Cordova where it creates a delta nearly 50 miles wide. The name of the river comes from the abundant copper deposits along the upper river that were used by Alaska Native population and later by settlers from the Russian Empire and the United States. Extraction of the copper resources was problematic due to navigation difficulties at the river's mouth; the construction of the Copper River and Northwestern Railway from Cordova through the upper river valley from 1908 to 1911 allowed widespread extraction of the mineral resources, in particular from the Kennecott Mine, discovered in 1898.
The mine was abandoned in 1938 and is now a ghost town tourist attraction and historic district maintained by the National Park Service. Copper River Highway runs from Cordova to the lower Copper River near Childs Glacier, following the old railroad route and ending at the reconstructed Million Dollar Bridge across the river; the Tok Cut-Off follows the Copper River Valley on the north side of the Chugach Mountains. The river's famous salmon runs arise from the use of the river watershed by over 2 million salmon each year for spawning; the extensive runs result in many unique varieties, prized for their fat content. The river's commercial salmon season is brief, beginning in May for chinook salmon and sockeye salmon for periods lasting days or hours at a time. Sport fishing by contrast is open all year long, but peak season on the Copper River lasts from August to September when the coho salmon runs; the fisheries are co-managed by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game and the Department of the Interior Federal Subsistence Board.
Management data are obtained by ADF&G at the Miles Lake sonar station and the native village of Eyak at the Baird Canyon and Canyon Creek research stations. The Copper River Delta, which extends for 700,000 acres, is the largest contiguous wetlands along the Pacific coast of North America, it is used annually by 16 million shorebirds, including the world's entire population of western sandpipers and dunlins. It is home to the world's largest population of nesting trumpeter swans and is the only known nesting site for the dusky Canada goose subspecies. List of rivers of Alaska Brabets, Timothy P.. Geomorphology of the Lower Copper River, Alaska. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey. Ecotrust Copper River Program Copper River salmon habitat management study Prepared for Ecotrust by Marie E. Lowe of the Institute of Social and Economic Research, hosted by Alaska State Publications Program Alaska Department of Fish and Game: Copper River Salmon Eyak Preservation Council Nature Conservancy: Copper River Delta The Copper River Watershed Project NVE Fisheries Research and Seasonal Employment on the Copper River Cordova District Fishermen United Wrangell-St.
Okie Adams, born Carl Frederick Adams, was an American expert banjo maker, having provided unique, hand-crafted banjos to the likes of Doc Watson and Tom Sauber, among many others. Okie's banjos were hand-made using his custom'block pot' technique, which consisted of turning out a glued together ring of wood walnut or maple, or a combination thereof, they are heavier than most, with a wider neck and the peghead is inlaid with a variety of shapes and symbols that are Okie signatures - a tall cowboy hat, claw hammer or double claw hammer, a crescent moon with star. Allen Hart uses an Okie Adams banjo on his "Old Time Banjo" album, playing in the claw-hammer style Okie favored and encouraged. Okie was a consistent presence on the West Coast folk festival circuit, his son Jim'Okie Jr.' Adams plays and competes wielding his father's prized banjos. Always a teacher, Okie's generosity touched and inspired many musicians and banjo makers, among them Greg Deering, founder of Deering Banjo company who stated that he'd produced and sent out over 60,000 banjos from his workshop and "there was a part of Okie Adams in every single one."
He was an accomplished race-car component maker, known for the Okie Adams "drop axle" he developed whilst working as a welder in'blairs' automotive of Pasadena during the 1960s. Adams died at the age of 84 of smoke inhalation when his home in Eagle Rock, burned down on November 16, 2007; the exact cause of the fire has yet to be determined conclusively
Miage-nyūdō is a type of yōkai told about on Sado Island. They are a type of mikoshi-nyūdō; when climbing a small slope at night, something taking on the appearance of a little bōzu would appear in front, by looking up, it would become taller, the person looking at it would fall down backwards. It is said that by chanting "miage-nyūdō, I've seen past you" and lying down forwards, it would disappear. In Hamochi, Sado District, it is said that the miage-nyūdō that appears at a place called Tsujidō would steal food and money from travelers. In Utami, Ryōtsu, it is said that they are in places where trees grow thickly and is dim at noon, that a large stone called the "miage-ishi" has shapeshifted into a nyūdō. Once, a traveler met this, by chanting "miage-nyūdō, I've seen past you" and striking it with a rod, the nyūdō disappeared, it is said that afterwards, when a jizō was deified above the rock, the nyūdō no longer appeared. In a legend of Akadomari, Sado District, there was a miage-nyūdō that squashed and killed night travelers, but it once accidentally fell to the bottom of a ravine, since it was helped by someone under the condition that it would "no longer attack people" and to "stay away from that place," it no longer appeared there, it is said that this ravine started to be called the "nyūdō marsh."In Hatano, Sado District, it is said that when those who meet a miage-nyūdō say, "the miage-nyūdō I saw before was much larger" and thus challenge it, since its feet would thus become thinner, a violent sound would result, the miage-nyūdō would fall down.
The 1982–83 National Hurling League was the 52nd season of the National Hurling League. Division 1 saw a major restructuring with the abolition of the fourteen-team top flight, divided into two groups of seven teams. For the 1982-83 season, Division 1 was limited to a single group of eight teams. Kilkenny came into the season as defending champions of the 1981-82 season. On 24 April 1983, Kilkenny won the title after a 2-14 to 2-12 win over Limerick in the final, it was their second in succession. Kilkenny's Billy Fitzpatrick was the Division 1 top scorer with 4-33. Semi-finals Final Top scorers overallTop scorers in a single game On 27 March 1983, Limerick won the title after a 2-16 to 1-7 win over Antrim in the final round of the group stage. Laois secured promotion to the top flight as the second-placed team. Carlow, who lost all of their group stage games, were relegated to Division 3. Semi-finals Finals League Final Limerick vs Kilkenny 1983 at Semple Stadium Thurles on YouTube
The 2001 Wallabies Spring tour was a series of matches played in October and November 2001 in Europe by Australia national rugby union team. The tour was to include a test match in Canada, but this was cancelled due a strike by the Canadian players over the sacking of the national coach, David Clark. So two fixtures were added against an England Divisions XV and Oxford University.'Scores and results list Australia's points tally first. Head Coach: Eddie JonesThe 30-man touring squad announced in September was: "Australia unable to strike the right chord"; the Guardian. 29 October 2001. Retrieved 15 May 2013. "Spain 10 – 92 Australia". ESPN. 1 November 2001. Retrieved 15 May 2013. "Tour match: Rubie makes the Wallabies jump". The Telegraph. 4 November 2001. Retrieved 15 May 2013. "England stun Wallabies in battle for hard yards". The Telegraph. 10 November 2001. Retrieved 15 May 2013. "France 14 – 13 Australia". ESPN. 17 November 2001. Retrieved 15 May 2013. "Wales 13 - 21 Australia - ESPN scrum.com". ESPN. 25 November 2001.
Retrieved 15 May 2013. "Australia win has hollow ring". The Guardian. 29 November 2001. Retrieved 15 May 2013