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Fate (EP)

緣 Fate is an EP by cantopop singer Prudence Liew, released in 1989. As Liew was pregnant with her second child after the release of Loving Prince 公子多情, she was on maternity leave for much of 1989. To tie fans over until the release of her next album Jokingly Saying 笑說, Current Records decided to produce a remix album and this EP containing two songs that were themes from TVB series and TV movies; this is Liew's last studio release on Current Records before it was bought out by BMG Music in 1989. The first track was the title track "緣 Fate", the theme to the series, 萬家傳說 The Vixen's Tale starring Roger Kwok and Sheren Tang; the second track is "痴心誤會 Loving Misunderstanding". It served as the ending theme to the TV movie, 奪命情人 The Killing Lover starring Liew, a yet-to-be-famous Leon Lai; this song was released on her album, Loving Prince

Space heater

A space heater is a device used to heat a single, small area. Space heaters are powered by electricity or a burnable fuel, such as natural gas, fuel oil, or wood pellets. Portable space heaters are electric, because a permanent exhaust is needed for heaters which burn fuel. Space heaters are powered by the combustion of flammable fuel. Combustion space heaters burn flammable fuel, such as natural gas, propane, or wood. Electric space heaters fall into three main categories: Convection heaters pass electricity through a heating element, causing the element to become hot; the elements are either metal or ceramic, the process is known as joule heating. Heat is transferred to the air in the room by convection; some heaters have a fan to increase air circulation. Infrared heaters pass electricity through a conductive wire, heating it. Most of the heat is radiant heating, rather than convection; the hot wire emits infrared rays, which transfer heat to a solid surface rather than the surrounding air. Heat pumps in reverse.

While convective and infrared heaters make heat from electricity, heat pumps move the location of heat. Heat pumps move heat from outside a room to inside. Many are reversible. Many residential space heaters use convective heating, they can be divided into two categories: those with a fan, those without a fan. Convective heaters provide diffuse heat to well-insulated rooms; some convective heaters use a fan to help circulate warm air throughout a room. Their heating elements are metal or ceramic and are in direct contact with room air, allowing fan heaters to warm a room quickly. In convective heaters without a fan, the heating element is surrounded by water; these heaters warm a room more because the liquid must be heated before the heat can reach the surrounding air. They produce more heat after being turned off, because of the hot liquid inside the heater; the risk of fire is sometimes less with oil-filled heaters than those with fans, but some fan-assisted heaters have a lower risk of fire than other oil-filled heaters.

The main advantage of radiant heaters is that the infrared radiation they produce is absorbed directly by clothing and skin, without first heating the air in a space. This makes them suitable for warming people in poorly insulated rooms or outdoors, allows more distance between people and the heater; some of the earliest electric heaters were radiant, consisting of nichrome heating wires held by ceramic or mica insulation at the focal point of a polished metal reflector. The cost was low since nothing else, not a switch, was needed. Models included a wire guard to prevent accidental contact with the heating wires or the hot ceramic; the metal reflectors needed to be thick, however. Inexpensive mid-20th century heaters were radiant, with the heating wires stretched closely across a larger, metal reflector separated from a thin metal housing. A small fan blew just enough air between the housing and the reflector to cool them, the main output to the room was radiant heat. Stretching the heating wires across a larger area required fewer ceramic insulators, a small fan was cheaper than a larger housing.

Quartz heaters are radiant heaters which are more efficient in the amount and direction of heat, with coiled heating wire inside unsealed quartz tubing. The wires could be thinner than ceramic-supported wires. If the heating elements are at a higher temperature, proportionally more energy is radiated than open-wire heaters. Halogen heaters have tungsten filaments in sealed quartz envelopes, mounted in front of a metal reflector in a plastic case, they operate at a higher temperature than nichrome-wire heaters but not as high as incandescent light bulbs, radiating in the infrared spectrum. They convert up to 86 percent of their input power to radiant energy, losing the remainder to conductive and convective heat; the halogen cycle reduces darkening of the quartz envelope. Many space heaters are plugged into an electric power source, most a two-prong – for older models – or three-prong outlet. Appliance power is measured in kilowatts, which permits simple estimation of operating cost per hour. Fire and carbon monoxide poisoning are the main risks of space heaters.

