Hiram King "Hank" Williams was an American singer-songwriter and musician. Regarded as one of the most significant and influential American singers and songwriters of the 20th century, Williams recorded 35 singles that reached the Top 10 of the Billboard Country & Western Best Sellers chart, including 11 that ranked number one. Born in Mount Olive, Butler County, Williams relocated to Georgiana with his family, where he met Rufus Payne, who gave him guitar lessons in exchange for meals or money. Payne had a major influence on Williams' musical style, along with Roy Acuff and Ernest Tubb. Williams would relocate to Montgomery, where he began his music career in 1937, when producers at radio station WSFA hired him to perform and host a 15-minute program, he formed the Drifting Cowboys backup band, managed by his mother, dropped out of school to devote his time to his career. When several of his band members were conscripted into military service during World War II, Williams had trouble with their replacements, WSFA terminated his contract because of his alcohol abuse.
Williams married Audrey Sheppard, his manager for nearly a decade. After recording "Never Again" and "Honky Tonkin'" with Sterling Records, he signed a contract with MGM Records. In 1947, he released "Move It on Over", which became a hit, joined the Louisiana Hayride radio program. One year he released a cover of "Lovesick Blues" recorded at Herzog Studio in Cincinnati, which carried him into the mainstream of music. After an initial rejection, Williams joined the Grand Ole Opry, he was unable to notate music to any significant degree. Among the hits he wrote were "Your Cheatin' Heart", "Hey, Good Lookin'", "I'm So Lonesome I Could Cry". Years of back pain and prescription drug abuse compromised his health. In 1952, he divorced Sheppard and was dismissed by the Grand Ole Opry because of his unreliability and alcohol abuse. On New Year's Day 1953, he died while traveling to a concert in Canton, Ohio at the age of 29. Despite his short life, Williams is one of the most celebrated and influential popular musicians of the 20th century in regards to country music.
Many artists covered songs Williams recorded. He influenced Jerry Lee Lewis and Bob Dylan, among others. Williams was inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame, the Songwriters Hall of Fame, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Williams was born in Alabama, his parents were Jessie Lillybelle "Lillie" and Elonzo Huble "Lon" Williams, he was of English ancestry. Elonzo Williams worked as an engineer for the railroads of the W. T. Smith lumber company, he was drafted during World War I, serving from July 1918 until June 1919. He was injured after falling from a truck, breaking his collarbone and suffering a severe blow to the head. After his return, the family's first child, was born on August 8, 1922. Another son of theirs died shortly after birth, their third child, was born on September 17, 1923, in Mount Olive. Since Elonzo Williams was a Mason, his wife was a member of the Order of the Eastern Star, the child was named after Hiram I of Tyre, his name was misspelled as "Hiriam" on his birth certificate, prepared and signed when Hank was about ten years old.
As a child, he was nicknamed "Harm" by his family and "Herky" or "Poots" by his friends. He was born with spina bifida occulta, a birth defect, centered on the spinal column, which gave him lifelong pain – a factor in his abuse of alcohol and drugs. Williams' father was relocated by the lumber company railway for which he worked, the family lived in many southern Alabama towns. In 1930, when Williams was seven years old, his father began suffering from facial paralysis. At a Veterans Affairs clinic in Pensacola, doctors determined that the cause was a brain aneurysm, Elonzo was sent to the VA Medical Center in Alexandria, Louisiana, he remained hospitalized for eight years, rendering him absent throughout Hiram's childhood. From that time on, Lillie Williams assumed responsibility for the family. In the fall of 1934, the Williams family moved to Greenville, where Lillie opened a boarding house next to the Butler County courthouse. In 1935, the Williams family settled in Garland, where Lillie Williams opened a new boarding house.
