Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States. Established pursuant to Article III of the U. S. Constitution in 1789, it has original jurisdiction over a narrow range of cases, including suits between two or more states and those involving ambassadors, it has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all federal court and state court cases that involve a point of federal constitutional or statutory law. The Court has the power of judicial review, the ability to invalidate a statute for violating a provision of the Constitution or an executive act for being unlawful. However, it may act only within the context of a case in an area of law over which it has jurisdiction; the court may decide cases having political overtones, but it has ruled that it does not have power to decide nonjusticiable political questions. Each year it agrees to hear about one hundred to one hundred fifty of the more than seven thousand cases that it is asked to review.
According to federal statute, the court consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices, all of whom are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Once appointed, justices have lifetime tenure unless they resign, retire, or are removed from office; each justice has a single vote in deciding. When the chief justice is in the majority, he decides. In modern discourse, justices are categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. While a far greater number of cases in recent history have been decided unanimously, decisions in cases of the highest profile have come down to just one single vote, exemplifying the justices' alignment according to these categories; the Court meets in the Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C, its law enforcement arm is the Supreme Court of the United States Police. It was while debating the division of powers between the legislative and executive departments that delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention established the parameters for the national judiciary.
Creating a "third branch" of government was a novel idea. Early on, some delegates argued that national laws could be enforced by state courts, while others, including James Madison, advocated for a national judicial authority consisting of various tribunals chosen by the national legislature, it was proposed that the judiciary should have a role in checking the executive power to veto or revise laws. In the end, the Framers compromised by sketching only a general outline of the judiciary, vesting federal judicial power in "one supreme Court, in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish", they delineated neither the exact powers and prerogatives of the Supreme Court nor the organization of the Template:Judicial branch as a whole. The 1st United States Congress provided the detailed organization of a federal judiciary through the Judiciary Act of 1789; the Supreme Court, the country's highest judicial tribunal, was to sit in the nation's Capital and would be composed of a chief justice and five associate justices.
The act divided the country into judicial districts, which were in turn organized into circuits. Justices were required to "ride circuit" and hold circuit court twice a year in their assigned judicial district. After signing the act into law, President George Washington nominated the following people to serve on the court: John Jay for chief justice and John Rutledge, William Cushing, Robert H. Harrison, James Wilson, John Blair Jr. as associate justices. All six were confirmed by the Senate on September 26, 1789. Harrison, declined to serve. In his place, Washington nominated James Iredell; the Supreme Court held its inaugural session from February 2 through February 10, 1790, at the Royal Exchange in New York City the U. S. capital. A second session was held there in August 1790; the earliest sessions of the court were devoted to organizational proceedings, as the first cases did not reach it until 1791. When the national capital moved to Philadelphia in 1790, the Supreme Court did so as well.
After meeting at Independence Hall, the Court established its chambers at City Hall. Under Chief Justices Jay and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases; as the Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the court's full membership to make decisions, starting with a quorum of four justices in 1789; the court lacked a home of its own and had little prestige, a situation not helped by the era's highest-profile case, Chisholm v. Georgia, reversed within two years by the adoption of the Eleventh Amendment; the court's power and prestige grew during the Marshall Court. Under Marshall, the court established the power of judicial review over acts of Congress, including specifying itself as the supreme expositor of the Constitution and making several important constitutional rulings that gave shape and substance to the balance of power between the federal government and states; the Marshall Court ended the practice of each justice issuin
Litchfield is a town in and former county seat of Litchfield County, United States. The population was 8,466 at the 2010 census; the boroughs of Bantam and Litchfield are located within the town. There are three unincorporated villages: East Litchfield and Northfield. Litchfield incorporated in 1719; the town derives its name in England. During the American Revolutionary War several prominent Loyalists were held prisoner in the town, including William Franklin, son of Benjamin Franklin, David Mathews, Mayor of New York City. In 1784, the first law school in the United States, the so-named Litchfield Law School, was established by judge and legal scholar Tapping Reeve. Prior to its establishment Reeve had accepted several legal apprentices since he had settled there in 1773, but saw such demand for his expertise that he formally opened the one-room school within a decade. During the school's fifty year history it would accept more than 1,100 students, including Aaron Burr, Jr. Horace Mann, Levi Woodbury, the first justice of the US Supreme Court to attend law school.
