Lithium-ion battery

A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery is a type of rechargeable battery. Lithium-ion batteries are used for portable electronics and electric vehicles and are growing in popularity for military and aerospace applications; the technology was developed by John Goodenough, Stanley Whittingham, Rachid Yazami and Akira Yoshino during the 1970s–1980s, commercialized by a Sony and Asahi Kasei team led by Yoshio Nishi in 1991. In the batteries, lithium ions move from the negative electrode through an electrolyte to the positive electrode during discharge, back when charging. Li-ion batteries use an intercalated lithium compound as the material at the positive electrode and graphite at the negative electrode; the batteries have no memory effect and low self-discharge. They can however be a safety hazard since they contain a flammable electrolyte, if damaged or incorrectly charged can lead to explosions and fires. Samsung were forced to recall Galaxy Note 7 handsets following lithium-ion fires, there have been several incidents involving batteries on Boeing 787s.

Chemistry, performance and safety characteristics vary across LIB types. Handheld electronics use lithium polymer batteries with lithium cobalt oxide as cathode material, which offers high energy density, but presents safety risks when damaged. Lithium iron phosphate, lithium ion manganese oxide battery, lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide offer lower energy density but longer lives and less likelihood of fire or explosion; such batteries are used for electric tools, medical equipment, other roles. NMC in particular is a leading contender for automotive applications. Research areas for lithium-ion batteries include life extension, energy density, cost reduction, charging speed, among others. Research has been under way in the area of non-flammable electrolytes as a pathway to increased safety based on the flammability and volatility of the organic solvents used in the typical electrolyte. Strategies include aqueous lithium-ion batteries, ceramic solid electrolytes, polymer electrolytes, ionic liquids, fluorinated systems.

A cell is a basic electrochemical unit that contains the electrodes and electrolyte. A battery or battery pack is a collection of cells or cell assemblies, with housing, electrical connections, electronics for control and protection. For rechargeable cells, the term anode designates the electrode where oxidation is taking place during the discharge cycle. During the charge cycle, the positive electrode becomes the anode and the negative electrode becomes the cathode. For most lithium-ion cells, the lithium-oxide electrode is the positive electrode. Lithium batteries were proposed by British chemist M. Stanley Whittingham, now at Binghamton University, while working for Exxon in the 1970s. Whittingham used titanium lithium metal as the electrodes. However, this rechargeable lithium battery could never be made practical. Titanium disulfide was a poor choice, since it has to be synthesized under sealed conditions being quite expensive; when exposed to air, titanium disulfide reacts to form hydrogen sulfide compounds, which have an unpleasant odour and are toxic to most animals.

For this, other reasons, Exxon discontinued development of Whittingham's lithium-titanium disulfide battery. Batteries with metallic lithium electrodes presented safety issues, as lithium metal reacts with water, releasing flammable hydrogen gas. Research moved to develop batteries in which, instead of metallic lithium, only lithium compounds are present, being capable of accepting and releasing lithium ions. Reversible intercalation in graphite and intercalation into cathodic oxides was discovered during 1974–76 by J. O. Besenhard at TU Munich. Besenhard proposed its application in lithium cells. Electrolyte decomposition and solvent co-intercalation into graphite were severe early drawbacks for battery life, it has been argued that lithium will be one of the main objects of geopolitical competition in a world running on renewable energy and dependent on batteries, but this perspective has been criticised for underestimating the power of economic incentives for expanded production. 1973 – Adam Heller proposed the lithium thionyl chloride battery, still used in implanted medical devices and in defense systems where a greater than 20-year shelf life, high energy density, and/or tolerance for extreme operating temperatures are required.