After a while, they moved with his cousin Opal McNeil to Georgiana, Alabama where Lillie managed to find several side jobs to support her children, despite the bleak economic climate of the Great Depression. She served as a night-shift nurse in the local hospital, their first house burned, the family lost their possessions. They moved to a new house on the other side of town on Rose Street, which Williams' mother soon turned into a boarding house; the house had a small garden, on which they grew diverse crops that Williams and his sister Irene sold around Georgiana. At a chance meeting in Georgiana, Hank Williams met U. S. Representative J. Lister Hill while he was campaigning across Alabama. Williams told Hill that his mother was interested to talk with him about his problems and her need to collect Elonzo Williams's disability pension. With Hill's help, the family began collecting the money. Despite his medical condition, the family managed well financially throughout the Great Depression. There are several versions of.
His mother stated that she bought it with money from selling peanuts, but many other prominent residents of the town claimed to have been the one w
Sarah Ophelia Colley Cannon, known professionally as her stage character Minnie Pearl, was an American country comedian who appeared at the Grand Ole Opry for more than 50 years and on the television show Hee Haw from 1969 to 1991. Sarah Colley was born in Centerville in Tennessee, 50 miles southwest of Nashville, she was the youngest of five daughters born to a prosperous lumberman in Centerville. Her older sisters were: Frances Tate Colley Virginia Shackleford Colley Mary Wood Colley Dixie Elizabeth Colley She graduated from Ward-Belmont College, at the time Nashville's most prestigious school for young ladies, where she majored in theater studies and dance, she taught dance for the first few years after graduating. Her first professional theatrical work was with the Wayne P. Sewell Production Company, a touring theater company based in Atlanta, she produced and directed plays and musicals for local organizations in small towns throughout the Southeast. Part of her work involved making brief appearances at civic organizations to promote the group's shows, during this time she developed her Minnie Pearl routine.
While producing an amateur musical comedy in Baileyton, Alabama she met a mountain woman whose style and talk became the basis for "Cousin Minnie Pearl". Her first stage performance as Minnie Pearl was in 1939 in South Carolina, her now famous hat was purchased downtown at Surasky Bros. Department store before the show; the following year, executives from Nashville radio station WSM saw her perform at a bankers' convention in Centerville and gave her an opportunity to appear on the Grand Ole Opry on November 30, 1940. The success of her debut on the show began an association with the Grand Ole Opry that continued for more than 50 years. Pearl's comedy was gentle satire of rural Southern culture called "hillbilly" culture. Pearl always dressed in frilly "down home" dresses and wore a hat with a price tag hanging from it, displaying the $1.98 price. Her signature greeting to her audience was "How-w-w-DEE-E-E-E! I'm jest so proud to be here!" Delivered in a hearty holler. After she became an established star, her greeting became a call-and-response with audiences everywhere.
Pearl's self-deprecating humor involved her unsuccessful attempts to attract "a feller"'s attention and, in years, her age. She spun stories involving her comical "ne'er-do-well" relatives, notably "Uncle Nabob", his wife "Aunt Ambrosia", "Lucifer Hucklehead", "Miss Lizzie Tinkum", "Doc Payne", and, of course, her "Brother", both slow-witted and wise, she closed her monologues with the exit line "I love you so much it hurts!" She sang comic novelty songs and danced with Grandpa Jones. Pearl drew much of her comic material from her hometown of Centerville, which she called Grinders Switch. Grinders Switch was a community just outside Centerville that consisted of little more than a railroad switch; those who knew her recognized that the characters were based on actual Centerville residents. So much traffic resulted from fans and tourists looking for Grinders Switch that the Hickman County Highway Department changed the designation on the "Grinders Switch" road sign to "Hickman Springs Road". Cannon portrayed Minnie Pearl for many years on television, first on ABC's Ozark Jubilee in the late 1950s.
