Swiss People's Party
The Swiss Peoples Party, known as the Democratic Union of the Centre, is a national-conservative and right-wing populist political party in Switzerland. Chaired by Albert Rösti, the party is the largest party in the Federal Assembly, the SVP initially didnt witness any increased support beyond that of the BGB, retaining around 11% of the vote through the 1970s and 1980s. In line with the changes fostered by Blocher, the party started to focus increasingly on issues such as euroscepticism, when Blocher failed to win re-election as a Federal Councillor in 2007, moderates within the party split off, forming the Conservative Democratic Party. The early origins of the SVP go back to the late 1910s, while the Free Democratic Party had earlier been a popular party for farmers, this changed during World War I when the party had mainly defended the interests of industrialists and consumer circles. By 1929, the coalition of parties had gained enough influence to get one of their leaders, Rudolf Minger.
In 1936, a party was founded on the national level, called the Party of Farmers, Traders. During the 1930s, the BGB entered the mainstream of Swiss politics as a conservative party in the bourgeois bloc. In the partys fight against left-wing ideologies, sections of party officials and farmers voiced understanding, after World War II, the BGB contributed to the establishment of the characteristic Swiss post-war consensual politics, social agreements and economic growth policies. The party continued to be a political partner with the Swiss Conservative Peoples Party. In 1971, the BGB changed its name to the Swiss Peoples Party after it merged with the Democratic Party from Glarus, as the Democratic Party had represented centrist, social-liberal positions, the course of the SVP shifted towards the political centre following internal debates. The new party continued to see its level of support at around 11%. Blocher soon consolidated his power in Zürich, and began to renew the organisational structures, campaigning style and political agenda of the local branch.
The young members of the party was boosted with the establishment of a cantonal Young SVP in 1977 and this was contrasted with the stable level in the other cantons, although the support stagnated in Zürich through the 1980s. The struggle between the SVPs largest branches of Bern and Zürich continued into the early 1990s, while the Bern-oriented faction represented the old moderate style, the Zürich-oriented wing led by Christoph Blocher represented a new radical right-wing populist agenda. The Zürich wing began to politicise asylum issues, and the question of European integration started to dominate Swiss political debates and they adopted more confrontational methods. During the 1990s, the party doubled its number of cantonal branches. In 1991, the party for the first time became the strongest party in Zürich, the party broke through in the early 1990s in both Zürich and Switzerland as a whole, and experienced dramatically increasing results in elections. From being the smallest of the four governing parties at the start of the 1990s, at the same time, the party expanded its electoral base towards new voter demographics
Municipalities of Switzerland
Municipalities are the lowest level of administrative division in Switzerland. Each municipality is part of one of the Swiss cantons, which form the Swiss Confederation, in most cantons municipalities are part of districts or other sub-cantonal administrative divisions. There are 2,294 municipalities as of January 2016 and their populations range between several hundred thousand, and a few dozen people, and their territory between 0.32 km² and 439 km². The beginnings of the municipality system date back to the Helvetic Republic. Under the Old Swiss Confederacy, citizenship was granted by each town and these citizens enjoyed access to community property and in some cases additional protection under the law. Additionally, the towns and the rural villages had differing rights. The creation of a uniform Swiss citizenship, which applied equally for citizens of the old towns and their tenants and servants, led to conflict. The wealthier villagers and urban citizens held rights to forests, common land and other municipal property which they did not want to share with the new citizens, the compromise solution, which was written into the municipal laws of the Helvetic Republic, is still valid today.
Two politically separate but often geographically similar organizations were created, the first, the so-called municipality, was a political community formed by election and its voting body consists of all resident citizens. However, the community land and property remained with the local citizens who were gathered together into the Bürgergemeinde. During the Mediation era, and especially during the Restoration era, many political municipalities were abolished and limits were placed on the exercise of political rights for everyone except the members of the Bürgergemeinde. In the Regeneration era, the revolutions of the common people helped to restore some rights again in a few cantons. In other cantons, the Bürgergemeinden were able to power as political communities. In the city of Zurich it wasnt until the Municipal Act of 1866 that the municipality came back into existence. The relationship between the municipality and the Bürgergemeinde was often dominated by the latters ownership of community property.
