Little House on the Prairie is an American western drama television series, starring Michael Landon, Melissa Gilbert, Karen Grassle, Melissa Sue Anderson, about a family living on a farm in Walnut Grove, Minnesota, in the 1870s, 1880s and 1890s. The show is an adaptation of Laura Ingalls Wilder's best-selling series of Little House books. Television producer and NBC executive Ed Friendly became aware of the story in the early 1970s, he asked Michael Landon to direct the pilot movie. The regular series was preceded by a two-hour pilot movie, which first aired on March 30, 1974; the series premiered on the NBC network on September 11, 1974, last aired on May 10, 1982. During the 1982–83 television season, with the departure of Landon and Grassle, the series was broadcast with the new title Little House: A New Beginning. Based on the autobiographical "Little House" series, episodes of Little House on the Prairie concern members of the Ingalls family, who live on a small farm near the village of Walnut Grove, Minnesota.
Many episodes concern the maturation of the family's second daughter, Laura. However, episodes focus on other family and community members, providing a depiction of life in a small agrarian community in late nineteenth-century America; the show's central characters are Charles Ingalls, his wife Caroline, their three daughters, Mary and Carrie, though the family expands with the birth of daughter Grace and adoption of son Albert in season five, as well as the adoption of birth siblings Cassandra and James at the end of season seven. Other essential characters include the Oleson family: Nels, proprietor of the town's general store, Oleson's Mercantile as well as Nellie's Restaurant and Hotel. Teacher-turned-lawyer Adam Kendall is introduced at the end of season four and weds Mary Ingalls, Almanzo Wilder is introduced in season six and weds Laura Ingalls. Melissa Gilbert has the most appearances of a total of 190 of the 204 episodes. Michael Landon appeared in all but four episodes of seasons one through eight, but departed from being a regular part of the cast when the show was retooled as Little House: A New Beginning.
Michael Landon as Charles Ingalls Karen Grassle as Caroline Quiner Ingalls Melissa Gilbert as Laura Ingalls Wilder Melissa Sue Anderson as Mary Ingalls Kendall Lindsay and Sidney Greenbush as Carrie Ingalls Matthew Labyorteaux as Albert Ingalls Richard Bull as Nels Oleson Katherine MacGregor as Harriet Oleson Alison Arngrim as Nellie Oleson Dalton Jonathan Gilbert as Willie Oleson Victor French as Mr. Edwards Bonnie Bartlett as Grace Snider Edwards Kevin Hagen as Dr. Hiram Baker Dabbs Greer as Rev. Robert Alden Charlotte Stewart as Eva Beadle Simms Karl Swenson as Lars Hanson Radames Pera as John Edwards Brian Part as Carl Edwards Kyle Richards as Alicia Edwards Merlin Olsen as Jonathan Garvey Hersha Parady as Alice Garvey Patrick Labyorteaux as Andrew "Andy" Garvey Linwood Boomer as Adam Kendall Ketty Lester as Hester-Sue Terhune Wendi and Brenda Turnbaugh as Grace Ingalls Dean Butler as Almanzo Wilder Lucy Lee Flippin as Eliza Jane Wilder Allison Balson as Nancy Oleson Jason Bateman as James Ingalls Melissa Francis as Cassandra Ingalls Shannen Doherty as Jenny Wilder Steve Tracy as Percival Dalton Stan Ivar as John Carter David Friedman as Jason Carter Lindsay Kennedy as Jeb Carter Pamela Roylance as Sarah Reed Carter Many actors, who were either well-known or went on to become famous, guest-starred on the show.
Of the 204 episodes, Michael Landon directed the largest number at 87. Maury Dexter and Leo Penn directed the remaining episodes at 3 episodes respectively. Interior shots were filmed at Paramount Studios in Los Angeles, while exteriors were filmed at the nearby Big Sky Ranch in Simi Valley, where the town of Walnut Grove had been constructed. Many other filming locations were used during the course of the series including Old Tucson Studios and various locations in Sonora, California. Many of the exterior shots of Walnut Grove and the other Minnesota towns shown in t
Flexicurity is a welfare state model with a pro-active labour market policy. The term was first coined by the social democratic Prime Minister of Denmark Poul Nyrup Rasmussen in the 1990s; the term refers to the combination of labour market flexibility in a dynamic economy and security for workers. The Government of Denmark views flexicurity as entailing a "golden triangle" with a "three-sided mix of flexibility in the labour market combined with social security and an active labour market policy with rights and obligations for the unemployed"; the European Commission considers flexicurity as an integrated strategy to enhance flexibility and security in the labour market. Flexicurity is designed and implemented across four policy components: 1) flexible and reliable contractual arrangements, it is important to recognize that the flexicurity concept has been developed in countries with high wages, besides clear progressive taxation, as in for example, Denmark. The Danish flexicurity model has its roots in the nineteenth century, when negotiations among employers and trade unions during the so-called September Compromise of 1899 laid the ground for a mutually beneficial state.