She made several appearances on NBC's Starring Tennessee Ernie Ford. She appeared as a celebrity panelist on game shows such as Match Game in 1976 and 1978 and Hollywood Squares in 1980, her last regular performances on national television were on Ralph Emery's Nashville Now country-music talk show on the former The Nashville Network cable channel. With Emery, she performed in a weekly feature, "Let Minnie Steal Your Joke", in the Minnie Pearl character and read jokes submitted by viewers, with prizes for the best jokes. Cannon made a cameo appearance in the film Coal Miner's Daughter, appearing at the Opry as Minnie Pearl. On February 23, 1947, Sarah Colley married Henry R. Cannon, an Army Air Corps fighter pilot during World War II and was a partner in an air charter service. After the marriage, Henry Cannon set up his own air charter service for country music performers and took over management of the Minnie Pearl character, his clients in the charter service included Eddy Arnold, Colonel Tom Parker, Hank Williams, Carl Smith, Webb Pierce, Elvis Presley.
The couple had no children. In 1969 they purchased a large estate home in Nashville next door to the Tennessee Governor's mansion. Cannon attended Brentwood Methodist Church, just to the south of Nashville, where she donated the pipe organ. In the late 1960s Nashville entrepreneur John Jay Hooker persuaded Cannon and gospel singer Mahalia Jackson to lend their names to a chain of fried chicken restaurants established to compete with Kentucky Fried Chicken. After reporting good results and enjoying a public stock worth $64 million, the venture collapsed amid allegations of accounting irregularities and stock price manipulation; the ensuing investigation by the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission cleared both Cannon and Jackson of involvement in financial wrongdoings, but both were embarrassed by the negative publicity. After battling breast cancer through aggressive treatments, including a double mastectomy and radiation therapy, she became a spokeswoman for the medical center in Nashville where she had been treated.
She took on this role as herself, Sarah Ophelia C
The Tennessean is the principal daily newspaper in Nashville, Tennessee. Its circulation area covers eight counties in southern Kentucky. In March 2013, The Tennessean's circulation was reported as 100,825 daily, 102,855 and 227,626. In contrast, as of November 2, 2005, the paper reported daily circulation of 177,714, it is owned by the Gannett Corporation, which owns several smaller community newspapers in Middle Tennessee, including The Dickson Herald, the Gallatin News-Examiner, the Hendersonville Star-News, the Fairview Observer, the Ashland City Times. Its circulation area overlaps those of the Clarksville Leaf-Chronicle and The Daily News Journal in Murfreesboro, two other independent Gannett papers; the company publishes several specialty publications, including Nashville Lifestyles magazine. The paper's primary print competitors are the weekly Nashville Scene and the Nashville Business Journal. In 2004 Gannett announced the acquisition of the Franklin Review-Appeal, The Daily News Journal in Murfreesboro from Morris Multimedia.
The Review-Appeal became a supplement of The Tennessean, while the Daily News Journal continued to operate as an independent newspaper. The paper maintains two Goss Colorliner presses. In 2002, the paper completed installation of a MAN Roland UNISET press, now used to print regional editions of USA Today, as well as commercial printing jobs. In early 2019 it was announced that the Tennessean would begin to be printed in Knoxville on presses which it would share with the Knoxville News-Sentinel. John Seigenthaler joined The Tennessean in 1949, resigning in 1960 to act as Robert F. Kennedy's administrative assistant, he rejoined The Tennessean as editor in 1962, publisher in 1973, chairman in 1982 before retiring as chairman emeritus in 1991. Ellen Leifeld was named as publisher in September 2005, succeeding Leslie Giallombardo, who became the newspaper's first female publisher in April 2002. Carol Hudler was named publisher in 2009. Hudler was replaced by Laura Hollingsworth, named president and publisher in May 2013.
