Lithic reduction

In archaeology, in particular of the Stone Age, lithic reduction is the process of fashioning stones or rocks from their natural state into tools or weapons by removing some parts. It has been intensely studied and many archaeological industries are identified entirely by the lithic analysis of the precise style of their tools and the chaîne opératoire of the reduction techniques they used; the starting point is the selection of a piece of tool stone, detached by natural geological processes, is an appropriate size and shape. In some cases solid rock or larger boulders may be quarried and broken into suitable smaller pieces, in others the starting point may be a piece of the debitage, a flake removed from a previous operation to make a larger tool; the selected piece is called the lithic core. A basic distinction is that between flaked or chipped stone, the main subject here, ground stone objects made by grinding. Flaked stone reduction involves the use of a hard hammer percussor, such as a hammerstone, a soft hammer fabricator, or a wood or antler punch to detach lithic flakes from the lithic core.

As flakes are detached in sequence, the original mass of stone is reduced. Lithic reduction may be performed in order to obtain sharp flakes, of which a variety of tools can be made, or to rough out a blank for refinement into a projectile point, knife, or other object. Flakes of regular size that are at least twice as long as they are broad are called blades. Lithic tools produced this way may be unifacial. Cryptocrystalline or amorphous stone such as chert, flint and chalcedony, as well as other fine-grained stone material, such as rhyolite and quartzite, were used as a source material for producing stone tools; as these materials lack natural planes of separation, conchoidal fractures occur when they are struck with sufficient force. The propagation of force through the material takes the form of a Hertzian cone that originates from the point of impact and results in the separation of material from the objective piece in the form of a partial cone known as a lithic flake; this process is predictable, allows the flintknapper to control and direct the application of force so as to shape the material being worked.

Controlled experiments may be performed using glass cores and consistent applied force in order to determine how varying factors affect core reduction. It has been shown that stages in the lithic reduction sequence may be misleading and that a better way to assess the data is by looking at it as a continuum; the assumptions that archaeologists sometimes make regarding the reduction sequence based on the placement of a flake into a stage can be unfounded. For example, a significant amount of cortex can be present on a flake taken off near the end of the reduction sequence. Removed flakes exhibit features characteristic of conchoidal fracturing, including striking platforms, bulbs of force, eraillures. Flakes are quite sharp, with distal edges only a few molecules thick when they have a feather termination; these flakes can be used directly as tools or modified into other utilitarian implements, such as spokeshaves and scrapers. By understanding the complex processes of lithic reduction, archaeologists recognize that the pattern and amount of reduction contribute tremendous effect to lithic assemblage compositions.

One of the measurements is the geometric index of reduction. There are two elements in this index:'t' and'T'. The'T' is the'height' of maximum blank thickness and the't' is the height of retouched scar from the ventral surface; the ratio between t and T is the geometric index of reduction. In theory this ratio shall range between 0 and 1; the bigger the number is the larger amount of lost weight from lithic flake. By using a logarithmic scale, a linear relationship between the geometric index and the percentage of original flake weight lost through retouch is confirmed. In choosing a reduction index, it is important to understand the strengths and weaknesses of each method, how they fit to the intended research question, as different indices provide different levels of information. For example, Kuhn's geometric index of unifacial reduction, which describes the ratio of scar height relative to the flake thickness, is influenced by the morphology of the flake blank which limits the applicability of this reduction index.

Alongside the various percussion and manipulation techniques described below, there is evidence that heat was at least sometimes used. Experimental archaeology has demonstrated that heated stones are sometimes much easier to flake, with larger flakes being produced in flint, for example. In some cases the heating changes the colour of the stone. Percussion reduction, or percussion flaking, refers to removal of flakes by impact. A core or other objective piece, such as a formed tool, is held in one hand, struck with a hammer or percussor. Alternatively, the objective piece can be struck between a stationary anvil-stone, known as bipolar percussion. Percussion can be done by throwing the objective piece at an anvil stone; this is sometimes called projectile percussion. Percussors are traditionally either a stone cobble or pebble referred to as a hammerstone, or a billet made of bone, antler, or wood. Flakes are struck from a core using a punch, in which case the percussor never makes contact with the objective piece.