Located southwest of Torrington, Litchfield includes part of Bantam Lake. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 56.8 square miles, of which, 56.1 square miles of it is land and 0.7 square miles of it is water. Litchfield is about 95 mi from Central Park in New York, about 50 mi from the Hudson River valley, about 40 mi from the nearest sea coast, on Long Island Sound. Bantam East Litchfield Litchfield Milton Northfield As of the census of 2000, there were 8,316 people, 3,310 households, 2,303 families residing in the town; the population density was 148.4 people per square mile. There were 3,629 housing units at an average density of 64.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.99% White, 0.75% Black or African American, 0.23% Native American, 0.47% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.46% from other races, 1.09% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.56% of the population. There were 3,310 households out of which 31.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.9% were married couples living together, 7.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.4% were non-families.
26.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.98. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.2% under the age of 18, 3.6% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 28.6% from 45 to 64, 17.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.3 males. The median income for a household in the town was $58,418, the median income for a family was $70,594. Males had a median income of $50,284 versus $31,787 for females; the per capita income for the town was $30,096. About 2.8% of families and 4.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.6% of those under age 18 and 5.2% of those age 65 or over. The town houses the 1812 Litchfield County Jail, the town's oldest public building and a former jail; the facility, controlled by the Connecticut state government held inmates convicted of minor offenses.
Governor of Connecticut Lowell P. Weicker Jr. ordered the facility closed for financial reasons in 1993. It was converted into the McAuliffe Manor, a substance abuse treatment center for women operated by Naugatuck Valley HELP Inc. but in 2009 the contract between Naugatuck Valley HELP Inc. and the state expired, leading to the closure of McAuliffe Manor. Route 202 is the main east-west road connecting Bantam and Litchfield center to the city of Torrington. Route 63 runs north-south through the town center; the Route 8 expressway runs along the town line with Harwinton. It can be accessed from the town center via Route 118; the town is served by buses from the Northwestern Connecticut Transit District connecting to the city of Torrington. The Shepaug Valley Railroad opened a Litchfield terminal in 1872, but passenger service ended in 1930 and freight service in 1948. Litchfield Public Schools operates public schools. Litchfield High School is the area high school. Andrew Adams Josephine Cables Aldrich, Theosophist and publisher Ethan Allen Catharine Beecher Peter Brimelow - Founder of VDARE Henry Ward Beecher Lyman Beecher Mary Charlotte Ward Granniss Webster Billings Solyman Brown Adelaide Deming Dick Ebersol Caroline Fitzgerald, poet Eugene Fodor - Travel writer and author Jerome Fuller Elizabeth Gilbert – author of Eat, Love F. Norton Goddard Benjamin Hanks – goldsmith, instrument maker, first maker of bronze cannons and church bells in America Uriel Holmes Isabella Beecher Hooker – women's suffrage activist Daniel Albion "Jumping Jack" Jones – professional baseball pitcher Madeleine L'Engle Admiral Charles B.
McVay III Phineas Miner Joseph Robert Morris - entrepreneur, mayor of Houston, was born and raised in Milton Samuel S. Phelps Sarah Pierce - Teacher and founder of the Litchfield Female Academy John Pierpoint, Chief Justice of the Vermont Supreme Court Robert Pierpoint, Lieutenant Governor of Vermont Austin M. Purves, Jr. Tapping Reeve Mary Livingston Ripley – horticulturist and photographer Susan Saint James – actress Richard Skinner, Governor of Vermont Roger Skinner, Judge of the United States District Court for the Northern District of New York Harriet Beecher Stowe Benjamin T
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art
Connecticut Supreme Court
The Connecticut Supreme Court known as the Connecticut Supreme Court of Errors, is the highest court in the U. S. state of Connecticut. It consists of six Associate Justices; the seven justices sit across the street from the Connecticut State Capitol. It holds eight sessions of two to three weeks per year, with one session each September through November and January through May. Justices are appointed by the governor and approved by the Connecticut General Assembly; the current Connecticut Supreme Court includes: Justices must retire upon reaching the age of 70. They may continue to hear cases as Judge Trial Referees in the Superior Court or the Appellate Court. Justices may assume Senior Status before attaining age 70 and continue to sit with the Supreme Court, as needed. Multiple justices have availed themselves of this option. For example, Justice Ellen Ash Peters took senior status in 1996, continuing to sit until 2000 and Justice Angelo Santaniello assumed senior status in 1987 and continued to sit as needed until 1994.
