South Lebanon, Ohio
South Lebanon is a village located in Union and Hamilton Townships in central Warren County in the southwestern part of the U. S. state of Ohio. The population was 4,115 at the 2010 census; the first settlement at South Lebanon was made in the 1790s. The village was called "Deerfield" because it was the chief settlement of Deerfield Township, Hamilton County, but renamed because of its proximity to the county seat of Lebanon; the new name of "South Lebanon" was adopted. A post office was established under the name Deerfield Village in 1828, the name of the post office was changed to South Lebanon in 1871. South Lebanon is located at 39°22′14″N 84°12′58″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 2.68 square miles, of which 2.65 square miles is land and 0.03 square miles is water. Most of the village is in the Kings Local School District, but parts are in the Little Miami Local and Lebanon City School Districts, it is in the South Lebanon telephone exchange. As of the census of 2010, there were 4,115 people, 1,533 households, 1,118 families residing in the village.
The population density was 1,552.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,641 housing units at an average density of 619.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 96.2% White, 1.4% African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.5% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.3% of the population. There were 1,533 households of which 40.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.0% were married couples living together, 14.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 27.1% were non-families. 22.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.13. The median age in the village was 35.3 years. 28.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 48.3% male and 51.7% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,538 people, 996 households, 693 families residing in the village.
The population density was 1,521.2 people per square mile. There were 1,069 housing units at an average density of 640.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 98.58% White, 0.04% African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.20% Asian, 0.32% from other races, 0.67% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.10% of the population. There were 996 households out of which 34.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.7% were married couples living together, 14.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.4% were non-families. 26.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.07. In the village, the population was spread out with 27.4% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 31.6% from 25 to 44, 20.4% from 45 to 64, 11.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 97.7 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.8 males. The median income for a household in the village was $35,676, the median income for a family was $40,798. Males had a median income of $30,722 versus $25,417 for females; the per capita income for the village was $16,779. About 11.5% of families and 12.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.3% of those under age 18 and 10.4% of those age 65 or over. Village website
Milford is a city in Clermont and Hamilton counties founded in 1796, in the U. S. state of Ohio, along the Little Miami River and its East Fork in the southwestern part of the state. It is considered a city in Greater Cincinnati; the population was 6,709 at the 2010 census. “No wonder that it struck with rapture the quaint and eccentric John Nancarrow, who had it surveyed for him on May 28, 1788 Dutch burgomaster intended to found a city that should become the future metropolis of the West”. The area within Milford, Old Milford, O'Bannon Township were all built on a survey by John Nancarrow, a Revolutionary War veteran from Virginia. O'Bannon, now Township was named for Clermont's first surveyor. A field along Gatch Avenue on what was once the farm of John Gatch has yielded large numbers of artifacts for several generations; the settlement commenced in 1796 near where two river ways—the Little Miami River and its East Fork—come together better-named Milford. The first Methodist class in the Northwest Territory was begun there in 1798.
Due to a great Methodist influence, including the life of Rev. Francis McCormick, Milford is at the root of Methodist religious heritage westward from Appalachia. Nancarrow, the first surveyor, sold his share of 230 acres of land to Philip Gatch on December 20, 1802, for a total of $920.00. Four years Gatch decided to sell 125 acres to Ambrose Ranson who, soon after, sold 64 acres to John Hageman. Hageman became the first long settler. Nowadays, the field next to Gatch's Estate belongs to the Valley View conservancy, having been an archaeological site called the Gatch Site. Milford Schools has ~6,000 students, on the 2016-17 state report card, they ranked within the top 4% in State performance, in the top 10 of all Greater Cincinnati schools; the high school and junior high school share a scenic campus in the Miami Hills. The six neighborhood schools are Boyd E. Smith, Meadowview, McCormick, John Pattison and Charles Seipelt; the Promont houses the Greater Milford Area Historical Society and yearbooks of all Milford classes, the city has a branch of Clermont County Public Library.
