Joseph Gurney Cannon
Joseph Gurney Cannon was a United States politician from Illinois and leader of the Republican Party. Cannon served as Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1903 to 1911, many consider him to be the most dominant Speaker in United States history, with such control over the House that he could control debate. Cannon is the second-longest continuously serving Republican Speaker in history, having been surpassed by fellow Illinoisan Dennis Hastert, who passed him on June 1, 2006. Cannon is the second longest serving Republican Representative only surpassed by Alaska congressman Don Young, as well as first member of Congress, of either party to surpass 40 years of service. Cannon's congressional career spanned 46 years of cumulative service—a record, not broken until 1959, he is the longest serving member of the House of Representatives in Illinois, although the longest continuous service belongs to Adolph J. Sabath. Cannon has the distinction of being the subject of the first Time cover dated March 3, 1923.
Cannon was born in Guilford County, North Carolina, in 1840 moved with his parents to Annapolis, about 30 miles north of Terre Haute. He was the elder of Horace Franklin Cannon, a country doctor. Horace Cannon drowned on August 7, 1851 when Joseph was fifteen years old as he tried to reach a sick patient by crossing Sugar Creek. Young Cannon took charge of the family farm, his brother William would become a successful realtor. Asked by Terre Haute politician and lawyer John Palmer Usher, future Secretary of the Interior under President Abraham Lincoln, to testify in a slander case, Cannon became fascinated with the law, he asked Usher if he could study law under him and moved to Terre Haute. At age 19 he traveled to Cincinnati, Ohio to attend a semester of law school at the University of Cincinnati law school. In 1858, he was admitted to the bar and commenced practice in Terre Haute, Indiana but was disappointed when Usher refused to offer him a place in his office; that year he relocated to Illinois.
His choice of a new hometown was somewhat involuntary, taking place while he was travelling from Shelbyville, Illinois, to Chicago to find more clients for his law firm. During the trip, he ran out of money, he boarded a Chicago-bound train in Illinois. As Cannon did not have a ticket, he was removed from the train in Tuscola. There, he became State's attorney for the twenty-seventh judicial district of Illinois, holding the position from March 1861 to December 1868, he was one of the charter members of Tuscola's Masonic Lodge No. 332, founded on October 2, 1860. In 1876 Cannon moved to Danville, where he resided for the rest of his life, he and his wife Mary P. Reed, whom he married in 1862, had two daughters, he became a follower of Abraham Lincoln during the Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858. After Lincoln was elected President in 1860, Cannon received an appointment as a regional prosecutor. Cannon, a member of the Republican Party, was elected as to the United States House of Representatives from Illinois to the Forty-second and to the eight succeeding Congresses, was the chairman of the Committee on Expenditures in the Post Office Department and of the Committee on Appropriations.
Cannon was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1890 to the Fifty-second Congress, but was elected to the Fifty-third and to the nine succeeding Congresses that sat between 1893 and 1913. He attempted to gain the Speakership four times before succeeding, his antic speaking style, diminutive stature and pugnacious manner were his trademarks. The newspapers lampooned him as a colorful rube. "Uncle Joe", as he was known clashed with fellow Republican Theodore Roosevelt, asserting that Roosevelt "has no more use for the Constitution than a tomcat has for a marriage license". Cannon was chairman to the Committee on Appropriations, Committee on Rules, Speaker of the House of Representatives, he received fifty-eight votes for the presidential nomination at the Republican National Convention at Chicago in 1908. Cannon wielded the office of Speaker with unprecedented power. At the time of Cannon's election, the Speaker of the House concurrently held the chair of the Rules Committee, which determined under what rules and restrictions bills could be debated and voted on, and, in some cases, whether they would be allowed on the floor at all.