Justice Armentano continued to sit with the Court as needed. Chief Justice Callahan assumed senior status in 1999 but served for another year as a Senior Justice. Chief Justice Sullivan assumed senior status in 2006 but continued to sit until 2009. Justice Vertefeuille has remained active with the Court. In the event of a recusal or absence, a judge of the Appellate or Superior Court may be called to sit with the Supreme Court. One of the most recent instances of a lower court judge being called to "pinch-hit" was Judge Thomas Bishop of the Appellate Court in Bysiewicz v. Dinardo. Then-Appellate Court Judge Lubbie Harper sat with the Supreme Court in the landmark case of Kerrigan v. Commissioner of Public Health. Judge Francis X. Hennessy frequently served by designation on the Court. Notable former justices include: Anthony J. Armentano, served as lieutenant governor and a Member of the Supreme Court Raymond E. Baldwin, only person to serve as Governor of Connecticut and Chief Justice Robert I.
Berdon, an outspoken civil Libertarian, authored 500 dissents in 8 years, opposed the death penalty, authored the decision of State v. Geisler to assess claims of rights under the Connecticut Constitution, infra. Still active as a Judge Trial Referee in New Haven. Joseph W. Bogdanski - Modernized Connecticut jurisprudence an outspoken dissenter like Robert Berdon, served as Chief Justice, part of the majority in Horton v. Messkill. David M. Borden One of the original members of the Appellate Court, drafter of Connecticut's Penal Code, first administrative judge for the Appellate System, served as acting chief justice from 2006–2007, still active as a Judge Trial Referee on the Appellate Court, screening cases for transfer to the Supreme Court. Alfred V. Covello, Currently a Federal District Judge Joseph Dannehy, One of two jurists to sit at all five levels of Connecticut's judiciary, first Chief Presiding Judge of the Connecticut Appellate Court. Anthony Grillo After nearly 20 prolific years as a Trial Judge, capped off his career on the Supreme Court and wrote 56 opinions, including the landmark of Caldor v. Thornton.
Robert D. Glass, First African-American named to the Supreme Court, the Waterbury Juvenile Matters Courthouse is now named for him. Lubbie Harper, Jr. is a descendant of slaves from North Carolina. While an Appellate Court Judge, he was the swing vote in the gay marriage case, nominated to succeed Joette Katz, ruling in two death penalty cases, State v. Komisarjevsky, State v. Santiago. Capped off his 15-year career as a member of the Supreme Court. Still active as a Judge Trial Referee designated to the Appellate Court. Arthur Healey, Also served with Ellen Ash Peters and David Shea and innovated State Constitutional Law, former Chief Judge of the Superior Court before the major judicial reorganization of 1978. Still respected. T. Clark Hull, Former State Senator and Lieutenant Governor. Joette Katz, Retired from the court to serve as the Commissioner of the Department of Children and Families of Connecticut C. Ian McLachlan, Retired from the court and entered private practice. William M. Maltbie Francis M. McDonald, Jr..
Former Waterbury State's Attorney, another dissenter like Robert Berdon integrated the Sheriffs into the Judicial Branch as Judicial Marshals and State Marshals, appointed a new lawyer grievance review panel, reduced a civil and criminal backlog, worked to give the Appellate Court its own courthouse. Still active as a Judge Trial Referee and sitting with the Appellate Court. Ellen Ash Peters First woman to serve on innovated Connecticut Constitutional Law. Still active as a Judge Trial Referee. Leo Parskey, Scholar who served with Ellen Ash Peters, Arthur Healey, David Shea. Tapping Reeve, succeeded Stephen Mix Mitchell, founded Litchfield Law School. Angelo Santaniello, innovated the Pre-Argument Conference program for settling appeals before oral arguments, ran the "Supreme Court on Circuit" program taking the Court throughout Connecticut. Still sat
Roger Sherman was an early American statesman and lawyer, as well as a Founding Father of the United States. He is the only person to have signed all four great state papers of the United States: the Continental Association, the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, the Constitution. Born in Newton, Sherman established a legal career in Litchfield County, Connecticut despite a lack of formal education. After a period in the Connecticut House of Representatives, he served as a Justice of the Superior Court of Connecticut from 1766 to 1789, he represented Connecticut at the Continental Congress and signed the Continental Association, which provided for a boycott against Britain following the imposition of the Intolerable Acts. He was a member of the Committee of Five that drafted the Declaration of Independence, he signed both the Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution. In 1784, he was elected as the first mayor of Connecticut. Sherman served as a delegate to the 1787 Philadelphia Convention, which produced the United States Constitution.