Milford is located at 39°10′30″N 84°17′4″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, Milford has a total area of 3.86 square miles, of which 3.73 square miles is land and 0.12 square miles is water. The Little Miami Bike Trail, which runs from Newtown to Springfield, runs through Milford where several major hiking trails converge, including the American Discovery Trail, the Sea to Sea Long Distance Hiking Route, the Underground Railroad Cycling Route. Area businesses and groups with substantial operations in Milford or adjacent townships include the headquarters of Penn Station sandwiches, Siemens PLM Software, Total Quality Logistics, Overhoff Technology the North American headquarters of Tata, the United Church of God. Ancient mounds have been found, made more visible by overhead scans. Milford Frontier Days, main city fair Art Affaire, a yearly crafts festival Halloween Block Party As of the census of 2010, there were 6,709 people, 3,019 households, 1,572 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,798.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,291 housing units at an average density of 882.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.6% White, 2.3% African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0.4% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.1% of the population. There were 3,019 households of which 25.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.0% were married couples living together, 11.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 47.9% were non-families. 41.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.12 and the average family size was 2.92. The median age in the city was 43.2 years. 21.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 45.2% male and 54.8% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 6,284 people, 2,945 households, 1,534 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,672.1 people per square mile. There were 3,112 housing units at an average density of 828.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.08% White, 3.33% African American, 0.13% Native American, 0.45% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.32% from other races, 0.67% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.91% of the population. There were 2,945 households out of which 24.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.5% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 47.9% were non-families. 43.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.09 and the average family size was 2.92. In the city the population was spread out with 22.6% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 19.9% from 45 to 64, 21.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 81.3 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 75.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $31
Xenia is a city in and the county seat of Greene County, United States. The municipality is located in southwestern Ohio 15 miles from Dayton and is part of the Dayton Metropolitan Statistical Area, as well as the Miami Valley region; the name comes from the Greek word Xenia, which means "hospitality". As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 25,719. Xenia is the third largest city by population behind Fairborn and Beavercreek, it serves as the county seat of Greene County, being at the geographical center, housing the County Courthouse, the County Sheriff's Department and other Government departments. By population, it is the largest place in the United States whose name begins with the letter X. Xenia was founded in 1803, the year Ohio was admitted into the Union. In that year, pioneer John Paul bought 2,000 acres of land from Thomas and Elizabeth Richardson of Hanover County, for "1050 pounds current moneys of Virginia." Paul influenced county commissioners to locate the county seat on this land at the forks of the Shawnee Creeks.
Joseph C. Vance was named to lay out the town; the following year, he bought the town site of 257 acres from John Paul for $250. The name of the new village was chosen in democratic fashion. Vance called a town meeting to discuss possible names; the committee had considered several suggestions without reaching any decision. The Rev. Robert Armstrong proposed the name "Xenia," meaning "hospitality" in Greek, because of the fine hospitality extended to him in this friendly community; when a tie vote occurred, Laticia Davis, wife of Owen Davis, was invited to cast the deciding ballot. She voted for "Xenia." The first session of the Ohio General Assembly created Greene County from the Northwest Territory, embracing the homeland of the Shawnee Indians. Their chief tribal village was north of Xenia at Old Chillicothe, now called Old Town; the Shawnee war chief Tecumseh was born there in 1768. William Beattie was Xenia's first businessman. In 1804, he opened a tavern. In 1804, John Marshall built Xenia's first home.
The first log school house was constructed in 1805, that same year, the Rev. James Towler became the town's first postmaster; the growing community soon attracted many pioneer industries - flour mills, woolen mills, pork packing plants, oil mills, tow mills. A petition for incorporation, dated March 24, 1817, was circulated among the 88 households of Xenia, on July 21, 1817, that petition, containing 66 signatures, was filed with the Court of Common Pleas of Greene County. On October 27, 1817, the petition for incorporation was granted by the Court and Xenia became a municipal corporation; the arrival of the Little Miami Railroad in 1843, gave the city its early industrial roots. On March 2, 1850 the Ohio General Assembly rode from Columbus, Ohio to Xenia and back on the newly completed Columbus and Xenia Railroad. President-Elect Abraham Lincoln made a brief appearance in the city as his inaugural train traveled from Cincinnati to Columbus on Wednesday morning, February 13, 1861, he gave a short speech, not recorded by a traveling writer from the New York Times as it echoed the same sentiments that he had expressed before in his previous stops.