1977 – Samar Basu demonstrated electrochemical intercalation of lithium in graphite at the University of Pennsylvania. This led to the development of a workable lithium intercalated graphite electrode at Bell Labs to provide an alternative to the lithium metal electrode battery. 1979 – Working in separate groups, Ned A. Godshall et al. and, shortly thereafter, John B. Goodenough and Koichi Mizushima, demonstrated a rechargeable lithium cell with voltage in the 4 V range using lithium cobalt dioxide as the positive electrode and lithium metal as the negative electrode; this innovation provided the positive electrode material that enabled early commercial lithium batteries. LiCoO2 is a stable positive electrode material which acts as a donor of lithium ions, which means that it can be used with a negative electrode material other than lithium metal. By enabling the use of stable and easy-to-handle negat

Senri Kawaguchi

Senri Kawaguchi is a Japanese jazz and fusion drummer. In Japan she is sometimes known as tekazuhime, she has the image of a gecko on the front of her 20-inch bass drum, on her Zildjian drumsticks. She has won many awards for her drumming. Kawaguchi was born in a suburb of Nagoya, Aichi Prefecture on 8 January 1997, she was introduced to drumming at the age of five when her father, who she described in an interview as a mecha-otaku, brought home an electronic drum kit so that he could explore its inner workings. He gave it to her to play with, at the age of six, she began taking drum lessons locally; when she was eight years old her teacher recommended that, having shown sufficient interest and talent, she start taking lessons from the renowned Japanese drummer and drum instructor Kozo Sugunama. Under Sugunama's tutelage Kawaguchi's skills developed, soon she was accompanying professional musicians. In 2009, she made her first DVD, Horoscope with Sugunama and members of the Japanese fusion band Fragile.

That year, after starting junior high school, she began making appearances at a number of small venues, as Senri's Super Session with Akira Tanemura on guitar, Teruyuki Iwawaki on bass and Mayumi Yoshida on keyboard, with whom she still performs. Videos from many of these performances, were posted to a YouTube account set up in her name, along with videos in which she performed to the accompaniment of music from the anime K-On, bringing her to a much wider audience. In 2010, at the age of 13, she became one of the youngest drummers, only the second Japanese drummer after Akira Jimbo to be added to the Drummerworld list of top 500 drummers. In 2011, as well as continuing session work, she made her first overseas trip as a drummer when Yamaha Drums invited her to showcase some of their new drum kits at the 2011 Winter NAMM Show in Anaheim, California. In the year, she travelled with Yamaha to China, to participate in the 2011 Tianjin Jiutai International Drum Festival. In 2012, she made her first national television appearance when, along with the members of Senri’s Super Session, she accompanied guitarist Kyoji Yamamoto at that year's Tokyo Crossover Night International Jazz Festival, broadcast by Fuji Television on their satellite channel.

On her 16th birthday in January 2013, she released her first solo CD A la Mode. In it she was accompanied by a number of Japanese musicians, including some that she had performed with in her BeeHive Sessions; that year, she travelled to the Hua Hin Jazz Festival, where she performed with Jun Abe, Shingo Tanaka, the bassist of fusion jazz band T-Square, Kay-Ta Matsuno. Towards the end of the year, she began a collaboration with Kiyomi Otaka the keyboard player from Casiopea 3rd, forming the fusion duo Kiyo*Sen, they released their first CD Chocolate Booster in January 2014. The release of this CD was followed up with a short tour in the year. At the beginning of 2014, she went to Los Angeles to record Buena Vista. There, she met French smooth jazz and new-age music multi-instrumentalist Philippe Saisse, with whom she continues to work, she was invited to be one of the international judges for the 2014 Hit Like a Girl drum competition, has been a regular judge since then. In the year, she became involved in idol group E-Girls' tour of Japan, joining their support group as the drummer, giving her her first experience of performing at larger venues, including Tokyo's Budokan.

In September, she made her first appearance at the Tokyo Jazz Festival. In April 2015, after graduating from senior high school, she moved to Tokyo to study social science at Waseda University. While studying at university she continues her studio work. In June that year, Kiyo*Sen released their second CD Duology and followed it up with a short tour publicising the release. In August, she travelled to the 2015 Rock au château festival held in the grounds of the château de Villersexel in France. In September, she performed at the Super Mario 30th Anniversary Concert in Tokyo, she became more in demand to work with other artists, either in concert, or as a session artist on albums, notably being invited to perform with Guthrie Govan on the Japanese leg of his Erotic Cakes tour at the end of 2015. She would work again with Govan, a year at the end of 2016. In 2016, she released 3 CDs: KKK Core, a collaboration between Kawaguchi, Kozo Sugunama and Kaori Hirohara that they had worked on since the previous year.