As such, Cannon controlled every aspect of the House's agenda: bills reached the floor of the house only if Cannon approved of them, in whatever form he determined — with Cannon himself deciding whether and to what extent the measures could be debated and amended. Cannon reserved to himself the right to appoint not only the chairs of the various House committees, but all of the committees' members, used that power to appoint his allies and proteges to leadership positions while punishing those who opposed his legislation. Crucially, Cannon exercised these powers to maintain discipline within the ranks of his own party: the Republicans were divided into the conservative "Old Guard," led by Cannon, the progressives, led by President Theodore Roosevelt, his committee assignment privileges ensured that the party's Progressive element had little influence in the House, his control over the legislative process obstructed progressive legislatio
National Voter Registration Act of 1993
The National Voter Registration Act of 1993 known as the Motor Voter Act, is a United States federal law signed into law by President Bill Clinton on May 20, 1993, which came into effect on January 1, 1995. The law was enacted under the Elections Clause of the United States Constitution; the law advances voting rights in the United States by requiring state governments to offer voter registration opportunities to any eligible person who applies for or renews a driver license or applies for public assistance along with requiring the United States Postal Service to mail election materials of a state as if the state is a nonprofit. The law requires states to register applicants that use a federal voter registration form to apply and prohibits states from removing registered voters from the voter rolls unless certain criteria are met; the Act exempts from its requirements the states that have continuously, since March 11, 1993, not required voter registration for federal elections or that have offered Election Day voter registration for federal general elections.
Six states qualify for exemption from the Act: North Dakota, Minnesota, New Hampshire and Wyoming. Maine lost the exemption when it abolished EDR in 2011, although EDR was subsequently restored in that state. After Congress enacted the Voting Rights Act of 1965 to address rampant voting discrimination against racial minorities, voting rights advocates argued for federal legislation to remove other barriers to voter registration in the United States; the basic requirements to vote are the same in all states. A person has to be a U. S. citizen, of at least 18 years old and a resident of the state in which he or she is voting. However, initial legislative efforts to create national voter registration standards for federal elections failed. In the early 1970s, Congress considered several legislative proposals to require the U. S. Census Bureau to mail voter registration forms to every household. In the mid and late 1970s, legislative proposals to require certain public agency offices to make voter registration forms available and to require states to allow Election Day voter registration failed.
Similar bills introduced throughout the 1980s failed. Congress passed two pieces of legislation in the 1980s that made voter registration for federal elections more accessible for certain disadvantaged populations. In 1984, Congress passed the Voting Accessibility for the Elderly and Handicapped Act, which requires that states make available to elderly and handicapped voters "a reasonable number of accessible permanent registration facilities" and registration aids. Congress passed the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act, requiring states to mail federal voter registration forms to overseas and military voters and permit them to register by mail. In light of low voter turnout in federal elections throughout the 1980s, Congress returned its attention to creating general voter registration standards in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Members of Congress introduced a series of "motor voter" bills that would require state motor vehicle agencies to offer voter registration opportunities to clients applying for driver's licenses.
The first of these bills, the proposed National Voter Registration Act of 1989, passed in the House of Representatives with bipartisan support, but it stalled in the Senate. A similar bill, the proposed National Voter Registration Act of 1991, gained less bipartisan support. W. Bush. Two years Congress passed a nearly identical bill: the National Voter Registration Act of 1993. In March 1991, the American rock band R. E. M. Placed a mail-away petition in support of the act on the back of the longbox of their album Out of Time and encouraged their fans to fill them out and mail them to Rock the Vote. Rock the Vote received over 100,000 such petitions from the band's fans, subsequently delivered them to the United States Senate in April 1991; the band's campaign has been credited with raising significant public awareness and support of the act before it was signed into law. The purposes of the Act are set out in Section 2: to increase the number of registered voters, to enhance voter participation, to protect election integrity, to ensure states maintain accurate voter roll.
The Act formally applies only to federal elections. However, because states have unified their voter registration systems for state and federal elections, the provisions functionally apply to both state and federal elections; the Act exempts from its requirements states that have continuously, since March 11, 1993, not required voter registration for federal elections or that have offered Election Day voter registration for federal general elections. Six states satisfy these exemption requirements: North Dakota is exempt for having continuously allowed its residents to vote in federal elections without registering, while Idaho, New Hampshire and Wyoming have continuously offered Election Day voter registration for federal general elections. Section 5 requires state motor vehicle offices to provide voter registration opportunities to anyone applying for a new or renewed driver's license or state identification card; the Act reduces costs of voting registration by accumulating individual data when applying for a drivers license or receiving social assistance.