About 25,000 fires are caused by space heaters in the United States each year, resulting in about 300 deaths. 6,000 hospital emergency department visits annually in the US are caused by space heaters from burns. Improper use can increase the risk of fire and burns. Safe operation includes: Plugging space heaters directly into a wall outlet or heavy-duty extension cord. Light-duty extension cords can cause fires. Plugs and cords should be checked periodically for cracks or damage, replaced if needed. Flammable materials, such as curtains and bedding, should be kept at least 3 feet from the heater. Turn off the heater when the last adult leaves the room or goes to sleep. Children and pets should be kept three feet from the heater. Heaters should be placed on a flat, nonflammable surface. Avoid using heaters near flammable materials such as paint or gasoline. Smoke alarms and carbon mon

Victoria Boys' School (Kurseong)

Victoria Boys' School is a Heritage Government run English medium boys boarding school offering I. C. S. E. in the hill town of Kurseong, India founded in 1879. The school was named Dow Hill School, it is among the oldest schools in India and along with its sister school Dow Hill Girls' School it shares a unique historical background and heritage. Sir Ashley Eden, an official and diplomat in British India and the Lieutenant Governor of Bengal started the school in 1879 for railway employees and extended to the children of middle and lower income group government servants and was paid out of local funds. To serve the purpose a house named ‘Constantia’ was bought and was converted into a residential school. Children of non-officials were accepted but they had to pay a higher fee. In August 1879 the first batch of 16 children arrived, traveling in three tongas from Siliguri, they had to halt at six places before arriving at the school. Within a few years, the number of pupils increased and the space in the old building could not accommodate the numbers anymore.

Subsequently, the Railway Offices and Quarters in Dow Hill were vacated and handed over to the Education Department and the school moved to its present location. Mr Edward Pegler was the first Headmaster of the school and was assisted by his wife Mrs Elizabeth Pegler, appointed the Headmistress of Dow Hill Girls' School; the Peglers worked on their own till 1885. In 1886 two more teachers from England, Mr and Mrs Barnes, arrived to help Mr and Mrs Pegler; the demand for the admission of boys pupils grew the Government decided to reserve the School for boys only in 1888. After Dow Hill School ceased to be co-educational the girls' section remained closed for six years. After a decade the boys' school was shifted to its current building one kilometer away and was renamed'Victoria Boys' School' to commemorate the Jubilee year of Queen Victoria of England. Sir Charles Elliot, who had provided funds for the new building authorized the reopening of the girls’ school in the former school building and in 1898 a girls’ only school,'Dow Hill Girls' School' was established.

Now the two schools are situated one kilometer apart amongst beautiful pine forests. At the end of the year 1905 -- 06 Victoria Boys' School had 190 pupils, it had a staff of a Gymnastic Instructor. Six of the teachers had English or Irish qualifications and two were undergraduates from the Calcutta University; the staff included two matrons, a trained nurse and a house-keeper. The school had a technical department affiliated to the Sibpur Civil Engineering College in which a course of two years was provided for boys who passed middle school examination. School Headmaster's diary

Linoleic acid

Linoleic acid is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid and is one of two essential fatty acids for humans, who must obtain it through their diet. It is a colorless or white oil, insoluble in water; the word "linoleic" derives from the Greek word linon. Oleic means "of, relating to, or derived from oil of olive" or "of or relating to oleic acid" because saturating the omega-6 double bond produces oleic acid. Linoleic acid is a fatty acid, it is an 18-carbon chain with two double bonds in cis configuration. A shorthand notation like "18:2" or "18:2 cis-9,12" may be used in literature, it occurs in nature as a triglyceride ester. It is soluble in acetone, diethyl ether and ethanol. Linoleic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid used in the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid with elongation and saturation, thus some prostaglandins and thromboxane, it is found in the lipids of cell membranes. It is abundant in fatty seeds and their derived vegetable oils; the consumption of linoleic acid is vital to proper health.

