Lithuanian is an Eastern Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region. It is the language of Lithuanians and the official language of Lithuania as well as one of the official languages of the European Union. There are about 200 000 abroad; as a Baltic language, Lithuanian is related to neighbouring Latvian and more distantly to Slavic and other Indo-European languages. It is written in a Latin alphabet. Lithuanian is said to be the most conservative living Indo-European language, retaining features of Proto-Indo-European now lost in other languages. Among Indo-European languages, Lithuanian is conservative in some aspects of its grammar and phonology, retaining archaic features otherwise found only in ancient languages such as Sanskrit or Ancient Greek. For this reason, it is an important source for the reconstruction of the Proto-Indo-European language despite its late attestation. Lithuanian was studied by linguists such as Franz Bopp, August Schleicher, Adalbert Bezzenberger, Louis Hjelmslev, Ferdinand de Saussure, Winfred P. Lehmann and Vladimir Toporov and others.
The Proto-Balto-Slavic languages branched off directly from Proto-Indo-European sub-branched into Proto-Baltic and Proto-Slavic. Proto-Baltic branched off into Proto-East Baltic. Baltic languages passed through a Proto-Balto-Slavic stage, from which Baltic languages retain numerous exclusive and non-exclusive lexical, morphological and accentual isoglosses in common with the Slavic languages, which represent their closest living Indo-European relatives. Moreover, with Lithuanian being so archaic in phonology, Slavic words can be deduced from Lithuanian by regular sound laws. According to some glottochronological speculations, the Eastern Baltic languages split from the Western Baltic ones between AD 400 and 600; the Greek geographer Ptolemy had written of two Baltic tribe/nations by name, the Galindai and Sudinoi in the 2nd century AD. The differentiation between Lithuanian and Latvian started after 800. At a minimum, transitional dialects existed until the 14th or 15th century and as late as the 17th century.
The 13th- and 14th-century occupation of the western part of the Daugava basin by the German Sword Brethren had a significant influence on the languages' independent development. The earliest surviving written Lithuanian text is a translation dating from about 1503–1525 of the Lord's Prayer, the Hail Mary, the Nicene Creed written in the Southern Aukštaitian dialect. Printed books existed after 1547, but the level of literacy among Lithuanians was low through the 18th century, books were not available. In 1864, following the January Uprising, Mikhail Muravyov, the Russian Governor General of Lithuania, banned the language in education and publishing and barred use of the Latin alphabet altogether, although books printed in Lithuanian continued to be printed across the border in East Prussia and in the United States. Brought into the country by book smugglers despite the threat of stiff prison sentences, they helped fuel a growing nationalist sentiment that led to the lifting of the ban in 1904.
Jonas Jablonskis made significant contributions to the formation of the standard Lithuanian language. The conventions of written Lithuanian had been evolving during the 19th century, but Jablonskis, in the introduction to his Lietuviškos kalbos gramatika, was the first to formulate and expound the essential principles that were so indispensable to its development, his proposal for Standard Lithuanian was based on his native Western Aukštaitijan dialect with some features of the eastern Prussian Lithuanians' dialect spoken in Lithuania Minor. These dialects had preserved archaic phonetics intact due to the influence of the neighbouring Old Prussian language, while the other dialects had experienced different phonetic shifts. Lithuanian has been the official language of Lithuania since 1918. During the Soviet era, it was used in official discourse along with Russian, which, as the official language of the USSR, took precedence over Lithuanian. Lithuanian is one of two living Baltic languages, along with Latvian, they constitute the eastern branch of Baltic languages family.
An earlier Baltic language, Old Prussian, was extinct by the 18th century. Some theories, such as that of Jānis Endzelīns, considered that the Baltic languages form their own distinct branch of the family of Indo-European languages, there is an opinion is the one that suggests the union of Baltic and Slavic languages into a distinct sub-family of Balto-Slavic languages amongst the Indo-European family of languages; such an opinion was first represented by the likes of August Schleicher, to a certain extent, Antoine Meillet. Endzelīns thought that the similarity between Baltic and Slavic was explicable through language contact while Schleicher and others argued for a genetic kinship between the two families. An attempt to reconcile the opposing stances was made by Jan Michał Rozwadowski, he proposed that the two language groups were indeed a unity after the division of Indo-European, but suggested that after the two had divided into separate entities, they had posterior contact. The genetic kinship vi
Akuapem known as Akuapim, Akwapem Twi, Akwapi, is one of the three principal members of the Akan dialect continuum, along with Asante, with which it is collectively known as Twi, Fante, with which it is mutually intelligible. There are 626,000 speakers of Akuapem concentrated in Ghana and southeastern Cote D'Ivoire, it is the historical literary and prestige dialect of Akan, having been chosen as the basis of the Akan translation of the Bible. The name Akuapem is thought to derive from akuw-apem. Akuapem's orthography was first developed by missionaries at the Gold Coast Basel Mission in 1842, but its written history begins in 1853 with the publication of two grammars, the German Elemente des Akwapim Dialects der Odshi Sprache and the English Grammatical Outline and Vocabulary of the Oji Language with especial reference to the Akwapim Dialect, both written by Hans Nicolai Riis, nephew of the Gold Coast Basel Mission's founder Andreas Riis; these would not be followed in the bibliography of Akuapem writing until the translation of the New Testament.