The "motor voter" nickname came from the idea that most of the NVRA data was accumulated from applicants renewing or obtaining driver's licenses. Section 7 requir
For the play titled Solid South see Lawton Campbell The Solid South or Southern bloc was the electoral voting bloc of the states of the Southern United States for issues that were regarded as important to the interests of Democrats in the southern states. The Southern bloc existed between the end of Reconstruction in 1877 and the passage of the Civil Rights Act in 1964. During this period, the Democratic Party controlled state legislatures. Southern Democrats disenfranchised blacks in every state of the former Confederacy at the turn of the 20th century; this resulted in a one-party system, in which a candidate's victory in Democratic primary elections was tantamount to election to the office itself. White primaries were another means that the Democrats used to consolidate their political power, excluding blacks from voting in primaries; the "Solid South" is a loose term referring to the states that made up the voting bloc at any point in time. The Southern region as defined by U. S. Census comprises sixteen states plus Washington, D.
C.—Delaware, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Washington, D. C. West Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Louisiana and Texas; this definition of the Southern region does not correspond to the states in the definition of the Solid South. For example, Maryland was considered part of the Solid South, where Missouri, though classified as a Midwestern state by the U. S. Census was. A former slave state, Missouri became dominated by the Democratic Party after the Civil War. After the 1960s and passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, ensuring federal enforcement of registration and voting, African Americans in the region were able to register and vote, rejoining the political system for the first time since the turn of the 20th century. While nearly six million African Americans had left the region by in the Great Migration to other areas of the country, most of those who remained became affiliated with the Democratic Party, its national leaders had supported the civil rights movement. Around the same time, white conservatives began to shift to the Republican Party, which by 2000 attracted most of the white voters.
African Americans have elected numerous candidates of their choice Democrats, from districts where their votes have been concentrated. At the start of the American Civil War, there were 34 states in the United States, 15 of which were slave states. Eleven of these slave states seceded from the United States to form the Confederacy: South Carolina, Florida, Georgia, Texas, Arkansas and North Carolina; the slave states that stayed in the Union were Maryland, Missouri and Kentucky, they were referred to as the border states. In 1861, West Virginia was created out of Virginia, admitted in 1863 and considered a border state. By the time the Emancipation Proclamation was made in 1863 Tennessee was in Union control. Accordingly the Proclamation applied only to the 10 remaining Confederate states. Several of the border states abolished slavery before the end of the Civil War—the District of Columbia in 1862, Maryland in 1864, Missouri in 1865, one of the Confederate states, Tennessee in 1865, West Virginia in 1865.
However, slavery persisted in Delaware, 10 of the 11 former Confederate states, until the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution abolished slavery throughout the United States on December 18, 1865. Abolition of slavery was a condition of the return of local rule in those states that had declared their secession; the Reconstruction era came to an end in 1877. Democratic dominance of the South originated in the struggle of white Southerners during and after Reconstruction to establish white supremacy and disenfranchise blacks; the U. S. government under the Republican Party had defeated the Confederacy, abolished slavery, enfranchised blacks. In several states, black voters were a close to it. Republicans supported by blacks controlled state governments in these states, thus the Democratic Party became the vehicle for the white supremacist "Redeemers". The Ku Klux Klan, as well as other insurgent paramilitary groups such as the White League and Red Shirts from 1874, acted as "the military arm of the Democratic party" to disrupt Republican organizing, intimidate and suppress black voters.
By 1876, Redeemer Democrats had taken control of all the state governments in the South. From until the 1960s, state and local government in the South was entirely monopolized by Democrats; the Democrats elected all but a handful of U. S. Representatives and Senators, Democratic presidential candidates swept the region – from 1880 through 1944, winning a cumulative total of 182 of 187 states; the Democrats reinforced the loyalty of white voters by emphasizing the suffering of the South during the war at the hands of "Yankee invaders" under Republican leadership, the noble service of their white forefathers in "the Lost Cause". This rhetoric was effective with many Southerners. However, this propaganda was ineffective in areas, loyal to the Union during the war, such as eastern Tennessee. Eastern Tennessee welcomed U. S. troops as liberators, voted Republican after the war to the present. After white Democrats regained control of state legislatures, some blacks were elected to local offices and state legislatures in the South.