The'Constitution' was renamed Basic Agreement. It settled the freedom of trade union association as well as the managerial prerogative to manage and divide the work including the right to hire and dismiss the labour force at any time necessary. "It is thus important to understand that the Danish model of labour market regulation, including the right to form associations, is based on these voluntaristic principles and that legislation or interference of the state is kept on a minimum. The right of association and the recognition of labour market associations are based on the mutual recognition of conflicting interests." The Danish tripartite agreements amongst employers and the state are supported by an intricate system that allows for an active response from the state, which supports the'activation' of workers. In the early 1990s, Danish policymakers established a fiscal policy aimed at breaking the unemployment trend of the time and was further coupled to the first active labour market policy of 1994 which sought to reduce structural unemployment.
Although some believed that the natural unemployment rate had increased, the Danish government sought to improve the situation by implementing what came to be called the flexicurity model. The policy shift thus came about with the 1994 and 1996 labour market reforms, when the introduction of flexibility was linked to security through the continued provision of generous welfare schemes as well as the'activation' of the labour force through a set of ALMPs. Activation in Denmark is regarded as "a right and an obligation"; the effects expected from this combination were twofold: qualification effects of the labour market policies as well as motivational effects through the welfare schemes. The unemployment benefits and training provision that this system entail place a higher burden of taxation upon the higher-earning members of the Danish society. Denmark has high taxation rates which in part pay for generous social benefits. Flexicurity may thus favour low- to middle-income earners. However, this might be offset by Denmark's high-output growth, coupled to low unemployment figures and low social-exclusion rates.
In recent years, Danes have been ranked as the happiest nation on Earth, which has in part been attributed to aspects of Denmark's flexicurity model. In the European Commission's approach, flexicurity is about striking the right balance between flexible job arrangements and secure transitions between jobs, so that more and better jobs can be created; the idea is that security should not be seen as opposites but as complementary. Flexibility is about developing flexible work organisations where people can combine their work and private responsibilities, it is about giving both employers and employees a more flexible environment for changing jobs. Security means'employment security' – to provide people with the training they need to keep their skills up-to-date and to develop their talent as well as providing them with adequate unemployment benefits if they were to lose their job for a period of time. Flexicurity is seen as a way to preserve the European social model while maintaining and improving the competitiveness of the European Union.
It is argued that, in the context of globalisation and technological change which place greater demands on business to adapt continuously, high levels of employment security will not depend only on protection of workers' specific job, but on the means for workers to stay on the job market, manage smooth transitions between jobs, make progress in their careers. Furthermore, flexicurity is seen as a strategy to make labour markets more inclusive in some of the European countries, by tackling labour market segmentation between insiders and outsiders; the relevance of flexicurity to tackle modern labour market challenges has been recognised by the representatives of social partners at a transnational European level, by European Trade
The 2015 South Australian National Football League season was the 136th season of the South Australian National Football League Australian rules football competition. The season commenced on Thursday 2 April 2015 with reigning premiers Norwood meeting Sturt at Norwood Oval, concluded on Sunday 27 September 2015 with the SANFL Grand Final at Adelaide Oval with West Adelaide defeating Woodville-West Torrens by 30 points to claim their ninth premiership and first in thirty-two years. Highlights of the season fixture include: A 19-round home and away competition, in which each team plays each other twice A Grand Final rematch, featuring arch rivals Norwood and Port Adelaide, to be played under lights on Friday 24 April at Adelaide Oval. Glenelg will host Adelaide on the same night at Glenelg Oval. At least one match to be played in regional South Australia with Adelaide tackling Port Adelaide at Balaklava Oval in Round 7, Sunday 17 May. West Adelaide could host Port Adelaide in the Riverland on Saturday 13 June, still to be confirmed.
Bold – Home gameX – Did Not PlayOpponent for round listed above margin |} The Magarey Medal was won by Joel Cross of South Adelaide, who polled 25 votes. It was Cross' second Magarey Medal, having tied for the medal in 2012; the Ken Farmer Medal was won by Clint Alleway of Glenelg. He kicked 47 goals in the 2015 home and away season; the Stanley H. Lewis Memorial Trophy was won by Woodville West-Torrens, with 3300 points, 1050 points ahead of second-place Norwood; the R. O. Shearman Medal was won by Joel Cross of South Adelaide. Woodville-West Torrens were the league minor premiers, finishing top of the ladder at the end of the home and away season with 16 wins and 2 losses, it is the club's 5th minor premiership in the SANFL. The annual City v. Country Cup Match was held in May 2015 at the Adelaide Oval; the match was won by Country. The Under 16 Talent Shield competition was won by Sturt, who defeated South Adelaide in the Grand Final by 57 points. West Adelaide were the League premiers. Woodville-West Torrens were the Reserves premiers.
