3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||29.88 g/mol|
|Melting point||1,438 °C (2,620 °F; 1,711 K)|
|Boiling point||2,600 °C (4,710 °F; 2,870 K)|
|reacts violently to form LiOH|
Refractive index (nD)
|Antifluorite (cubic), cF12|
|Fm3m, No. 225|
|Tetrahedral (Li+); cubic (O2−)|
Heat capacity (C)
|1.8105 J/g K or 54.1 J/mol K|
|37.89 J/mol K|
Std enthalpy of
|-20.01 kJ/g or -595.8 kJ/mol|
Gibbs free energy (ΔfG˚)
|Main hazards||Corrosive, reacts violently with water|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ‹See TfM› ?)(|
Lithium oxide (Li
2O) or lithia is an inorganic chemical compound. It is a white solid. Although not specifically important, many materials are assessed on the basis of their Li2O content. For example, the Li2O content of the principal lithium mineral spodumene (LiAlSi2O6) is 8.03%.
Lithium oxide is produced by thermal dehydration of lithium hydroxide.
- 4Li + O
2 → 2Li
2 → 2Li
2O + O
In the solid state lithium oxide adopts an antifluorite structure which is related to the CaF
2, fluorite structure with Li cations substituted for fluoride anions and oxide anions substituted for calcium cations.
Lithium oxide is used as a flux in ceramic glazes; and creates blues with copper and pinks with cobalt. Lithium oxide reacts with water and steam, forming lithium hydroxide and should be isolated from them.
Its usage is also being investigated for non-destructive emission spectroscopy evaluation and degradation monitoring within thermal barrier coating systems. It can be added as a co-dopant with yttria in the zirconia ceramic top coat, without a large decrease in expected service life of the coating. At high heat, lithium oxide emits a very detectable spectral pattern, which increases in intensity along with degradation of the coating. Implementation would allow in situ monitoring of such systems, enabling an efficient means to predict lifetime until failure or necessary maintenance.
Lithium metal might be obtained from lithium oxide by electrolysis, releasing oxygen as by-product.
- Pradyot Patnaik. Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. McGraw-Hill, 2002, ISBN 0-07-049439-8
- Wietelmann, Ulrich and Bauer, Richard J. (2005) "Lithium and Lithium Compounds" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH: Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a15_393.
- Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1984). Chemistry of the Elements. Oxford: Pergamon Press. pp. 97–99. ISBN 0-08-022057-6.
- E. Zintl; A. Harder; B. Dauth (1934). "Gitterstruktur der oxyde, sulfide, selenide und telluride des lithiums, natriums und kaliums". Zeitschrift für Elektrochemie und Angewandte Physikalische Chemie. 40: 588–93.
- Wells A.F. (1984) Structural Inorganic Chemistry 5th edition Oxford Science Publications ISBN 0-19-855370-6
- A spectroscopic determination of the bond length of the LiOLi molecule: Strong ionic bonding, D. Bellert, W. H. Breckenridge, J. Chem. Phys. 114, 2871 (2001); doi:10.1063/1.1349424