According to the Times writer, "a large crowd assembled, amid the firing of a cannon and enthusiasm, Mr. Lincoln addressed them from the rear car, reiterating what he had said before.". The town progressed during the mid-19th century. Artificial gas was provided in the 1840s and continued in use until natural gas was made available in 1905; the first fire engine house was built in 1831. Xenia opened its first free public library in 1899. By 1900, the city was operating its own sewage system. Ohio Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphans' Home was built in Xenia and some of its building remain in use as part of a Christian ministry organization. Xenia elected Cornelius Clark as its first mayor in 1834. On January 1, 1918, the current commission-manager plan succeeded the old form of municipal government. Xenia has a history of severe storm activity. According to local legend, the Shawnee Indians referred to the area as "the place of the devil wind" or "the land of the crazy winds". Records of storms go back to the early 19th century.
Local records show 20 tornadoes in Greene County since 1884. On April 3, 1974 a tornado rated F5 on the Fujita scale cut a path directly through the middle of Xenia during the 1974 Super Outbreak, the second largest series of tornadoes in recorded history; the disaster killed 34 people, injured an additional 1,150, destroyed half of the city's buildings, left 10,000 people homeless. Five schools, including Xenia High School, Central Junior High School, McKinley Elementary, Simon Kenton Elementary, Saint Brigid Catholic School were destroyed, as were nine churches and 180 businesses; the city's plight was featured in the national news, including a 1974 NBC television documentary, Tornado!, hosted by Floyd Kalber. President Richard Nixon visited stricken areas of Xenia following the devastation. Comedian Bob Hope organized a benefit for Xenia and, in appreciation, the new Xenia High School Auditorium was named the "Bob Hope Auditorium." In recognition of their coverage of this tornado, the staff of the Xenia Daily Gazette won the Pulitzer Prize for Spot News Reporting in 1975.
Xenia was struck by an F2 tornado on April 25, 1989 and again by an F4 tornado on September 20, 2
New York Central Railroad
The New York Central Railroad was a railroad operating in the Great Lakes region of the United States. The railroad connected greater New York and Boston in the east with Chicago and St. Louis in the Midwest along with the intermediate cities of Albany, Cleveland and Detroit. New York Central was headquartered in New York City's New York Central Building, adjacent to its largest station, Grand Central Terminal; the railroad was established in 1853. In 1968 the NYC merged with the Pennsylvania Railroad, to form Penn Central. Penn Central went bankrupt in 1970 and merged into Conrail in 1976. Conrail was broken up in 1998, portions of its system were transferred to CSX and Norfolk Southern Railway, with CSX acquiring most of the old New York Central trackage. Extensive trackage existed in the states of New York, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and West Virginia plus additional trackage in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec. At the end of 1925, the NYC operated 26,395 miles of track; the railroad was formed in 1853 through a consolidation of earlier independent companies running between Albany and Buffalo: The Mohawk and Hudson Railroad was the oldest segment of the NYC merger and was the first permanent railroad in the state of New York and one of the first railroads in the United States.
It was chartered in 1826 to connect the Mohawk River at Schenectady to the Hudson River at Albany, providing a way for freight and passengers to avoid the extensive and time-consuming locks on the Erie Canal between Schenectady and Albany. The Mohawk and Hudson opened on September 24, 1831, changed its name to the Albany and Schenectady Railroad on April 19, 1847; the Utica and Schenectady Railroad was chartered April 29, 1833. Revenue service began August 2, 1836, extending the line of the Albany and Schenectady Railroad west from Schenectady along the north side of the Mohawk River, opposite the Erie Canal, to Utica. On May 7, 1844 the railroad was authorized to carry freight with some restrictions, on May 12, 1847 the ban was dropped, but the company still had to pay the equivalent in canal tolls to the state; the Syracuse and Utica Railroad was chartered May 1, 1836, had to pay the state for any freight displaced from the canal. The full line opened July 1839, extending the line further to Syracuse via Rome.