After Benjamin Franklin, he was the oldest delegate present at the convention. He favored granting the federal government power to raise revenue and regulate commerce, but opposed efforts to supplant the Articles of Confederation with a new constitution, he came to support the establishment of a new constitution, proposed the Connecticut Compromise, which won the approval of both the larger states and the smaller states. After the ratification of the Constitution, Sherman represented Connecticut in the United States House of Representatives from 1789 to 1791, he served in the United States Senate from 1791 to his death in 1793. Sherman was born into a farm family located in Newton, near Boston, his father was mother Mehetabel Sherman. Mehetabel's father was Benjamin Wellington and her mother was Elizabeth Sweetman, whose christening date was March 4, 1687, she died on April 12, 1776. William and Mehetabel had seven children, William Jr. Mehetabel, Elizabeth, Nathaniel and Rebecca. After Elizabeth was born, the Shermans left Newton and settled in the south precinct of Dorchester, that three years became the township of Stoughton and located 17 miles south of Boston, when Roger was two.
William married Rebecca Cutler on July 15, 1714. Josiah was Chaplain of the 7th Connecticut from January 1 to December 6, 1777; the part of Stoughton where Sherman grew up became part of Canton in 1797. Sherman's education did not extend beyond his father's library and grammar school, his early career was spent as a shoe-maker. However, he had an aptitude for learning, access to a good library owned by his father, as well as a Harvard-educated parish minister, the Rev. Samuel Dunbar, who took him under his wing. In 1743, due to his father's death, Sherman moved with his mother and siblings to New Milford, where in partnership with his brother William, he opened the town's first store, he quickly introduced himself in civil and religious affairs becoming one of the town's leading citizens and town clerk of New Milford. Due to his mathematical skill he became county surveyor of New Haven County in 1745, began providing astronomical calculations for almanacs in 1759. Roger Sherman was married two times and had a total of fifteen children with thirteen reaching adulthood.
Sherman married Elizabeth on November 17, 1749. She was born August 31, 1726, in Stoughton, her father was Deacon Joseph Hartwell and her mother was Mary Hartwell, born on October 4, 1697, died on November 10, 1782, they had seven children. Elizabeth died on October 19, 1760. Sherman married Rebecca Prescott on May 12, 1763, she was born on May 1742, in Danvers, Essex County, Massachusetts. They had Rebecca; the first Mehitabel and Oliver both died in infancy. Rebecca died in August 1814. A son, Roger Sherman Jr. a 1787 graduate of Yale College served in the Connecticut General Assembly in 1810–1811. A daughter, Rebeca Sherman, was married to Simeon Baldwin, whose career included service in the United States Congress, as an Associate Judge of the Connecticut Superior Court, 1806–1817, who became Mayor of New Haven, Connecticut, in 1826. Following the death of Rebecca Sherman, Baldwin married another of Roger Sherman's daughters, Elizabeth Sherman Burr, his daughter, Mehetabel Sherman Barnes married Jeremiah Evarts, who served as treasurer and secretary of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions.