Black U. S. Representatives were elected from the South as late as the 1890s from overwhelmingly black areas. In the 1890s, the Populists developed a following in
Dictionaries traditionally define literacy as the ability to read and write. In the modern world, this is one way of interpreting literacy. One more broad interpretation sees literacy as competence in a specific area; the concept of literacy has evolved in meaning. The modern term's meaning has been expanded to include the ability to use language, images and other basic means to understand, gain useful knowledge, solve mathematical problems and use the dominant symbol systems of a culture; the concept of literacy is expanding across OECD countries to include skills to access knowledge through technology and ability to assess complex contexts. A person who travels and resides in a foreign country but is unable to read or write in the language of the host country would be regarded by the locals as illiterate; the key to literacy is reading development, a progression of skills which begins with the ability to understand spoken words and decode written words, which culminates in the deep understanding of text.
Reading development involves a range of complex language-underpinnings including awareness of speech sounds, spelling patterns, word meaning and patterns of word formation, all of which provide a necessary platform for reading fluency and comprehension. Once these skills are acquired, a reader can attain full language literacy, which includes the abilities to apply to printed material critical analysis and synthesis; the inability to do so is called "illiteracy" or "analphabetism". Experts at a United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization meeting have proposed defining literacy as the "ability to identify, interpret, create and compute, using printed and written materials associated with varying contexts"; the experts note: "Literacy involves a continuum of learning in enabling individuals to achieve their goals, to develop their knowledge and potential, to participate in their community and wider society". Literacy emerged with the development of numeracy and computational devices as early as 8000 BCE.
Script developed independently at least five times in human history Mesopotamia, the Indus civilization, lowland Mesoamerica, China. The earliest forms of written communication originated in Serbia, followed by Sumer, located in southern Mesopotamia about 3500-3000 BCE. During this era, literacy was "a functional matter, propelled by the need to manage the new quantities of information and the new type of governance created by trade and large scale production". Writing systems in Mesopotamia first emerged from a recording system in which people used impressed token markings to manage trade and agricultural production; the token system served as a precursor to early cuneiform writing once people began recording information on clay tablets. Proto-cuneiform texts exhibit not only numerical signs, but ideograms depicting objects being counted. Egyptian hieroglyphs emerged from 3300-3100 BCE and depicted royal iconography that emphasized power amongst other elites; the Egyptian hieroglyphic writing system was the first notation system to have phonetic values.
Writing in lowland Mesoamerica was first put into practice by the Olmec and Zapotec civilizations in 900-400 BCE. These civilizations used glyphic writing and bar-and-dot numerical notation systems for purposes related to royal iconography and calendar systems; the earliest written notations in China date back to the Shang Dynasty in 1200 BCE. These systematic notations were found inscribed on bones and recorded sacrifices made, tributes received, animals hunted, which were activities of the elite; these oracle-bone inscriptions were the early ancestors of modern Chinese script and contained logosyllabic script and numerals. Indus script is pictorial and has not been deciphered yet, it may not include abstract signs. It is thought that the script is thought to be logographic; because it has not been deciphered, linguists disagree on whether it is a complete and independent writing system. These examples indicate that early acts of literacy were tied to power and chiefly used for management practices, less than 1% of the population was literate, as it was confined to a small ruling elite.
According to social anthropologist Jack Goody, there are two interpretations that regard the origin of the alphabet. Many classical scholars, such as historian Ignace Gelb, credit the Ancient Greeks for creating the first alphabetic system that used distinctive signs for consonants and vowels, but Goody contests, "The importance of Greek culture of the subsequent history of Western Europe has led to an over-emphasis, by classicists and others, on the addition of specific vowel signs to the set of consonantal ones, developed earlier in Western Asia". Thus, many scholars argue that the ancient Semitic-speaking peoples of northern Canaan invented the consonantal alphabet as early as 1500 BCE. Much of this theory's development is credited to English archeologist Flinders Petrie, who, in 1905, came across a series of Canaanite inscriptions located in the turquoise mines of Serabit el-Khadem. Ten years English Egyptologist Alan Gardiner reasoned that these letters contain an alphabet, as well as references to the Canaanite goddess Asherah.