This line was not direct, going out of its way to stay near the Erie Canal and serve Rome, so the Syracuse and Utica Direct Railroad was chartered January 26, 1853. Nothing of that line was built, though the West Shore Railroad, acquired by the NYC in 1885, served the same purpose; the Auburn and Syracuse Railroad was chartered May 1, 1834, opened in 1838, the remaining 4 miles opening on June 4, 1839. A month with the opening of the Syracuse and Utica Railroad, this formed a complete line from Albany west via Syracuse to Auburn, about halfway to Geneva; the Auburn and Rochester Railroad was chartered May 13, 1836, as a further extension via Geneva and Canandaigua to Rochester, opening on November 4, 1841. The two lines merged on August 1850, to form the rather indirect Rochester and Syracuse Railroad. To fix this, the Rochester and Syracuse Direct Railway was chartered and merged into the Rochester and Syracuse Railroad on August 6, 1850; that line opened June 1, 1853, running much more directly between those two cities parallel to the Erie Canal.
The Tonawanda Railroad, to the west of Rochester, was chartered April 24, 1832 to build from said city to Attica. The first section, from Rochester southwest to Batavia, opened May 5, 1837, the rest of the line to Attica opened on January 8, 1843; the Attica and Buffalo Railroad chartered in 1836 and opened on November 24, 1842, running from Buffalo east to Attica. When the Auburn and Rochester Railroad opened in 1841, there was no connection at Rochester to the Tonawanda Railroad, but with that exception there was now an all-rail line between Buffalo and Albany. On March 19, 1844, the Tonawanda Railroad was authorized to build the connection, it opened that year; the Albany and Schenectady Railroad bought all the baggage and emigrant cars of the other railroads between Albany and Buffalo on February 17, 1848, began operating through cars. On December 7, 1850, the Tonawanda Railroad and Attica and Buffalo Railroad merged to form the Buffalo and Rochester Railroad. A new direct line opened from Buffalo east to Batavia on April 26, 1852, the old line between Depew and Attica was sold to the Buffalo and New York City Railroad on November 1.
The line was added to the New York and Erie Railroad system and converted to the Erie's 6 ft broad gauge. The Schenectady and Troy Railroad was chartered in 1836 and opened in 1842, providing another route between the Hudson River and Schenectady, with its Hudson River terminal at Troy; the Lockport and Niagara Falls Railroad was incorporated April 24, 1834 to run from Lockport on the Erie Canal west to Niagara Falls. On December 14, 1850, it was reorganized as the Rochester and Niagara Falls Railroad, an extension east to Rochester opened on July 1, 1852; the railroad was consolidated into the New York Central Railroad under the act of 1853. A portion of the line is operate
Sandusky is a city in the U. S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Erie County. Situated in northern Ohio on the shores of Lake Erie, Sandusky is midway between Toledo to the west and Cleveland to the east. According to 2010 census, the city had a population of 25,793, the Sandusky, Ohio Micropolitan Statistical Area had 77,079 residents. In 2011, Sandusky was ranked No. 1 by Forbes as the "Best Place to Live Cheaply" in the United States. The city has a median family income of $64,000. Sandusky is home to the Cedar Fair Entertainment Company and its flagship amusement park, Cedar Point. Cedar Point has one of the largest collections of roller coasters in the world. Cedar Point includes 17 roller coasters, it is home to the second tallest roller coaster in the Top Thrill Dragster. The National Arbor Day Foundation has designated Sandusky as a Tree City USA; the accepted etymology is that the name "Sandusky" is derived from the Wyandot word saundustee, meaning "water" or andusti, "cold water". In his 1734 history of New France, Charlevoix transliterated the word as "Chinouski".