Akuapem was chosen as a representative dialect for Akan because the missionaries at Basel felt it a suitable compromise. Christaller, who had himself learned Akyem but believed Akuapem was the better choice, described the issue, its solution, in the introduction to his 1875 Grammar of the Asante and Fante language called Tshi:It is an Akan dialect influenced by Fante, steering in the middle course between other Akan dialects and Fante in sounds and expressions. Akuapem's history as a literary dialect originates with its selection to serve as the basis of the Akan translation of the New Testament, published in 1870 with a second edition in 1878, the entire Bible, published in 1871. Both were written by the Gold Coast Basel Mission, principally by German missionary and linguist Johann Gottlieb Christaller and native Akan linguists and missionaries David Asante, Theophilus Opoku, Jonathan Palmer Bekoe, Paul Keteku. Despite the publication of the Bible, Akan literacy would not be widespread among the Akan for some time, nor among the European colonizers.
For instance, when British officer Sir Garnet Wolseley, still is known in Ghana as "Sargrenti", began his campaign into Ghana during the Third Anglo-Ashanti War in 1873, he intended to address his summons to war to Asante king Kofi Karikari in English and Asante, only to find that, to their knowledge, "no proper written representation of the Fante or Asante dialect existed", delaying the dispatch of the summons for two weeks. Christaller's A Grammar of the Asante and Fante language called Tshi and A Dictionary of the Asante and Fante language called Tshi, written with reference to Akuapem, remain the definitive academic grammar and dictionary of Twi, despite the dialects' orthography and grammar having changed in the century since their publication
Parkstead House known as Manresa House and Bessborough House, is a neo-classical Palladian villa in Roehampton, built in the 1760s. The house and remaining grounds are now part of the University of Roehampton, it is situated on Holybourne Avenue, off Roehampton Lane, next to the Richmond Park Golf Course in the London Borough of Wandsworth. In 1955 it was designated Grade I on the National Heritage List for England, it was built for The 2nd Earl of an Anglo-Irish peer. Construction on the building started circa 1760, by the architect Sir William Chambers, who designed Somerset House in London, it was completed in circa 1768. The building was inspired by Foots Cray Place. A resident of Parkstead was the wife of The 3rd Earl of Bessborough, Henrietta Ponsonby, Countess of Bessborough, a Whig hostess and socialite. Lady Bessborough had a relationship with Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Earl Granville, which produced two children, she had four children with Lord Bessborough. These were: John Ponsonby, 4th Earl of Bessborough, Frederick Cavendish Ponsonby, Lady Caroline Lamb and William Ponsonby, 1st Baron de Mauley.
On the death of Henrietta, in 1821, the 3rd Earl leased the property to a politician, Abraham Robarts, who made it his permanent home. When Robarts died in 1858, The 5th Earl of Bessborough sold the house and forty-two acres of parkland to the Conservative Land Society for division into smallholdings. In 1861, the house and 42 acres of surrounding land was sold to the Society of Jesus, the Jesuit religious order; the Jesuits used the building to house their novitiate and a retreat house for Ignatian spirituality. The house was renamed Manresa House after the town in Spain where Ignatius of Loyola developed his Spiritual Exercises. Within the property, the Jesuits created a cemetery; the first burial was in 1867. The cemetery contained only Jesuits, including Alban Goodier SJ, the Archbishop of Bombay from 1919 to 1926. From Manresa House, the Jesuits served the local Catholic congregations. In the following decades, various churches were built and staffed by the Jesuits, such as Christ the King Church, Wimbledon Park in 1877, St Joseph Church, Roehampton in 1881, Sacred Heart Church, Wimbledon in 1884, Corpus Christi Church, Brixton in 1886 and St Winefride Church, South Wimbledon in 1904.
In 1860, they commissioned Joseph John Scoles to design the chapel. It was completed after his death, in 1864, by his pupil S. I. Nicholl. In the 1870s, Henry Clutton designed the north aisle. Clutton designed the long gallery connecting the chapel to the refectory in the new north wing, built in 1880. In 1885, the south wing, designed by Frederick Walters, were added, it copied the elevation of the north wing. With the completion of these two wings the original stable blocks were demolished. One of the Jesuits at Manresa House was the poet Gerard Manley Hopkins, he was a novice from September 1868 until September 1870. In the 1950s, London County Council compulsorily purchased the surrounding land and part of the Jesuit land for housing; the last burial in the cemetery was in 1962. By 1962, the Jesuits decided that Manresa would no longer be suitable for a novitiate, when the design of the housing estate was altered to include high rise flats adjacent to their land, they sold the property to the council and the house became part of the Battersea College of Domestic Science.
In October 1966 the college was opened by Shirley Williams who signed the order for its subsequent closure in 1979. The house was acquired as the new home of Whitelands College in 2001, which renamed the estate Whitelands College but referred to the original house as Parkstead House once more, it is now part of the University of Roehampton. Under the guidance of English Heritage the college added extensive new buildings to incorporate lecture theatres, laboratories and student facilities. In the 1880s, Whitelands College, while they were based in Chelsea, commissioned Morris & Co. to make stained glass for their first chapel. This was moved with the college to Putney in 1930. In 2006, the stained glass was moved to Parkstead House; this commissioning of the work happened through the efforts of John Ruskin. In 1883, he wrote to Edward Burne-Jones, on behalf of the college, asking for him and William Morris to do the work. Of the fifteen windows the college received from Morris & Co. twelve were designed by Burne-Jones, three he made with Morris.
Burne-Jones used some of designs he had created for the windows showing saints Agnes, Catherine and Margaret. All of the others were made for the college. In 1886, the reredos behind the altar in the chapel was installed. Although it was designed by William Morris, it was built by Kate Faulkner, sister of Charles Faulkner. Whitelands College website