Frank Sutherland served as editor of the newspaper from 1989–2004. He began his journalism career as a reporter at the paper in the 1960s, returned as editor after a serving in several leadership positions at other newspapers, he announced his retirement in September 2004. He was succeeded by Everett J. Mitchell II, the former managing editor of the Detroit News, the first African American to be editor of The Tennessean. In September 2006, Mark Silverman was announced as editor, he was replaced by Maria De Varenne in 2011, who held the executive editor post until February 2014. At that time, Stefanie Murray was named vice president for engagement, she was an assistant managing editor at the Detroit Free Press. The Tennessean, Nashville's primary daily newspaper, traces its roots back to the Nashville Whig, a weekly paper that began publication on September 1, 1812; the paper underwent various mergers and acquisitions throughout the 19th century, emerging as the Nashville American. The first issue of the Nashville Tennessean was printed on Sunday May 12, 1907.
The paper was founded by a 28-year-old attorney and local political activist. In 1910, the publishers purchased a controlling interest in the Nashville American, they began publishing an edition known as The Tennessean American. When the American formally folded in 1911, some of its employees banded together to found the Nashville Democrat; this paper was purchased by the Tennessean in 1913. In 1931, Col. Luke Lea and his son Luke Lea, Jr. were indicted for their role in the failure of the Central Bank and Trust Co. of Asheville, North Carolina. On March 3, 1933, the newspaper was placed under federal receivership, Ashland City attorney and former Tennessean editorial writer Littleton J. Pardue was appointed to direct the paper. Under his leadership circulation grew swiftly. In 1935, the Reconstruction Finance Corporation acquired a large portion of the paper's outstanding bonds, it sold them to Paul Davis, president of the First American National Bank of Nashville. Still suffering from effects of the Great Depression, the paper was sold at auction in 1937, when it was purchased for $850,000 by Silliman Evans, Sr. a former reporter for the Fort Worth Star-Telegram.
Evans came to an agreement with Nashville Banner publisher James Stahlman to move both newspapers into new offices at 1100 Broadway. He created the Newspaper Printing Corporation as a business agent for both papers; as part of this agreement, the Tennessean ceased publication of its evening editions, the Banner ceased publication of its Sunday edition. The two newspapers maintained a joint operating agreement from 1937 until the Banner ceased publication February 20, 1998; the two papers operated out of the same building and shared advertising and production staff, but maintained separate ownership and editorial voices. On June 2, 1955, Silliman Evans Jr. was named president of the paper. After his father died unexpectedly of a heart attack on June 26, the board of the paper elected him publisher, he became president of the Newspaper Printing Corporation in August. In 1957, Tennessean cartoonist Tom Little won a Pulitzer Prize for his cartoon encouraging parents to have their children immunized against polio.
In 1961, Silliman Evans Jr. died of a heart attack at age 36 while on his boat on Old Hickory Lake. Ownership of the newspaper passed to his mother, several months his brother Amon Carter Evans was named Chief Executive of the paper. Tennessean re
Hey, Good Lookin' (song)
"Hey, Good Lookin'" is a 1951 song written and recorded by Hank Williams, his version was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 2001. Since its original 1951 recording it has been covered by a variety of artists; the Hank Williams song was inspired by another song by the same title, written by Cole Porter in 1942. The lyrics for the Williams version begin as a come on using double entendres related to food preparation. By the third and fourth verses, the singer is promising the object of his affection that they can become an exclusive couple. Williams was friendly with musician Jimmy Dickens. Having told Dickens that Dickens needed a hit record if he was going to become a star, Williams said he'd write it, penned "Hey Good Lookin'" in only 20 minutes while on a plane with Dickens, Minnie Pearl, Pearl's husband Henry Cannon. A week Williams recorded it himself, jokingly telling Dickens, "That song's too good for you!""Hey, Good Lookin'" was recorded on March 16, 1951 at Castle Studio in Nashville.