Sandusky Bay is identified as "Lac Sandouské" on a 1718 map by Guillaume DeLisle. The name "L. Sandoski" appears on a 1733 map. Sandusky Bay was called Lac Ondaské, in another French transliteration of the Wyandot, it was used as the name of an English trading post on the north side of the bay, a French Fort Sandoské that replaced it, a British Fort Sandusky on the south shore of the bay, an American Fort Sandusky upriver at what is now Fremont. This area was a center of trading and fortifications since the 18th century: the English and Americans had trading posts and forts built on both the north and south sides of Sandusky Bay. Development by European Americans of the city of Sandusky, starting in 1818, on the southeast shore of Sandusky Bay, followed settlement of the war of 1812. Part of the city enveloped the site of an earlier small village named "Portland"; the city of Sandusky encompassed most of the entire township, called Portland. Some of the city was built on land occupied by a Native-American man named Ogontz, therefore the city is said to have been built on "Ogontz' place".
Prior to the abolition of slavery in the United States, Sandusky was a major stop for refugee slaves on the Underground Railroad, as some would travel across Lake Erie to reach freedom in Canada. Although Ohio was a free state, they felt at risk from slavecatchers because of bonuses offered under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850; as depicted in Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin, many refugee slaves seeking to get to Canada made their way to Sandusky, where they boarded boats crossing Lake Erie to the port of Amherstburg in Ontario. Sandusky‘s original plat was designed by surveyor Hector Kilbourne according to a modified grid plan, known today as the Kilbourne Plat. Kilbourne became the first Worshipful Master of the first Sandusky Masonic Lodge known as Science Lodge #50, still in operation on Wayne Street, his design featured a street grid with avenues cutting diagonally to create patterns reminiscent of the symbols of Freemasonry. On September 17, 1835, Sandusky was the site of groundbreaking for the Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad, which brought change to the town.
Industrial areas developed near the railroad and goods were transported through the port. The coal docks located west of downtown still use a portion of the original MR&LE right-of-way, but since the late 20th century, Battery Park Marina was developed on the original site of the MR&LE Railroad after restructuring of the industry reduced traffic on the line. The tracks that ran through downtown Sandusky have since been removed. Most of the downtown industrial area is being redeveloped for other purposes, including marina dockage; the English author Charles Dickens visited the city in 1842, wrote of it in his subsequent travelogue, American Notes. Said Dickens, who rode the newly constructed MR&LE railroad from Tiffin, "At two o'clock we took the railroad. We put up at a comfortable little hotel on the brink of Lake Erie, lay there that night, had no choice but to wait there next day, until a steamboat bound for Buffalo appeared; the town, sluggish and uninteresting enough, was something like the back of an English watering-place out of the season."
The city developed as a center of paper-making. With a mill in the industrial area near the lake, the Hinde & Dauch Paper Company was the largest employer in the city in the early 1900s. Sandusky is located at 41°26′48″N 82°42′33″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 21.91 square miles, of which 9.73 square miles is land and 12.18 square miles is water. Sandusky occupies the defunct township Portland and borders the following townships: Margaretta Township - west and south Perkins Township - south Huron Township - east Sandusky has a humid continental climate, typical of much of the central United States, with warm, humid summers and cold winters. Winters tend to be cold, with an average January high temperature of 32 °F, an average January low temperature of 19 °F, with considerable variation in temperatures. Sandusky averages 28.4 inches of snow per winter. Summers tend to be warm, sometimes hot, with an average July high temperature of 82 °F, an average July low temperature of 66°.
Summer weather is more stable humid with thunderstorms common
New Orleans is a consolidated city-parish located along the Mississippi River in the southeastern region of the U. S. state of Louisiana. With an estimated population of 393,292 in 2017, it is the most populous city in Louisiana. A major port, New Orleans is considered an economic and commercial hub for the broader Gulf Coast region of the United States. New Orleans is world-renowned for its distinct music, Creole cuisine, unique dialect, its annual celebrations and festivals, most notably Mardi Gras; the historic heart of the city is the French Quarter, known for its French and Spanish Creole architecture and vibrant nightlife along Bourbon Street. The city has been described as the "most unique" in the United States, owing in large part to its cross-cultural and multilingual heritage. Founded in 1718 by French colonists, New Orleans was once the territorial capital of French Louisiana before being traded to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. New Orleans in 1840 was the third-most populous city in the United States, it was the largest city in the American South from the Antebellum era until after World War II.