Often the administration and profit from the property were held by the Bürgergemeinden, leaving the political municipality dependent on the Bürgergemeinde for money. It wasnt until the municipality acquired rights over property that served the public and taxes. For example, in the city of Bern, it wasnt until after the property division of 1852 that the municipality had the right to levy taxes
Innertkirchen is a village and municipality in the Interlaken-Oberhasli administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. On 1 January 2014 the former municipality of Gadmen merged into the municipality of Innertkirchen, the name of the municipality is of recent origin and first appeared in print in 1834. It was formed from the settlements of Grund, Wyler-Schattseite, Wyler-Sonnseite. Both Roman coins and the remains of a Roman rest station have been found in the municipality, during the Middle Ages a number of small farming communities developed in the high valleys and alpine meadows of the modern municipality. Originally they were under the authority of the Imperial Vogtei of Hasli, under Bernese rule, a number of distant landowners ruled over the small communities. At around the time they became part of the parish of Meiringen. In 1713 the communities of Innertkirchen united with the municipalities of Gadmen and Guttannen to form the parish of Hasle, when Gadmen and Guttannen became independent parishes in 1816, Innertkirchen rejoined Meiringen.
A filial church was built in Grund in 1835 and in 1860 it became the center of the Innertkirchen parish, after 1334 the communities banded together into Bäuerten to share and regulate usage of the seasonal alpine meadows and farm land. Beginning in the 15th century the Bäuerten often squabbled with neighboring communities and Engelberg Abbey over land rights, the border between Bern and Unterwalden was not officially set until 1828-29. An iron mine, blast furnace and forge were built in Wyler in the 16th century and it remained in operation until the 19th century. The villages that made up Innertkirchen remained small, in 1783, the largest settlement, Brügg only had 32 houses and the entire Grund Bäuert, consisting of Brügg, Winkel and Unterstock had a total of 62. In 1814 the road from Meiringen through Innertkirchen and over the Susten Pass began to open up the villages to the outside world and this was followed in 1873 by a road over the Grimsel Pass and in 1957 by the Engstlenalp road.
In the 19th century over-exploitation of the forests caused flooding and increased avalanches and this coupled with a growing population and limited farmland forced many residents to emigrate to escape poverty and starvation. In 1925 the Oberhasli AG company built power plants in the municipality, providing jobs, construction for the power plants opened Innertkirchen up to tourism. Today KWO is the employer in Innertkirchen. Tourism is an important secondary industry and very few residents are involved in agriculture full-time, Gadmen is first mentioned in 1382 as im Gadmen. During the Middle Ages, the Gadmen area was part of the Vogtei of Hasli, in 1334 the entire Vogtei was acquired by Bern. During the Middle Ages a chapel was built in the village, in 1713 Gadmen became part of the parish of Innertkirchen and in 1722 the chapel expanded into a filial church
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
Malters is a municipality in the district of Lucerne in the canton of Lucerne in Switzerland. Malters is first mentioned in second half of the 9th Century as in Maltrensi marcha, in 1238 it was mentioned as villa Malters. Malters has an area of 28.6 km2, of this area,64. 7% is used for agricultural purposes, while 24. 5% is forested. Of the rest of the land,9. 5% is settled, in the 1997 land survey,24. 54% of the total land area was forested. Of the agricultural land,60. 55% is used for farming or pastures, while 4. 17% is used for orchards or vine crops. Of the settled areas,4. 73% is covered with buildings,0. 88% is industrial,0. 39% is classed as special developments,0. 25% is parks or greenbelts and 3. 29% is transportation infrastructure. Of the unproductive areas,0. 04% is unproductive standing water,1. 12% is unproductive flowing water and 0. 07% is other unproductive land, the municipality is located about 10 km from Lucerne along both sides of the Kleine Emme river. It consists of the village of Malters and, until 1845, Malters has a population of 6,988.
As of 2007,8. 8% of the population was made up of foreign nationals, over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 3. 4%. Most of the population speaks German, with Albanian being second most common, in the 2007 election the most popular party was the FDP which received 30. 9% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the CVP, the SVP and the SPS, the age distribution in Malters is,1,707 people or 26. 6% of the population is 0–19 years old. 1,707 people or 26. 6% are 20–39 years old, and 2,111 people or 32. 9% are 40–64 years old. The senior population distribution is 651 people or 10. 1% are 65–79 years old,207 or 3. 2% are 80–89 years old and 34 people or 0. 5% of the population are 90+ years old, the entire Swiss population is generally well educated. In Malters about 69. 2% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education, as of 2000 there are 2,197 households, of which 615 households contain only a single individual. 307 or about 14. % are large households, with at least five members, as of 2000 there were 997 inhabited buildings in the municipality, of which 700 were built only as housing, and 297 were mixed use buildings.