The same session produced the single's B-side "My Heart Would Know" as well as another pair of tunes that would be released as singles: "I Can't Help It" and "Howlin' at the Moon", released on April 27, 1951. The "Hey, Good Lookin'" single would follow on June 22. Williams was backed on the session by members of his Drifting Cowboys band, including Jerry Rivers, Don Helms, Sammy Pruett, Jack Shook, Ernie Newton or "Cedric Rainwater", aka Howard Watts, either Owen Bradley or producer Fred Rose on piano; as author Colin Escott observes, "On one level, it seemed to point toward rock'n' roll, but the rhythm plodded along with a steppity-step piano, Hank sounded dour."Williams performed the song on the Kate Smith Evening Hour on March 26, 1952. He is introduced by banters with a young June Carter, he is wearing his famous white cowboy suit adorned in musical notes. He performed "Hey, Good Lookin'" and joined in with the rest of the cast singing his own "I Saw The Light"; the rare clip displays the singer's exuberance on stage while performing an up-tempo number, he appears at ease in the new broadcast medium of television.
The kinescope from this show would provide the footage for the Hank Williams, Jr. video "There's A Tear In My Beer" some 37 years later. In 1951, Jo Stafford and Frankie Laine released a rendition of the song as a duet, peaking at #21 on the Billboard Hot 100 charts. Tennessee Ernie Ford recorded the song with Helen O'Connell in 1951 Johnny Cash recorded a version during his tenure with Sun Records. Roy Orbison recorded it for his 1970 MGM album Hank Williams The Roy Orbison Way George Jones recorded the song for his 1960 LP George Jones Salutes Hank Williams. Ray Charles covered the song in the first volume of his 1962 album Modern Sounds in Country and Western Music. Dean Martin included it "Good Lookin"' on his 1963 LP Country Style. Del Shannon recorded it for his 1964 album Del Shannon Sings Hank Williams. Ace Cannon recorded an instrumental version on his 1965 album Nashville Hits. Ernest Tubb included it on his 1968 LP Ernest Tubb Sings Hank Williams. Roy Buchanan covered the song in his 1972 eponymous LP The Residents covered the song in 1986.
Buckwheat Zydeco and Dwight Yoakam covered the song in 1990. Waylon Jennings recorded the song for his 1992 album Ol' Waylon Sings Ol' Hank. Country music band The Mavericks released a cover version in 1992 from the album From Hell to Paradise; this rendition peaked at number 74 on the country singles charts. C. C. Deville Son In Law Soundtrack in 1993. In 2004, Jimmy Buffett recorded a version for his License to Chill album. Clint Black, Kenny Chesney, Alan Jackson, Toby Keith and George Strait were all featured on this rendition, which peaked at #8 on the Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks charts in 2004, it was the last Top Ten country hit for Black. This rendition was made into a music video, directed by Stan Kellam; the original Hank Williams song appears in the 2004 video game Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas on the fictional country music radio station K-Rose. Leon Russell recorded a cover of the song on his 1973 album "Hank Wilson's Back Vol. I" Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Merle Ronald Haggard was an American country singer, songwriter and fiddler. Along with Buck Owens and his band the Strangers helped create the Bakersfield sound, characterized by the twang of the Fender Telecaster mixed with the sound of the steel guitar, vocal harmony styles in which the words are minimal, a rough edge not heard on the more polished Nashville sound recordings of the same era. Haggard was born in Oildale, during the Great Depression, his childhood was troubled after the death of his father, he was incarcerated several times in his youth. After being released from San Quentin State Prison in 1960, he managed to turn his life around and launch a successful country music career, gaining popularity with his songs about the working class that contained themes contrary to the prevailing anti-Vietnam War sentiment of much popular music of the time. Between the 1960s and the 1980s, he had 38 number-one hits on the US country charts, several of which made the Billboard all-genre singles chart.
Haggard continued to release successful albums into the 2000s. He received many honors and awards for his music, including a Kennedy Center Honor, a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, a BMI Icon Award, induction into the Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame, Country Music Hall of Fame and Oklahoma Music Hall of Fame, he died on April 6, 2016 — his 79th birthday — at his ranch in Shasta County, having suffered from double pneumonia. Haggard's last recording, a song called "Kern River Blues," described his departure from Bakersfield in the late 1970s and his displeasure with politicians; the song was recorded February 9, 2016, features his son Ben on guitar. This record was released on May 12, 2016. Haggard's Flossie Mae and James Francis Haggard; the family moved to California from their home in Checotah, during the Great Depression, after their barn burned in 1934. They settled with their two elder children and Lillian, in an apartment in Bakersfield, while James started working for the Santa Fe Railroad.