Throughout 2017, she participated in events to promote Yamaha Drum's 50th anniversary—culminating in a concert on stage with Dave Weckl, Steve Gadd, Akira Jimbo on 2 September. Artists that she worked with in 2017 included Bootsy Collins on his CD World Wide Funk, released in October 2017 and Jan Erling Holberg, with whom she worked on the single Aim to Please. In September, 2017 she performed with Saisse and Sabal-Lecco for a televised performance at the 2017 Tokyo Jazz Festival at NHK Hall, after which they performed at various venues, including Motion Blue in Tokyo, recorded and released as a DVD and Blu-ray, for which they won the Nissan Jazz Japan Award 2017 for Best Live Performance. In October 2017, she travelled to Bengaluru where she participated in the 2017 October Octaves with Indian fusion vi


The Brulé are one of the seven branches or bands of the Teton Lakota American Indian people. They are known as Sičháŋǧu Oyáte, or "Burnt Thighs Nation", so, were called Brulé by the French; the name may have derived from an incident where they were fleeing through a grass fire on the plains. Many Sicangu people live on the Rosebud Indian Reservation in southwestern South Dakota and are enrolled in the federally recognized Rosebud Sioux Tribe, known as Sicangu Oyate. A smaller population lives on the Lower Brule Indian Reservation, on the west bank of the Missouri River in central South Dakota. Others live on Pine Ridge Indian Reservation; the different federally recognized tribes are politically independent of each other. The term "Sičhą́ǧu" appears on pages 3 to 14 of Beginning Lakhota. "Ká Lakȟóta kį líla hą́ske.'That Indian is tall.'" "Hą, hé Sičhą́ǧú.'Yes, that's a Rosebud Sioux.'" It appears to be a compound word of the Thítȟųwą Lakȟóta dialect meaning "burned thigh". Together with the Oglala Lakota, who are based at the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation.

They are called Southern Lakota. They were divided in three great regional tribal divisions: Lower Brulé Upper Brulé Brulé of the Platte River According to the Brulé Medicine Bull, the people were decentralized and identified with the following tiyošpaye or extended family groups who collected in various local tiwahe: Apewantanka Chokatowela Ihanktonwan Iyakoza Kanghi yuha Nakhpakhpa Pispiza wichasha Shawala Shiyolanka Wacheunpa Waleghaunwohan The Brulé give pulverized roots Asclepias viridiflora to children with diarrhea. Nursing mothers take an infusion of the whole plant to increase their milk, they brew the leaves of Ceanothus herbaceus into a tea. Mary Brave Bird, author Leonard Crow Dog, spiritual leader, American Indian Movement activist Paul Eagle Star, performer with Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show Hollow Horn Bear, chief Iron Nation, chief Iron Shell, chief Little Thunder, chief Arnold Short Bull, a well-known Sicangu holy man, who brought the Ghost Dance to the Lakota in South Dakota in 1890 Michael Spears, actor Eddie Spears, actor Spotted Tail or "Sinte Gleska", 19th-century chief Moses Stranger Horse, artist Two Strike, chief Albert White Hat, Lakota language teacher Dyani White Hawk, contemporary painter and former curator of All My Relations Arts gallery Chauncey Yellow Robe, educator and activist Rosebud Yellow Robe, folklorist and author Rosalie Little Thunder, spiritual activist, language teacher, bead worker Frank Waln, rapper Sonny Skyhawk, actor and activist Bois-Brûlés Official website of the Sicangu Oyate, Rosebud Sioux Tribe Indian genealogy Official website of the Kul Wicasa Oyate