The city's location and flat elevation have made it vulnerable to flooding. State and federal authorities have installed a complex system of levees and drainage pumps in an effort to protect the city. New Orleans was affected by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which resulted in flooding more than 80% of the city, thousands of deaths, so much displacement because of damaged communities and lost housing as to cause a population decline of over 50%. Since Katrina, major redevelopment efforts have led to a rebound in the city's population. Concerns about gentrification, new residents buying property in closely knit communities, displacement of longtime residents have been expressed; the city and Orleans Parish are coterminous. As of 2017, Orleans Parish is the third most-populous parish in Louisiana, behind East Baton Rouge Parish and neighboring Jefferson Parish; the city and parish are bounded by St. Tammany Parish and Lake Pontchartrain to the north, St. Bernard Parish and Lake Borgne to the east, Plaquemines Parish to the south, Jefferson Parish to the south and west.
The city anchors the larger New Orleans metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 1,275,762 in 2017. It is the most populous metropolitan area in Louisiana and the 46th-most populated MSA in the United States; the city is named after the Duke of Orleans, who reigned as Regent for Louis XV from 1715 to 1723. It has many illustrative nicknames: Crescent City alludes to the course of the Lower Mississippi River around and through the city; the Big Easy was a reference by musicians in the early 20th century to the relative ease of finding work there. It may have originated in the Prohibition era, when the city was considered one big speakeasy due to the government's inability to control alcohol sales, in open violation of the 18th Amendment; the City that Care Forgot has been used since at least 1938, refers to the outwardly easy-going, carefree nature of the residents. La Nouvelle-Orléans was founded in the Spring of 1718 by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha.
It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Regent of the Kingdom of France at the time. His title came from the French city of Orléans; the French colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire in the Treaty of Paris, following France's defeat by Great Britain in the Seven Years' War. During the American Revolutionary War, New Orleans was an important port for smuggling aid to the rebels, transporting military equipment and supplies up the Mississippi River. Beginning in the 1760s, Filipinos began to settle around New Orleans. Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez launched a southern campaign against the British from the city in 1779. Nueva Orleans remained under Spanish control until 1803, when it reverted to French rule. Nearly all of the surviving 18th-century architecture of the Vieux Carré dates from the Spanish period, notably excepting the Old Ursuline Convent. Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Thereafter, the city grew with influxes of Americans, French and Africans.
Immigrants were Irish, Germans and Italians. Major commodity crops of sugar and cotton were cultivated with slave labor on nearby large plantations. Thousands of refugees from the 1804 Haitian Revolution, both whites and free people of color, arrived in New Orleans. While Governor Claiborne and other officials wanted to keep out additional free black people, the French Creoles wanted to increase the French-speaking population; as more refugees were allowed into the Territory of Orleans, Haitian émigrés who had first gone to Cuba arrived. Many of the white Francophones had been deported by officials in Cuba in retaliation for Bonapartist schemes. Nearly 90 percent of these immigrants settled in New Orleans; the 1809 migration brought 2,731 whites, 3,102 free people of color, 3,226 slaves of African descent, doubling the city's population. The city became a greater proportion than Charleston, South Carolina's 53 percent. During the final campaign of the War of 1812, the British sent a force of 11,000 in a
Loveland is a city in Hamilton and Warren counties in the southwestern part of the U. S. state of Ohio. Considered part of the Greater Cincinnati area, Loveland is located near exit 52 off Interstate 275, about 15 miles northeast of the Cincinnati city limits, it borders Symmes and Hamilton Townships and straddles the Little Miami River. The population was 12,081 at the 2010 census and was estimated at 12,732 in 2016. Once a busy railroad town, Loveland is now a major stop along the Little Miami Scenic Trail; the city is named after James Loveland, who operated a general store and post office near the railroad tracks downtown. It was incorporated as a village on May 12 or 16, 1876, incorporated as a chartered city in 1961. Present-day Loveland lay at the edges of the Symmes Purchase and Virginia Military District, in what was the Northwest Territory; the area was first settled in 1795 by Col. Thomas Paxton: The Kentucky landowners who were dissatisfied with their family land titles sold their holdings and bought land in the Miami valleys.