There were 407 single family homes,138 double family homes, most homes were either two or three story structures. There were only 31 single story buildings and 90 four or more story buildings, Malters has an unemployment rate of 1. 25%. As of 2005, there were 427 people employed in the economic sector
Lucerne is a city in central Switzerland, in the German-speaking portion of the country. Lucerne is the capital of the canton of Lucerne and part of the district of the same name. With a population of about 81,057 people, Lucerne is the most populous town in Central Switzerland, and a nexus of economics, transportation and media of this region. The citys urban area consists of 17 municipalities and towns located in three different cantons with a population of about 250,000 people. Owing to its location on the shores of Lake Lucerne and its outflow, one of the citys famous landmarks is the Chapel Bridge, a wooden bridge first erected in the 14th century. The official language of Lucerne is German, but the spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect. After the fall of the Roman Empire beginning in the 6th century, in 1178 Lucerne acquired its independence from the jurisdiction of Murbach Abbey, and the founding of the city proper probably occurred that same year.
The city gained importance as a strategically located gateway for the commerce from the Gotthard trade route. By 1290 Lucerne had become a self-sufficient city of size with about 3000 inhabitants. About this time King Rudolph I von Habsburg gained authority over the Monastery of St. Leodegar and its lands, the populace was not content with the increasing Habsburg influence, and Lucerne allied with neighboring towns to seek independence from their rule. Along with Lucerne, the three other forest cantons of Uri and Unterwalden formed the eternal Swiss Confederacy, known as the Eidgenossenschaft, the cities of Zürich and Bern joined the alliance. With the help of these additions, the rule of Austria over the area came to an end, the issue was settled by Lucerne’s victory over the Habsburgs in the Battle of Sempach in 1386. For Lucerne this victory ignited an era of expansion, the city shortly granted many rights to itself, rights which had been withheld by the Habsburgs until then. By this time the borders of Lucerne were approximately those of today, in 1415 Lucerne gained Reichsfreiheit from Emperor Sigismund and became a strong member of the Swiss confederacy.
The city developed its infrastructure, raised taxes, and appointed its own local officials, the city’s population of 3000 dropped about 40% due to the Black Plague and several wars around 1350. In 1419 town records show the first witch trial against a male person, among the growing towns of the confederacy, Lucerne was especially popular in attracting new residents. As the confederacy broke up during Reformation after 1520, most cities became Protestant, after the victory of the Catholics over the Protestants in the Battle at Kappel in 1531, the Catholic towns dominated the confederacy. The future, belonged to the Protestant cities like Zürich and Basel, the former prominent position of Lucerne in the confederacy was lost forever
Litovel is a town in the Olomouc Region of the Czech Republic. Litovel lies in Upper-Morava Vale,233 metres above the sea level, thanks to its rich history Litovel has many historical monuments. Source, Czech Statistical Office The Town Hall lies on Přemysl Otakar Square, the City bought the building in 1557 and the town council moved in. It was reconstructed in 1572 and the Town Hall tower,72 metres tall, was built over Nečíz, a plague column stands near the Town Hall. It was constructed by Václav Render in 1724 in memory of the epidemic in 1714. The pillar is decorated with seven statues of plaque patrons and The Holy Virgin on the top, the Bridge of Saint John is a stone bridge over the river Morava. It was constructed in 1592, and it is the third oldest bridge in the Czech Republic, there is a brewery in Litovel. Pro-Ject brand turntables and audio equipment are manufactured in Litovel, west of Litovel at 49°4238 N and 17°323 E there was a transmitting facility with three guyed masts each 220 metres tall, which were arranged in a row.
The facility might have used for jamming programmes of Radio Free Europe on 720 kHz, the masts of the station were demolished, but the buildings are still in place. Villages Březové, Chudobín, Nasobůrky, Nová Ves, Savín, Tři Dvory, Unčovice and Víska are administrative parts of Litovel
Neuenkirch is a municipality in the district of Sursee in the canton of Lucerne in Switzerland. Neuenkirch is first mentioned in 1256 as nova ecclesia, in 1259 it was mentioned as Nuwenkilch. Neuenkirch has an area of 25.5 km2, of this area,71. 2% is used for agricultural purposes, while 19. 6% is forested. Of the rest of the land,9. 2% is settled, in the 1997 land survey,19. 63% of the total land area was forested. Of the agricultural land,67. 65% is used for farming or pastures, while 3. 49% is used for orchards or vine crops. Of the settled areas,3. 85% is covered with buildings,0. 47% is industrial,0. 51% is classed as special developments,0. 27% is parks or greenbelts and 4. 04% is transportation infrastructure. Of the unproductive areas,0. 04% is unproductive flowing water and 0. 04% is other unproductive land, the municipality is located on the upper end of Lake Sempach. Neuenkirch has a population of 6,646, as of 2007,8. 2% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 12.