In rats, a diet deficient in linoleate has been shown to cause mild skin scaling, hair loss, poor wound healing. However, chronic consumption of high levels of LA may be associated with the development of ulcerative colitis. Cockroaches release oleic and linoleic acid upon death, which prevents other roaches from entering the area; this is similar to the mechanism found in bees, which release oleic acid upon death. The first step in the metabolism of linoleic acid is performed by Δ6desaturase, which converts LA into gamma-Linolenic acid. There is evidence suggesting that infants lack Δ6desaturase of their own, must acquire it through breast milk. Studies show that breast-milk fed babies have higher concentrations of GLA than formula-fed babies, while formula-fed babies have elevated concentrations of LA. GLA is converted to dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. One of the possible fates of AA is to be transformed into a group of metabolites called eicosanoids during the inflammatory response and during physical activity.

The three types of eicosanoids are prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Eicosanoids produced from AA tend to promote inflammation and promote growth during and after physical activity in healthy humans. For example, both AA-derived thrombaxane and leukotrieneB4 are proaggregatory and vasoconstrictive eicosanoids during inflammation; the oxidized metabolic products of linoleic acid, such as 9-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid and 13-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid, have been shown to activate TRPV1, the capsaicin receptor, through this might play a major role in hyperalgesia and allodynia. There are some suggested negative health effects related to this inflammation promoting function of linoleic acid as an omega-6 fatty acid. In addition, LA is converted by various lipoxygenases, certain cytochrome P450 enzymes, non-enzymatic autoxidation mechanisms to mono-hydroxyl products viz. 13-Hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid and 9-Hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid. Certain cytochrome P450 enzymes, the CYP epoxygenases, metabolize LA to epoxide products viz. its 12,13-epoxide, Vernolic acid and its 9,10-epoxide, Coronaric acid.

All of these linoleic acid products have bioactivity and are implicated in human physiology and pathology as indicated in the cited linkages. Linoleic acid is used in making quick-drying oils, which are useful in oil varnishes; these applications exploit the easy reaction of the linoleic acid with oxygen in air, which leads to crosslinking and formation of a stable film called linoxyn. Reduction of linoleic acid yields linoleyl alcohol. Linoleic acid is a surfactant with a critical micelle concentration of 1.5 x 10−4 M @ pH 7.5. Linoleic acid has become popular in the beauty products industry because of its beneficial properties on the skin. Research points to linoleic acid's anti-inflammatory, acne reductive, skin-lightening and moisture retentive properties when applied topically on the skin. Linoleic acid lipid radicals can be used to show the antioxidant effect of polyphenols and natural phenols. Experiments on linoleic acid subjected to 2,2'-Azobis dihydrochloride induced oxidation of linoleic acid.

Research like this is useful in discovering which phenols prevent the autoxidation of lipids in vegetable oils. Conjugated linoleic acid Omega-6 fatty acid: Negative health effects Essential fatty acids Essential fatty acid interactions Eicosanoids Essential nutrients Linolein "Compound Summary: Linoleic acid". PubChem. U. S. National Library of Medicine. Linoleic acid MS Spectrum Fatty Acids: Methylene-Interrupted Double Bonds, AOCS Lipid Library

Exhale (Arthur Blythe album)

Exhale, is the final album by saxophonist Arthur Blythe, recorded in 2002 and released on the Savant label the following year. In his review on Allmusic, arwulf arwulf called it an "enjoyable album". In JazzTimes, John Litweiler wrote: "the leader himself casts a peculiarly gloomy, out-of-character spell. Blythe’s strengths-big sound, aggressive attack and bright melodic imagination-are best at up tempos and on pieces with chord changes, wherein the active harmonic structure lends shape to his discontinuous lines. Exhale has too many slow tempos and one-chord pieces. Exhale must have been a bad day". In The Guardian, John Fordham observed "Not perfect playing, but compelling music from a unique improviser, the strange group sound grows on you". All compositions by Arthur Blythe except where noted "Cousin Mary" – 5:20 "Come Sunday" – 6:16 "Exhaust Suite: Nonette" – 3:16 "Exhaust Suite: Surrender" – 4:10 "Exhaust Suite: LC" – 1:15 "Exhaust Suite: Phase Two" – 2:31 "Night Train" – 6:14 "7/4 Thang" – 3:54 "Equinox" – 9:10 "Just Friends" – 4:28 "CJ" – 5:26 "All Blues" – 8:38 "Straighten Up and Fly Right" – 4:04 "Exhale" – 0:53 Arthur Blythe – alto saxophone Bob Stewarttuba John Hickspiano, organ Cecil Brooks IIIdrums