This technique is referred to

2004 Cape Verdean Football Championships

The 2004 Cape Verdean Football Championship season was the 25th of the competition of the first-tier football in Cape Verde. Its finished on 10 July, earlier than the last season; the tournament was organized by the Cape Verdean Football Federation. Académico do. A total of 11 clubs participated in one from each island league. No club participated from the Santo Antão Island League due to the regional championship was not held, again in several seasons the champion of a previous season competed at the nationals, Académico do Aeroporto from the island of Sal participated; as that club were regional winners, again a runner-up of the regionals qualified and was Santa Maria from the south of the island. A total of 93 goals were scored, Ravs scored the most numbering 11. There were no competition in the first week of July due to the municipal elections that were taking place. Académico do Aeroporto, winner of the 2003 Cape Verdean Football Championships SC Sal Rei, winner of the Boa Vista Island League Nô Pintcha, winner of the Brava Island League Vulcânicos FC, winner of the Fogo Island League Onze Unidos, winner of the Maio Island League SC Santa Maria, runner up of the Sal Island League Estrela dos Amadores, winner of the Santiago Island League Académica da Praia, winner of the Santiago Island League Paulense Desportivo Clube, winner of the Santo Antão Island League FC Ultramarina, winner of the São Nicolau Island League Académica do Mindelo, winner of the São Vicente Island League The league was contested with 12 clubs, Sal-Rei FC would win the championship.

The league's highest scoring game would be Académico Aeroporto defeating Paulense 6-0. Top scorer: Ravs: 11 goals Biggest win: Académico Aeroporto 6-0 Paulense

The Unforgiven (2005 film)

The Unforgiven is a 2005 South Korean drama film directed by Yoon Jong-bin. Turning painful experiences of his own compulsory military service into a narrative of three young men, director Yoon presses the hot-button issue of military service in contemporary South Korea. Yoon's controversial exposé of psychological and physical violence within the ranks stimulated a national dialogue on the subject. Lee Seung-young is a new recruit in the South Korean military who finds that his commanding officer, Sergeant Yoo Tae-jeong is an old school friend. Yoo looks after Lee, tries to help the stubborn and contrary youngster adjust to the strict hierarchies and harshness of military life; as time passes, Lee's resistance wears down, he finds himself understanding, becoming more like the superior officers he struggled against. Matters come to a head when he is given command of Heo Ji-hoon, a slovenly newcomer whose constant incompetence tests Lee's patience, forces him to act. Ha Jung-woo as Yoo Tae-jeong Seo Jang-won as Lee Seung-young Yoon Jong-bin as Heo Ji-hoon Lim Hyun-sung as Soo-dong Han Sung-chun as Dae-seok Sohn Sang-bum as Young-il Kim Sung-mi as Ji-hye Joo Hyun-woo as Senior 1 Park Min-kwan as Sergeant Seo Jung-joon as Casher Kim Byung-joon as Drunken Man Lee Hye-min as Soo-hyun The Unforgiven was a feature-length graduation thesis film from director Yoon Jong-bin an undergraduate in Chung-Ang University film school.

Despite its rough edges due to technical limitations and a low budget, the film was a smash hit at the 2005 Busan International Film Festival and won the following awards: Best Korean Feature, Most Popular Film in the New Currents section, FIPRESCI, NETPAC. This generated wide publicity for the film, giving it a chance to be shown at respectable arthouse theaters in Seoul. Director Yoon found himself the object of litigation by the Defense Department, when the film turned out to be a far cry from the heartwarming "story of friendship inside the barracks" the Defense Department had read in screenplay form, before they granted Yoon permission to shoot his film inside the authentic living quarters. Yoon stated that he will accept the appropriate punishment. Not only does the film deal with the difficult and taboo subject of mandatory military service in South Korea, but it does so with an admirable level of thoughtfulness and honesty. describes the film's last scene as "one of the most painfully honest renderings of young Korean men seen in a Korean film, whose souls are eaten away by the price they paid for having'adjusted' themselves to become good soldiers and upstanding'real men'.

The Unforgiven is a must-see for anyone who seeks to gain insight into the inner psychology of South Korean men, a stupendously promising debut for yet another talented Korean filmmaker."The film screened in the Un Certain Regard section of the 2006 Cannes Film Festival. Official website The Unforgiven on IMDb The Unforgiven at the Korean Movie Database The Unforgiven at HanCinema The Unforgiven at Korean Film Biz Zone