A woman who owned a boxcar placed in Oildale, a nearby town, asked Haggard's father about the possibility of converting it into a house. He remodeled the boxcar, soon after moved in purchasing the lot, where Merle Ronald Haggard was born on April 6, 1937; the property was expanded by building a bathroom, a second bedroom, a kitchen, a breakfast nook in the adjacent lot. His father died of a brain hemorrhage in 1945, an event that affected Haggard during his childhood and the rest of his life. To support the family, his mother worked as a bookkeeper. At 12, his brother, gave him his used guitar. Haggard learned to play alone, with the records he had at home, influenced by Bob Wills, Lefty Frizzell, Hank Williams; as his mother was absent due to work, Haggard became progressively rebellious. His mother sent him for a weekend to a juvenile detention center to change his attitude, but it worsened. Haggard committed a number of minor offenses, such as writing bad checks, he was sent to a juvenile detention center for shoplifting in 1950.
When he was 14, Haggard ran away to Texas with his friend Bob Teague. He hitchhiked throughout the state; when he returned the same year, he and his friend were arrested for robbery. Haggard and Teague were released. Haggard was sent to the juvenile detention center, from which he and his friend escaped again to Modesto, California, he worked a series of laborer jobs, including driving a potato truck, being a short order cook, a hay pitcher, an oil well shooter. His debut performance was with Teague in a Modesto bar named "Fun Center", for which he was paid US$5 and given free beer, he returned to Bakersfield in 1951, was again arrested for truancy and petty larceny and sent to a juvenile detention center. After another escape, he was sent to the Preston School of a high-security installation, he was released 15 months but was sent back after beating a local boy during a burglary attempt. After Haggard's release, he and Teague saw Lefty Frizzell in concert. After hearing Haggard sing along to his songs backstage, Frizzell refused to sing unless Haggard was allowed to sing first.
He sang songs. Because of this positive reception, Haggard decided to pursue a career in music. While working as a farmhand or in oil fields, he played in nightclubs. Married and plagued by financial issues, he was arrested in 1957 shortly after he tried to rob a Bakersfield roadhouse, he was sent to Bakersfield Jail, after an escape attempt, was transferred to San Quentin Prison on February 21, 1958. While in prison, Haggard learned that his wife was expecting another man's child, which pressed him psychologically, he was fired from a series of prison jobs, planned to escape along with another inmate nicknamed "Rabbit," but was convinced not to escape by fellow inmates. While at San Quentin, Haggard started a brewing racket with his cellmate. After he was caught drunk, he was sent for a week to solitary confinement where he encountered Caryl Chessman, an author and death-row inmate. Meanwhile, "Rabbit" had escaped, only to shoot a police officer and be returned to San Quentin for execution. Chessman's predicament, along with the execution of "Rabbit," inspired Haggard to change his life.
He soon earned a high school equivalency diploma and kept a steady job in the prison's textile plant. He played for the prison's country music band, attributing a performance by Johnny Cash at the prison on New Year's Day 1959 as his main inspiration to join it, he was released from Sa
United Artists Corporation doing business as United Artists Digital Studios, is an American film and television entertainment studio. Founded in 1919 by D. W. Griffith, Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks, the studio was premised on allowing actors to control their own interests, rather than being dependent upon commercial studios. UA was bought and restructured over the ensuing century; the current United Artists company exists as a successor to the original. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer acquired the studio in 1981 for a reported $350 million. On September 22, 2014, MGM acquired a controlling interest in Mark Burnett and Roma Downey's entertainment companies One Three Media and Lightworkers Media merged them to revive United Artists' TV production unit as United Artists Media Group. However, on December 14 of the following year, MGM wholly acquired UAMG and folded it into MGM Television. UA was revived yet again in 2018 as United Artists Digital Studios. Mirror, the joint distribution venture between MGM and Annapurna Pictures was renamed as United Artists Releasing in early February 2019 just in time for UA's 100th anniversary.