8%, most of the population speaks German, with Albanian being second most common and Serbo-Croatian being third. In the 2007 election the most popular party was the CVP which received 30. 9% of the vote, the next three most popular parties were the FDP, the SVP and the SPS. The age distribution in Neuenkirch is,1,622 people or 27. 4% of the population is 0–19 years old,1,594 people or 26. 9% are 20–39 years old, and 2,081 people or 35. 1% are 40–64 years old. The senior population distribution is 466 people or 7. 9% are 65–79 years old,128 or 2. 2% are 80–89 years old and 35 people or 0. 6% of the population are 90+ years old. In Neuenkirch about 74. 4% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education, as of 2000 there are 1,949 households, of which 458 households contain only a single individual. 267 or about 13. 7% are large households, with at least five members, as of 2000 there were 948 inhabited buildings in the municipality, of which 693 were built only as housing, and 255 were mixed use buildings.
There were 464 single family homes,109 double family homes, most homes were either two or three story structures. There were only 39 single story buildings and 81 four or more story buildings, Neuenkirch has an unemployment rate of 1. 52%. As of 2005, there were 349 people employed in the economic sector. 700 people are employed in the sector and there are 67 businesses in this sector
Lucerne District is a former Amt of the Canton of Lucerne, Switzerland. It had a population of 176,710 and consisted of 18 municipalities, of which the city of Lucerne is the largest, on 1 January 2013 the Amt was divided into two Wahlkreis, Lucerne-Stadt and Lucerne-Land. ^a 1992/97 survey gives an area of 216.65 km2 without including certain large lakes. ^b Includes the area of Littau which merged into Luzern on 1 January 2010, on 1 January 2010 the municipality of Littau merged into the municipality of Lucerne
Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
The encyclopedia is published by a foundation under the patronage of the Swiss Academy of Humanities and Social Sciences and the Swiss Historical Society and is financed by national research grants. Besides a staff of 35 at the offices, the contributors include 100 academic advisors,2500 historians and 100 translators. The encyclopedia is being edited simultaneously in three languages of Switzerland, German and Italian. The first of 13 volumes was published in 2002, the last volume was published in 2014. The 36,000 headings are grouped in, Biographies Articles on families and it makes accessible, for free, all articles ready for publication in print, but no illustrations. It lists all 36,000 topics that are to be covered, lexicon Istoric Retic is a two volume version with a selection of articles published in Romansh. It includes articles not available in the other languages, the first volume was published in 2010, the second in 2012. An on-line version is available
Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland
The Christian Democratic Peoples Party of Switzerland is a Christian democratic political party in Switzerland. It is the fourth-largest party in the National Council, with 28 seats, and it has one seat, that of Doris Leuthard, on the Swiss Federal Council. The party was founded as the Catholic Conservative Party in 1912, the party peaked in the 1950s, having three members of the Federal Council before agreeing to the Magic formula. It adopted its current name in 1970, from 1979 to 2003, the partys vote declined, mostly in the favour of the Swiss Peoples Party, and the party was reduced to one Federal Councillor at the 2003 election. The party sits in the centre to centre-right of the spectrum, advocating Christian democracy, the social market economy. The party is strongest in Catholic rural areas, particularly Central Switzerland, in 1912 the Catholic-Conservative Party of Switzerland was founded. From 1919 on, the party occupied two out of the seven seats in the cabinet, the party had to relinquish the third seat in favor of the Magic formula, which was introduced to the cabinet in 1959.
In 1957 it changed its name to the Conservative-Christian-Social Peoples Party, in the ensuing decades, the Catholic voter base dissolved somewhat. The reduction of the base, in addition to less cohesion among politicians in the party. Beginning in the 1990s, conservative voters from former strongholds of the CVP switched to vote for the right-wing populist Swiss Peoples Party. Due to that voter switch and the resultant 2003 national elections to the national assembly, in its party platform, the CVP describes itself as a centrist party. The CVP fosters a social economy in which a balance is struck between economic liberalism and social justice. There, the electorate is mostly socially conservative, the CVP has three main policies in the political centre, The CVP upholds the social market economy. It supports exporting industries, more spending on education, research and it aims at combating the black market and tax evasion. The CVP calls for equal wages and job opportunities for men and women.
The CVP calls for flexible working times and affordable housing, the CVP aims at ensuring social security. The CVP calls for reforms of the security system, by raising taxes on demerit goods to generate more revenues for the pension funds. The retirement age of 65 should be upheld, the public health care system shall be streamlined by a reduction of waiting times of medical procedures, in order to ensure equitable services