Norwood were the Under 18 premiers, defeating Woodville-West Torrens by 18 points. 2015 SANFL IGA League Official Fixture
William David Hair McCall is a retired Australian Anglican bishop. McCall was born into a prominent family, his grandfather was John McCall KCMG, Agent-General for Tasmania, his father, Theodore Bruce McCall, an Anglican bishop. He was educated at Sydney Grammar School, he studied for the priesthood at St Michael's Theological College in Crafers, South Australia and was ordained in 1963. He served curacies at St Peter's Broken Hill, he was priest-in-charge of Barellan-Weethalle, Rector of St John's Corowa and the incumbent of St George's, Goodwood. On 1 November 1987, he was consecrated a bishop, served as Bishop of Willochra until in 2000 he was translated to the Diocese of Bunbury, he is married to Marion Carmel McCall, a pilot.
Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, published in 1944 by Princeton University Press, is a book by mathematician John von Neumann and economist Oskar Morgenstern, considered the groundbreaking text that created the interdisciplinary research field of game theory. In the introduction of its 60th anniversary commemorative edition from the Princeton University Press, the book is described as "the classic work upon which modern-day game theory is based." The book is based on earlier research by von Neumann, published in 1928 under the German title "Zur Theorie der Gesellschaftsspiele". The derivation of expected utility from its axioms appeared in an appendix to the Second Edition. Von Neumann and Morgenstern used objective probabilities, supposing that all the agents had the same probability distribution, as a convenience; however and Morgenstern mentioned that a theory of subjective probability could be provided, this task was completed by Jimmie Savage in 1954 and Johann Pfanzagl in 1967. Savage extended von Neumann and Morgenstern's axioms of rational preferences to endogenize probability and make it subjective.
He used Bayes' theorem to update these subject probabilities in light of new information, thus linking rational choice and inference. Pfanzagl, J. "Subjective Probability Derived from the Morgenstern-von Neumann Utility Theory". In Martin Shubik. Essays in Mathematical Economics In Honor of Oskar Morgenstern. Princeton University Press. Pp. 237–251. Pfanzagl, J. in cooperation with V. Baumann and H. Huber. "Events and Subjective Probability". Theory of Measurement. Wiley. Pp. 195–220. Morgenstern, Oskar. "Some Reflections on Utility". In Andrew Schotter. Selected Economic Writings of Oskar Morgenstern. New York University Press. Pp. 65–70. Morgenstern Oskar. "The Collaboration Between Oskar Morgenstern and John von Neumann on the Theory of Games". Journal of Economic Literature. 14: 805–816. JSTOR 2722628. Commemorative edition of the book Theory of Games and Economic Behavior Copeland A. H.. "Review of'The Theory of Games and Economic Behavior". Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society. 51: 498–504. Doi:10.1090/s0002-9904-1945-08391-8.
Hurwicz Leonid. "The Theory of Economic Behavior". American Economic Review. 35: 909–925. JSTOR 1812602. Kaysen Carl. "A Revolution in Economic Theory?". Review of Economic Studies. 14: 1–15. Doi:10.2307/2295753. Marschak Jacob. "Neumann's and Morgenstern's New Approach to Static Economics". Journal of Political Economy. 54: 97–115. Doi:10.1086/256327. Stone Richard. "The Theory of Games". Economic Journal. 58: 185–201. JSTOR 2225934. Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, full text at archive.org
Sang Lan is a former Chinese gymnast and television personality. She is a student and advocates for improved conditions for the disabled within China. Sang achieved excellence in gymnastics at a young age, winning the all-around and every single event final at the 1991 Zhejiang Province Championships. By 1995 she was competing nationally. Sang was one of China's strongest vaulters, placing second on the event at the 1995 Chinese Nationals and gaining championship in 1997. While she never represented China at the Olympics or World Gymnastics Championships, she did compete at the 1996 and 1997 American Cup meets and was selected for the 1998 Goodwill Games team. In New York City at the Goodwill Games in July 1998, during warmups for the vault event final, Sang fell while she was performing a timer, she could not raise herself from the mat and was taken to Nassau University Medical Center, a Level I trauma center in East Meadow. She underwent spinal realignment and cervical spine fusion, however the injury to her spinal cord was quite extensive.
The result of the injury was paralysis from the mid-chest down. Sang remained in New York City for a year, receiving rehabilitation at Mount Sinai Hospital. Many celebrities, including Leonardo DiCaprio, Celine Dion and Christopher Reeve visited and offered their support. Twelve years after her fall, Sang revealed that her fall was not just an unfortunate accident, but due to disturbance from a coach of another team, who walked into the vault area to remove a mattress after her push-off. Sang said she mentioned it when she was sent to hospital, but Chinese officials dismissed her accusation, saying she had brain damage. Sang has said she is preparing to sue the event's organisers, now that she is "old enough to stand up for herself." She accused the Chinese National Gymnastics team for cruelly abandoning her after she was paralysed. Since returning to China, Sang has become an advocate for the disabled. A television miniseries about her life was produced in the late 1990s. Sang held her own show, Sang Lan Olympics 2008 on STAR TV, a Mandarin-language television channel.
She was an ambassador for Beijing's successful 2008 Olympics bid and was selected as an Olympic relay torchbearer. Sang was a student at Peking University, she has continued a rigorous physical therapy regimen and has regained some use of her arms and hands. She has expressed an interest in returning to competitive sports and hoped to represent China as a table tennis player at the 2008 Summer Paralympics