Colonel Thomas Paxton who won his spurs in General Wayne's army and became enamoured with the Miami Country, sold his farm in Kentucky because of a faulty title and bought 1,200 acres where Loveland now stands. He came here at the age of sixty and bought numerous tracts from Colonel Lytle, becoming a wealthy man before his death in 1813; the names of ten of his children who came to Ohio are associated with commodious residences, beautiful gardens and great orchards. In its early days, Loveland was known as a resort town, with its summer homes for the wealthy, earning it the nickname "Little Switzerland of the Miami Valley." Future Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase maintained a country home near Loveland, while the Cincinnati YWCA maintained a summer cottage there; the area was home to Ohio's first paper mill, built in 1810 by John Smith. A local road retains Kugler Mill; the area surrounding Loveland in Clermont County was well known for its strawberries. The Obionsville Post Office began operations on October 24, 1831 changed its name to the Loveland Post Office on January 14, 18poo48.
The Hillsboro and Cincinnati Railroad was chartered in 1846 to run a line between Hillsboro and O'Bannon Creek in Loveland on the Little Miami Railroad's route. By 1850, the H&C had completed the 37 miles to Ohio; the H&C would lease its line in perpetuity to the Marietta and Cincinnati Railroad and became the mainline of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Loveland's location at the junction of the Little Miami Railroad and the Marietta and Cincinnati Railroad fueled the city's growth, bringing "40 passenger trains per day, 12 scheduled freight trains between Loveland and Cincinnati."Another railroad ran through antebellum Loveland: the Underground Railroad's Eastern Route from Cincinnati included a stop at the village and continued northward to Waynesville and Lebanon. During the Civil War, Confederate Brig. Gen. John Hunt Morgan and his troops passed through Loveland, seizing possessions of northern and southern sympathizers alike; until wagon bridges were built across the Little Miami River, settlement of Loveland was confined to the Clermont County side, which had access to a railroad station.
A wooden bridge spanned the river at Symmestown and Branch Hill from 1850 until it washed out six years later. For years, residents on both sides pushed for a bridge at Loveland, to avoid the long trip to Foster's Crossing or Miamiville, by 1868 threatened to have Miami Township annexed to Hamilton County if Clermont County officials continued to obstruct the project. A $75,000 suspension bridge was built at Symmestown and Branch Hill and dedicated on July 4, 1871, it was anchored by four 7,000-pound wrought iron columns, at that time the heaviest made in the United States. A second bridge, connecting East and West Loveland, was completed between 1872 and 1876. In 1876, the Cincinnati Campground at Loveland was the site of the holiness movement's tenth annual National Camp Meeting. In 1886, the skeleton of a mastodon and prehistoric stone tools were found in a Loveland gravel pit. In 1903, Loveland voted to become a dry village, prohibiting the sale of alcohol within the village limits 17 years before a national ban.
Loveland was a center of the Temperance movement in Ohio. Downtown Loveland's proximity to the Little Miami River has made it vulnerable to flooding; the worst such event, the Ohio Flood of March 1913, destroyed a corn mill and washed out the Loveland Bridge, replaced with an iron bridge the next year. In the 1920s, The Cincinnati Enquirer ran a promotion that offered a free plot of land in Loveland, along the Little Miami River, after paying for a one-year subscription to the daily; the Loveland Castle was built on multiple plots obtained through this promotion. After a population spike during the 1950s, Loveland reincorporated as a chartered city – the first of only two in Clermont County – on July 25, 1961, with George Anderson as its first mayor; the city absorbed smaller settlements, such as Paxton and Symmestown. German architect Rudolf Fränkel developed a master plan for Loveland. Another major flood in 1959 led to the construction of a dike along the Little Miami River in 1962–1963. In 1972 and 1973, Loveland was the site of multiple Ku Klux Klan rallies that drew members from multiple states.
The long-abandoned Little Miami Railroad corridor was converted into a bike trail in the 1980s and became part of the Little Miami Scenic Trail in 1984. Loveland has periodically sought to expand its borders by annexing surrounding areas to the more commercially active west. In 1993, the city attempted to annex p