Pickford, Chaplin and Griffith incorporated UA as a joint venture on February 5, 1919. Each held a 25 percent stake in the preferred shares and a 20 percent stake in the common shares of the joint venture, with the remaining 20 percent of common shares held by lawyer and advisor William Gibbs McAdoo; the idea for the venture originated with Fairbanks, Chaplin and cowboy star William S. Hart a year earlier. Hollywood veterans, the four stars talked of forming their own company to better control their own work, they were spurred on by established Hollywood producers and distributors who were tightening their control over actor salaries and creative decisions, a process that evolved into the studio system. With the addition of Griffith, planning began; when he heard about their scheme, Richard A. Rowland, head of Metro Pictures said, "The inmates are taking over the asylum." The four partners, with advice from McAdoo, formed their distribution company. Hiram Abrams was its first managing director, the company established its headquarters at 729 Seventh Avenue in New York City.
The original terms called for each star to produce five pictures a year. By the time the company was operational in 1921, feature films were becoming more expensive and polished, running times had settled at around ninety minutes; the original goal was thus abandoned. UA's first film, His Majesty, the American, written by and starring Fairbanks, was a success. Funding for movies was limited. Without selling stock to the public like other studios, all United had for finance was weekly prepayment installments from theater owners for upcoming movies; as a result, production was slow, the company distributed an average of only five films a year in its first five years. By 1924, Griffith had dropped out, the company was facing a crisis. Veteran producer Joseph Schenck was hired as president, he had produced pictures for a decade, brought commitments for films starring his wife, Norma Talmadge, his sister-in-law, Constance Talmadge, his brother-in-law, Buster Keaton. Contracts were signed with independent producers, including Samuel Goldwyn, Howard Hughes.
In 1933, Schenck organized a new company with Darryl F. Zanuck, called Twentieth Century Pictures, which soon provided four pictures a year, forming half of UA's schedule. Schenck formed a separate partnership with Pickford and Chaplin to buy and build theaters under the United Artists name, they began international operations, first in Canada, in Mexico. By the end of the 1930s, United Artists was represented in over 40 countries; when he was denied an ownership share in 1935, Schenck resigned. He set up 20th Century Pictures' merger with Fox Film Corporation to form 20th Century Fox. Al Lichtman succeeded Schenck as company president. Other independent producers distributed through United Artists in the 1930s including Walt Disney Productions, Alexander Korda, Hal Roach, David O. Selznick, Walter Wanger; as the years passed, the dynamics of the business changed, these "producing partners" drifted away. Samuel Goldwyn Productions and Disney went to Wanger to Universal Pictures. In the late 1930s, UA turned a profit.
Goldwyn was providing most of the output for distribution. He sued United several times for disputed compensation leading him to leave. MGM's 1939 hit Gone with the Wind was supposed to be a UA release except that Selznick wanted Clark Gable, under contract to MGM, to play Rhett Butler; that year, Fairbanks died. UA became embroiled in lawsuits with Selznick over his distribution of some films through RKO. Selznick considered UA's operation sloppy, left to start his own distribution arm. In the 1940s, United Artists was losing money because of poorly received pictures. Cinema attendance continued to decline; the company sold its Mexican releasing division to Crédito Cinematográfico Mexicano, a local company. In 1941, Chaplin, Orson Welles, Selznick, Alexander Korda, Wanger—many of whom were members of United Artists--formed the Society of Independent Motion Picture Producers. Members included Hunt Stromberg, William Cagney, Sol L