In 1948, William F. Albright deciphered the text using additional evidence, discovered subsequent to G
Harper's Weekly, A Journal of Civilization was an American political magazine based in New York City. Published by Harper & Brothers from 1857 until 1916, it featured foreign and domestic news, essays on many subjects, humor, alongside illustrations, it carried extensive coverage of the American Civil War, including many illustrations of events from the war. During its most influential period, it was the forum of the political cartoonist Thomas Nast. Along with his brothers James and Wesley, Fletcher Harper began the publishing company Harper & Brothers in 1825. Following the successful example of The Illustrated London News, Harper started publishing Harper's Magazine in 1850; the monthly publication featured established authors such as Charles Dickens and William Makepeace Thackeray, within several years, its circulation and interest grew enough to sustain a weekly edition. In 1857, his company began publishing Harper's Weekly in New York City. By 1860 the circulation of the Weekly had reached 200,000.
Illustrations were an important part of the Weekly's content, it developed a reputation for using some of the most renowned illustrators of the time, notably Winslow Homer, Granville Perkins and Livingston Hopkins. Among the recurring features were the political cartoons of Thomas Nast, recruited in 1862 and worked with the Weekly for more than 20 years. Nast was a feared caricaturist, is called the father of American political cartooning, he was the first to use an elephant as the symbol of the Republican Party. He drew the legendary character of Santa Claus. Harper's Weekly was the most read journal in the United States throughout the period of the Civil War. So as not to upset its wide readership in the South, Harper's took a moderate editorial position on the issue of slavery prior to the outbreak of the war. Publications that supported abolition referred to it as "Harper's Weakly"; the Weekly had supported the Stephen A. Douglas presidential campaign against Abraham Lincoln, but as the American Civil War broke out, it supported Lincoln and the Union.
A July 1863 article on the escaped slave Gordon included a photograph of his back scarred from whippings. The photograph inspired many free blacks in the North to enlist; some of the most important articles and illustrations of the time were Harper's reporting on the war. Besides renderings by Homer and Nast, the magazine published illustrations by Theodore R. Davis, Henry Mosler, the brothers Alfred and William Waud. In 1863, George William Curtis, one of the founders of the Republican Party, became the political editor of the magazine, remained in that capacity until his death in 1892, his editorials advocated civil service reform, low tariffs, adherence to the gold standard. After the war, Harper's Weekly more supported the Republican Party in its editorial positions, contributed to the election of Ulysses S. Grant in 1868 and 1872, it supported the Radical Republican position on Reconstruction. In the 1870s, the cartoonist Thomas Nast began an aggressive campaign in the journal against the corrupt New York political leader William "Boss" Tweed.
Nast turned down a $500,000 bribe to end his attack. Tweed was convicted of fraud. Nast and Harper's played an important part in securing Rutherford B. Hayes' 1876 presidential election. On Hayes remarked that Nast was "the most powerful, single-handed aid had". After the election, Nast's role in the magazine diminished considerably. Since the late 1860s, Nast and George W. Curtis had differed on political matters and on the role of cartoons in political discourse. Curtis believed that mockery by caricature should be reserved for Democrats, did not approve of Nast's cartoons assailing Republicans such as Carl Schurz and Charles Sumner, who opposed policies of the Grant administration. Harper's publisher Fletcher Harper supported Nast in his disputes with Curtis. In 1877, Harper died, his nephews, Joseph W. Harper Jr. and John Henry Harper, assumed control of the magazine. They were more sympathetic to Curtis' arguments for rejecting cartoons that contradicted his editorial positions. In 1884, however and Nast agreed that they could not support the Republican candidate James G. Blaine, whose association with corruption was anathema to them.
Instead they supported Grover Cleveland. Nast's cartoons helped Cleveland become the first Democrat to be elected president since 1856. In the words of the artist's grandson, Thomas Nast St Hill, "it was conceded that Nast's support won Cleveland the small margin by which he was elected. In his last national political campaign, Nast had, in fact,'made a president.'"Nast's final contribution to Harper's Weekly was his Christmas illustration in December 1886. Journalist Henry Watterson said that "in quitting Harper's Weekly, Nast lost his forum: in losing him, Harper's Weekly lost its political importance." Nast's biographer Fiona Deans Halloran says "the former is true to a certain extent, the latter unlikely. Readers may have missed Nast's cartoons, but Harper's Weekly remained influential." After 1900, Harper's Weekly devoted more print to political and social issues, featured articles by some of the more prominent political figures of the time, such as Theodore Roosevelt. Harper's editor George Harvey was an early supporter of Woodrow Wilson's candidacy, proposing him for the Presidency at a Lotos Club dinner in 1906.
After that dinner, Harvey would make sure that he "emblazoned each issue of Harper's We
Voting rights in the United States
The issue of voting rights in the United States the enfranchisement and disenfranchisement of different groups, has been contested throughout United States history. Eligibility to vote in the United States is established both through the United States Constitution and by state law. Several constitutional amendments require that voting rights cannot be abridged on account of race, previous condition of servitude, sex, or age for those above 18. In the absence of a specific federal law or constitutional provision, each state is given considerable discretion to establish qualifications for suffrage and candidacy within its own respective jurisdiction. Beyond qualifications for suffrage and regulations concerning voting have been contested since the advent of Jim Crow laws and related provisions that indirectly disenfranchised racial minorities. Since the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the 24th Amendment to the Constitution, related laws, voting rights have been considered an issue related to election systems.
The Supreme Court ruled in 1964 that both houses of all state legislatures had to be based on election districts that were equal in population size, under the "one man, one vote" principle. In 1972, the Court ruled that state legislatures had to redistrict every ten years based on census results. In other cases for county or municipal elections, at-large voting has been challenged when found to dilute the voting power of significant minorities in violation of the Voting Rights Act. In the early 20th century, numerous cities established small commission forms of government in the belief that "better government" could result from the suppression of ward politics. Commissioners were elected by the majority of voters, excluding candidates who could not afford large campaigns or who appealed to a minority; the solution to such violations has been to adopt single-member districts but alternative election systems, such as limited voting or cumulative voting, have been used since the late 20th century to correct for dilution of voting power and enable minorities to elect candidates of their choice.
The District of Columbia and 5 major territories of the United States have one non-voting member each and no representation in the U. S. Senate. People in the U. S. territories cannot vote for president of the United States. People in the District of Columbia can vote for the president because of the 23rd Amendment; the United States Constitution did not define, eligible to vote, allowing each state to determine, eligible. In the early history of the U. S. most states allowed only white male adult property owners to vote. Freed slaves could vote in four states. Women were prohibited from voting, as were men without property. Women could vote in New Jersey in some local jurisdictions in other northern states. Non-white Americans could vote in these jurisdictions, provided they could meet the property requirement. By 1856, white men were allowed to vote in all states regardless of property ownership, although requirements for paying tax remained in five states. On the other hand, several states, including Pennsylvania and New Jersey stripped the free black males of the right to vote in the same period.
Four of the fifteen post-Civil War constitutional amendments were ratified to extend voting rights to different groups of citizens. These extensions state that voting rights cannot be denied or abridged based on the following: "Race, color, or previous condition of servitude" "On account of sex" "By reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax" for federal elections "Who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of age" Following the Reconstruction Era until the culmination of the Civil Rights Movement, Jim Crow laws such as literacy tests, poll taxes, religious tests were some of the state and local laws used in various parts of the United States to deny immigrants, non-white citizens, Native Americans, any other locally "undesirable" groups from exercising voting rights granted under the constitution; because of such state and local discriminatory practices, over time, the federal role in elections has increased, through amendments to the Constitution and enacted legislation.
These reforms in the 19th and 20th centuries extended the franchise to non-whites, those who do not own property and those 18–21 years old. Since the "right to vote" is not explicitly stated in the U. S. Constitution except in the above referenced amendments, only in reference to the fact that the franchise cannot be denied or abridged based on the aforementioned qualifications, the "right to vote" is better understood, in layman's terms, as only prohibiting certain forms of legal discrimination in establishing qualifications for suffrage. States may deny the "right to vote" for other reasons. For example, many states require eligible citizens to register to vote a set number of days prior to the election in order to vote. More controversial restrictions include those laws that prohibit convicted felons from voting those who have
Elihu Root was an American lawyer and statesman who served as the Secretary of State under President Theodore Roosevelt and as Secretary of War under Roosevelt and President William McKinley. He moved between high-level appointed government positions in Washington, D. C. and private-sector legal practice in New York City. For that reason, he is sometimes considered to be the prototype of the 20th century political "wise man," advising presidents on a range of foreign and domestic issues, he was elected by the state legislature as a U. S. Senator from New York and served one term, 1909–1915. Root was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1912. Root was a leading lawyer, whose clients included major corporations and such powerful players as Andrew Carnegie. Root served as president or chairman of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, the Carnegie Institution of Washington, the Carnegie Corporation of New York; as Secretary of War under McKinley and Roosevelt, Root designed American policies for the new colonial possessions the Philippines and Cuba.
His role in suppressing a Filipino revolt angered anti-imperialist activists at home. Root favored a paternalistic approach to colonial administration, emphasizing technology and disinterested public service, as exemplified by the ethical standards of the Progressive Era, he helped design the Foraker Act of 1900, the Philippine Organic Act, the Platt Amendment of 1901, which authorized American intervention in Cuba in the future if needed to maintain a stable government. He was a strong advocate of what became the Panama Canal, he championed the Open Door to expand world trade with China. Root was the leading modernizer in the history of the War Department, transforming the Army from a motley collection of small frontier outposts and coastal defense units into a modern, professionally organized, military machine comparable to the best in Europe, he restructured the National Guard into an effective reserve, created the Army War College for the advanced study of military doctrine, and––most important––set up a general staff.
As Secretary of State under Theodore Roosevelt, Root modernized the consular service by minimizing patronage, promoted friendly relations with Latin America, resolved frictions with Japan over the immigration of unskilled workers to the West Coast. He negotiated 24 bilateral treaties that committed the United States and other signatories to use arbitration to resolve disputes, which led to the creation of the Permanent Court of International Justice. In the United States Senate, Root was part of the conservative Republican support network for President William Howard Taft, he played a central role at the Republican National Convention in 1912 in getting Taft renominated. By 1916–17, he was a leading proponent of preparedness, with the expectation that the United States would enter World War I. President Woodrow Wilson sent him to Russia in 1917 in an unsuccessful effort to establish an alliance with the new revolutionary government that had replaced the czar. Root supported Wilson's vision of the League of Nations, but with reservations along the lines proposed by Republican Senator Henry Cabot Lodge.
Elihu Root was born in Clinton, New York, to Oren Root and Nancy Whitney Buttrick, both of English descent. His father was professor of mathematics at Hamilton College. After studying at local schools, including Williston Seminary, where he was a classmate of G. Stanley Hall, Elihu enrolled in college at Hamilton, he joined the Sigma Phi Society and was elected to the Phi Beta Kappa Society After graduation, Root was an instructor of physical education for two years at Williston Seminary and taught for one year at the Rome Free Academy. Despite his parents' encouragement to become a Presbyterian minister, Root went to New York City to attend New York University School of Law, from which he graduated in 1867, his brother Oren became a minister and followed in their father's footsteps as a Mathematics professor at Hamilton. After admission to the bar in New York, Root went into private practice as a lawyer. While focusing on corporate law, Root was a junior defense counsel for William "Boss" Tweed during his corruption trial.
Among Root's prominent and wealthy private clients were Jay Gould, Chester A. Arthur, Charles Anderson Dana, William C. Whitney, Thomas Fortune Ryan, E. H. Harriman. Root was among the friends who were present when Arthur was informed that James A. Garfield had died, that Arthur had succeeded to the presidency, he served as the United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York from March 12, 1883 to July 6, 1885. Root's law practice, which he began in 1868, evolved into the law firm Winthrop, Putnam & Roberts, a predecessor of today's Pillsbury Winthrop Shaw Pittman. Root was part of the defense counsel that William M. Tweed created to defend himself during Tweed's first court case in January 1873. Other members of the defense counsel included John Graham and David Dudley Field II; this first trial ended. A second trial began November 1873 and this time Tweed received a sentence of twelve years in prison and a $12,750 fine from judge Noah Davis. On January 19, 1898, at elections for the newly formed North American Trust Company, the elected members of the executive committee included Root.
Root received his first political appointment from President Chester A. Arthur, when he was named as the U. S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York. Under presidents William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt, Root served as the United States Secretary of War 1899–1904, he reformed the organization of the War Department. He enlarged West Point and established the U. S. Army War College, as well as the General Staff, he changed the