His daughter Martha Sherman married Jeremiah Day, President of Yale University from 1817 to 1846. Another daughter, Sarah Sherman, married Samuel Hoar, a member of the Massachusetts state legislature and the U. S. Congress. Grandfathers before Henry Sherman were Thomas and Thomas Sherman. Henry Sherman born about 1512, married Agnes around 1539 died October 1580, in Dedham, England. Henry Sherman: great-great-great-grandfather John Sherman: great-great-grandfather, John Sherman Jr.: great-grandfather, whose christening date was September 3, 1612, married Martha Palmer, a
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey. Founded in 1746 in Elizabeth as the College of New Jersey, Princeton is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution; the institution moved to Newark in 1747 to the current site nine years and renamed itself Princeton University in 1896. Princeton provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, engineering, it offers professional degrees through the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, the School of Engineering and Applied Science, the School of Architecture and the Bendheim Center for Finance. The university has ties with the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton Theological Seminary and the Westminster Choir College of Rider University. Princeton has the largest endowment per student in the United States. From 2001 to 2018, Princeton University was ranked either first or second among national universities by U.
S. News & World Report, holding the top spot for 16 of those 18 years; as of October 2018, 65 Nobel laureates, 15 Fields Medalists and 13 Turing Award laureates have been affiliated with Princeton University as alumni, faculty members or researchers. In addition, Princeton has been associated with 21 National Medal of Science winners, 5 Abel Prize winners, 5 National Humanities Medal recipients, 209 Rhodes Scholars, 139 Gates Cambridge Scholars and 126 Marshall Scholars. Two U. S. Presidents, twelve U. S. Supreme Court Justices and numerous living billionaires and foreign heads of state are all counted among Princeton's alumni body. Princeton has graduated many prominent members of the U. S. Congress and the U. S. Cabinet, including eight Secretaries of State, three Secretaries of Defense and three of the past five Chairs of the Federal Reserve. New Light Presbyterians founded the College of New Jersey in 1746; the college was the religious capital of Scottish Presbyterian America. In 1754, trustees of the College of New Jersey suggested that, in recognition of Governor Jonathan Belcher's interest, Princeton should be named as Belcher College.
Belcher replied: "What a name that would be!" In 1756, the college moved to New Jersey. Its home in Princeton was Nassau Hall, named for the royal House of Orange-Nassau of William III of England. Following the untimely deaths of Princeton's first five presidents, John Witherspoon became president in 1768 and remained in that office until his death in 1794. During his presidency, Witherspoon shifted the college's focus from training ministers to preparing a new generation for secular leadership in the new American nation. To this end, he solicited investment in the college. Witherspoon's presidency constituted a long period of stability for the college, interrupted by the American Revolution and the Battle of Princeton, during which British soldiers occupied Nassau Hall. In 1812, the eighth president of the College of New Jersey, Ashbel Green, helped establish the Princeton Theological Seminary next door; the plan to extend the theological curriculum met with "enthusiastic approval on the part of the authorities at the College of New Jersey".
Today, Princeton University and Princeton Theological Seminary maintain separate institutions with ties that include services such as cross-registration and mutual library access. Before the construction of Stanhope Hall in 1803, Nassau Hall was the college's sole building; the cornerstone of the building was laid on September 17, 1754. During the summer of 1783, the Continental Congress met in Nassau Hall, making Princeton the country's capital for four months. Over the centuries and through two redesigns following major fires, Nassau Hall's role shifted from an all-purpose building, comprising office, dormitory and classroom space; the class of 1879 donated twin lion sculptures that flanked the entrance until 1911, when that same class replaced them with tigers. Nassau Hall's bell rang after the hall's construction; the bell was recast and melted again in the fire of 1855. James McCosh took office as the college's president in 1868 and lifted the institution out of a low period, brought about by the American Civil War.
During his two decades of service, he overhauled the curriculum, oversaw an expansion of inquiry into the sciences, supervised the addition of a number of buildings in the High Victorian Gothic style to the campus. McCosh Hall is named in his honor. In 1879, the first thesis for a Doctor of Philosophy Ph. D. was submitted by James F. Williamson, Class of 1877. In 1896, the college changed its name from the College of New Jersey to Princeton University to honor the town in which it resides. During this year, the college underwent large expansion and became a university. In 1900, the Graduate School was established. In 1902, Woodrow Wilson, graduate of the Class of 1879, was elected the 13th president of the university. Under Wilson, Princeton introduced the preceptorial system in 1905, a then-unique concept in the US that augmented the standard lecture method of teaching with a more personal form in which small groups of students, or precepts, could interact with a single instructor, or preceptor, in their field of interest.
In 1906, the reservoir Lake Carnegie was created by Andrew Carnegie. A collection of historical photographs of the build
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai