Literary realism is part of the realist art movement beginning with mid-nineteenth-century French literature, Russian literature and extending to the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Literary realism attempts to represent familiar things. Realist authors chose to depict everyday and banal activities and experiences, instead of using a romanticized or stylized presentation. Broadly defined as "the representation of reality", realism in the arts is the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, as well as implausible and supernatural elements. Realism has been prevalent in the arts at many periods, is in large part a matter of technique and training, the avoidance of stylization. In the visual arts, illusionistic realism is the accurate depiction of lifeforms and the details of light and colour. Realist works of art may emphasize the ugly or sordid, such as works of social realism, regionalism, or kitchen sink realism. There have been various realism movements in the arts, such as the opera style of verismo, literary realism, theatrical realism and Italian neorealist cinema.
The realism art movement in painting began in France after the 1848 Revolution. The realist painters rejected Romanticism, which had come to dominate French literature and art, with roots in the late 18th century. In the Introduction to The Human Comedy Balzac "claims that poetic creation and scientific creation are related activities, manifesting the tendency of realists towards taking over scientific methods; the artists of realism used the achievements of contemporary science, the strictness and precision of the scientific method, in order to understand reality. The positivist spirit in science presupposes feeling contempt towards metaphysics, the cult of the fact and proof, confidence in science and the progress that it brings, as well as striving to give a scientific form to studying social and moral phenomena." Realism as a movement in literature was a post-1848 phenomenon, according to its first theorist Jules-Français Champfleury. It aims to reproduce "objective reality", focused on showing everyday, quotidian activities and life among the middle or lower class society, without romantic idealization or dramatization.
It may be regarded as the general attempt to depict subjects as they are considered to exist in third person objective reality, without embellishment or interpretation and "in accordance with secular, empirical rules." As such, the approach inherently implies a belief that such reality is ontologically independent of man's conceptual schemes, linguistic practices and beliefs, thus can be known to the artist, who can in turn represent this'reality' faithfully. As literary critic Ian Watt states in The Rise of the Novel, modern realism "begins from the position that truth can be discovered by the individual through the senses" and as such "it has its origins in Descartes and Locke, received its first full formulation by Thomas Reid in the middle of the eighteenth century."In the late 18th century Romanticism was a revolt against the aristocratic social and political norms of the previous Age of Reason and a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature found in the dominant philosophy of the 18th century, as well as a reaction to the Industrial Revolution.
It was embodied most in the visual arts and literature, but had a major impact on historiography and the natural sciences.19th-century realism was in its turn a reaction to Romanticism, for this reason it is commonly derogatorily referred as traditional or "bourgeois realism". However, not all writers of Victorian literature produced works of realism; the rigidities and other limitations of Victorian realism, prompted in their turn the revolt of modernism. Starting around 1900, the driving motive of modernist literature was the criticism of the 19th-century bourgeois social order and world view, countered with an antirationalist and antibourgeois program. Social Realism is an international art movement that includes the work of painters, printmakers and filmmakers who draw attention to the everyday conditions of the working classes and the poor, who are critical of the social structures that maintain these conditions. While the movement's artistic styles vary from nation to nation, it always uses a form of descriptive or critical realism.
Kitchen sink realism is a term coined to describe a British cultural movement that developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s in theatre, novels and television plays, which used a style of social realism. Its protagonists could be described as angry young men, it depicted the domestic situations of working-class Britons living in cramped rented accommodation and spending their off-hours drinking in grimy pubs, to explore social issues and political controversies; the films and novels employing this style are set in poorer industrial areas in the North of England, use the rough-hewn speaking accents and slang heard in those regions. The film It Always Rains on Sunday is a precursor of the genre, the John Osborne play Look Back in Anger is thought of as the first of the genre; the gritty love-triangle of Look Back in Anger, for example, takes place in a cramped, one-room flat in the English Midlands. The conventions of the genre have continued into the 2000s, finding expression in such television shows as Coronation Street and EastEnders.
Ladislaus Losonci was a Hungarian powerful baron, who served as Count of the Székelys from 1373 to 1376, Voivode of Transylvania from 1376 to 1385 and from 1386 until his death. He was a staunch supporter of Mary, Queen of Hungary after 1382. In contemporary records, he was called Ladislaus the Elder to distinguish him from his namesake relative Ladislaus II Losonci. Ladislaus was born into the Dezsőfi branch of the influential Losonci family as the son of Desiderius I, castellan of Kőszeg Sebesvár, he had three brothers, Denis and Nicholas, who functioned as Count of the Székelys between 1382 and 1385. The Losonci family originated from the Tomaj clan of Pecheneg origin. Ladislaus' great-grandfather was the famous soldier, Palatine Denis Tomaj, killed in the Battle of Mohi in 1241. Ladislaus had a son from his marriage to an unidentified wife, he first appeared in contemporary sources in 1347. King Louis I made him Count of the Székelys in 1373, he held the dignity till 1376. Losonci was promoted to Voivode of Transylvania by Louis I in May 1376, again replacing Stephen Lackfi.
Beside that he served as ispán of Szolnok County which belonged to the voivodeship as part of its honor. Losonci governed the province from his seat in Szentivány in Torda County. Both the present-day Romanian and Hungarian names of the village and Vajdaszentivány preserved his central role in the development and history of the settlement, he had an own chancellery there, magister Gál functioned as his protonotarius during most of his term. His vice-voivode was John Temes. In 1377, Louis I visited Transylvania. Alongside Lord Chancellor Demetrius and Ban Nicholas Szécsi, Losonci took part in the defining the boundaries of estates across the province, initiated by Louis. Louis the Great died on 10 September 1382. Demetrius crowned his daughter Mary "king"; however they remained unpopular among the Hungarian noblemen, the majority of whom regarded Mary's distant cousin, Charles III of Naples, as the lawful king. Three baronial groups and internal anarchic conditions with tensions emerged. Losonci was their strongest ally, Palatine Nicholas Garai.
As he opposed Sigismund of Luxembourg' demand to the Hungarian throne and his proposed marriage to Mary, Queen Elizabeth entrusted him to lead a Hungarian delegation to Paris in June 1385 to open negotiations on the marriage of Mary to the younger brother of King Charles VI of France, Louis. Ivan V Frankopan and Ladislaus Losonci arrived to Paris through Padua with 150 knights by the next month, however Sigismund meanwhile invaded Upper Hungary, forcing the queen mother to give Mary in marriage to him in October, neutralizing Losonci's diplomacy efforts in France. Returning home through Rome, he obtained permission from Pope Urban VI to found an Augustinian monastery near the Parish Church of Szászrégen. Losonci became politically disgraced for a time after his return due to Sigismund's growing influence. In addition, Mary renounced the crown without resistance in December in favour of Charles III of Naples, elected King of Hungary by the Diet, he was dismissed as voivode around September, replaced by Stephen Lackfi.
After the murdered Charles' supporters captured Mary and her mother on 25 July 1386, through the mediation of his relatives from the senior branch, swore allegiance to Sigismund in return for an amnesty letter which guaranteed retention of his possessions and impunity for his previous acts against Sigismund' power interests. Soon thereafter, Losonci was re-installed into the position of voivode by September 1386, he participated in the siege of Novigrad Castle, where Sigismund's troops captured the fort and liberated Mary on 4 June 1387. Losonci was present. Sigismund donated Csicsó Castle to Ladislaus and Nicholas Losonci for their merits in the struggle against Charles' supporters, he was granted Bálványos Castle around 1387, which remained his family's property until the death of his son John. However Losonci's loyalty to King Sigismund was nominal and forced. Among other native lords, he opposed the permanent presence of foreign consultants and traders in the royal court. Meanwhile, the senior branch of the Losonci family turned against Sigismund.
Ladislaus of Naples's envoys secretly contacted with Ladislaus Losonci on 7 October 1390, beside other barons. Though it is possible that the Neapolitan charter referred to Ladislaus II Losonci, former Ban of Croatia, in this aspect. Nonetheless, all branches of the Losoncis became supporters of the murdered Charles' son by then. Voivode Losonci and his kinship launched a military campaign from Transylvania to Buda in August 1390, destroying their opponents' possessions on the way; the army reached the area of Szolnok by 20 August, where it plundered the three villages of Frank Szécsényi, a pro-Sigismund baron and brother of Count of the Székelys Simon Szécsényi, a local enemy of the voivode. Their rebellion was crushed by the end of the year as it did not escalated into a civil war at the other regions of the realm. In the following year, Sigismund isolated his rebellious voivode with land donations to local noblemen in Transylvania; the King visited the province in the first half of 1391. At the Diet of Torda, he adopted laws which
The East Anglian Daily Times is a British local newspaper for Suffolk and Essex, based in Ipswich. It started publication on 13 October 1874, incorporating the Ipswich Express, published since 13 August 1839; the current editor is Brad Jones. The East Anglian Daily Times merged news operations with the Ipswich Star in 2010, under the stewardship of chief executive of Archant Suffolk, Stuart McCreery; the paper is published daily from Monday to Saturday in four regional editions: West Suffolk, North Suffolk, East Suffolk and Essex. In the period December 2010-June 2011, it had an average daily circulation of 29,932; however by December 2018 that had dropped to 12,589 The East Anglian Daily Times Company merged with Eastern Counties Newspapers in the 1960s.