Little Women is a novel by American author Louisa May Alcott, published in two volumes in 1868 and 1869. Alcott wrote the book over several months at the request of her publisher; the story follows the lives of the four March sisters—Meg, Jo, Amy—and details their passage from childhood to womanhood. It is loosely based on the lives of her three sisters. Scholars classify it as an semi-autobiographical novel. Little Women was an immediate commercial and critical success, with readers demanding to know more about the characters. Alcott completed a second volume, it was successful; the two volumes were issued in 1880 as a single novel titled Little Women. Alcott wrote two sequels to her popular work, both of which featured the March sisters: Little Men and Jo's Boys; the novel addresses three major themes: "domesticity and true love, all of them interdependent and each necessary to the achievement of its heroine's individual identity." According to Sarah Elbert, Alcott created a new form of literature, one that took elements from Romantic children's fiction and combined it with others from sentimental novels, resulting in a new format.
Elbert argues that within Little Women can be found the first vision of the "All-American girl" and that her various aspects are embodied in the differing March sisters. The book has been adapted for stage and screen. In 1868, Thomas Niles, the publisher of Louisa May Alcott, recommended that she write a book about girls that would have widespread appeal. At first she resisted. Niles pressed her to write the girls' book first, he was aided by her father Amos Bronson Alcott, who urged her to do so. Louisa confided to a friend, “I could not write a girl’s story knowing little about any but my own sisters and always preferring boys”, as quoted in Anne Boyd Rioux's Meg Jo Beth Amy, a condensed biographical account of Alcott's life and writing. In May 1868, Alcott wrote in her journal: "Niles, partner of Roberts, asked me to write a girl's book. I said I'd try." Alcott set her novel in an imaginary Orchard House modeled on her own residence of the same name, where she wrote the novel. She recalled that she did not think she could write a successful book for girls and did not enjoy writing it.
"I plod away," she wrote in her diary, "although I don't enjoy this sort of things."By June, Alcott had sent the first dozen chapters to Niles, both agreed these were dull. But Niles' niece Lillie Almy said she enjoyed them; the completed manuscript was shown to several girls, who agreed it was "splendid.” Alcott wrote, "they are the best critics, so I should be satisfied." She wrote Little Women "in record time for money," but the book's immediate success surprised both her and her publisher. According to literary critic Sarah Elbert, when using the term "little women", Alcott was drawing on its Dickensian meaning; each of the March sister heroines had a harrowing experience that alerted her and the reader that "childhood innocence" was of the past, that "the inescapable woman problem" was all that remained. Other views suggest that the title was meant to highlight the unfair social inferiority at that time, of women as compared to men, or, describe the lives of simple people, "unimportant" in the social sense.
Four sisters and their mother, whom they call Marmee, live in a new neighborhood in Massachusetts in genteel poverty. Having lost all his money, their father is acting as a pastor in the American Civil War, far from home; the women face their first Christmas without him. Meg and Jo March, the elder two, have to work in order to support the family: Meg teaches a nearby family of four children. Beth, too timid for school, is content to help with housework. Meg is beautiful and traditional, Jo is a tomboy. Jo is quick to anger. One of her challenges is trying to control a challenge that her mother experiences, she advises Jo to speak with forethought before leaving to travel to Washington, where her husband has pneumonia. Their neighbor, Mr. Laurence, charmed by Beth, gives her a piano. Beth contracts scarlet fever after spending time with a poor family. Jo tends Beth in her illness. Beth recovers, but never fully; as a precaution, Amy is sent to live with Aunt March, replacing Jo, while Beth is ill and still infectious.
Jo has success in earning money with her writing. Meg spends two weeks with friends, where there are parties for the girls to dance with boys and improve their social skills. Theodore "Laurie" Laurence, Mr. Laurence's grandson, is invited to one of the dances, as Meg's friends incorrectly think she is in love with him. Meg is more interested in Laurie's young tutor. Brooke goes to Washington to help Mr. March. While with the March parents, Brooke confesses his love for Meg, they consider Meg too young to be married. Brooke agrees to wait, he serves a year or so in the war. After he is wounded, he returns to find work. Laurie goes off to college. On Christmas Day, a year after the book's opening, the girls' father returns from the war. (Published separat
La'Porsha Renae Mays, known professionally as La'Porsha Renae, is an American singer-songwriter from McComb, Mississippi. In 2015, she auditioned for the fifteenth season of American Idol, which at that time was the final season. On April 7, 2016, she finished as runner-up behind winner Trent Harmon. In March 2017, Renae released her debut album Already All Ready. La' Porsha Renae Mays was born on July 1993 in McComb, Mississippi. At age 16, Renae tried out for the tenth season American Idol. After her college graduation at the age of 22, Renae was a victim of domestic abuse. After a year, she separated from her husband and moved to McComb with her one month old daughter Nayalee Keya. Accompanied by her daughter, she returned to audition for American Idol in Little Rock and earned her golden ticket by performing in front of the judges with Radiohead's "Creep". Renae was announced as the final runner-up on April 7, 2016. Hours after the end of the American Idol, Renae announced that she had been signed to Big Machine and Motown Records.
American Idol mentor and Big Machine Label Group CEO, Scott Borchetta told Billboard the reason for the signing is "Because of the overwhelming fan demand and success of the farewell season of American Idol." Ethiopia Habtemariam, president of MoTown Records will oversee Renae's album. In a post-Idol interview about her plans Renae indicated she would be leaving Mississippi, when asked about the Religious Liberty Accommodations Act, an anti-LGBT law in her home state she said "I am one of the people who don’t agree with that lifestyle. I wasn’t brought up that way." Renae's single "Battles" debuted at number 22 on the US R&B singles chart with a first week sales total of 7,000. Renae's first live performance post Idol was on Live with Kelly and Michael promoting "Battles" which reached its peak at #22 on US R&B Digital Charts. In August 2016, a remix for "Battles" was called the Gold Medal Mix, it became the official song for the United States Women's Gymnastic Team for the 2016 Summer Olympics.
In November, Renae released the lead single to her upcoming debut album, entitled "Good Woman." Her debut studio album, Already All Ready was released on March 31, 2017. "Good Woman" is the debut single from the album. La'Porsha Renae on American Idol La'Porsha Renae on IMDb
West India Quay is a Docklands Light Railway station in Canary Wharf’s West India Quay. It is located at the point where the line from Lewisham splits into branches to Tower Gateway/Bank and Stratford; the next stations on each line are Canary Wharf DLR station and Poplar DLR station. The station is in Travelcard Zone 2. West India Quay station is located over the northern half of the dock of the same name in southeast end of Limehouse and is close to both Poplar and Canary Wharf, is in the central portion of the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. Situated to the south of Billingsgate Road and Aspen Way, the station is near the edge of the main Docklands re-development area; the distance from West India Quay DLR to Canary Wharf DLR is just 0.124 miles, the shortest distance on the entire London Underground and Docklands Light Railway system. Indeed, while standing at the station, the platforms for Canary Wharf are visible just down the line; this can be seen at Heron Quays station. West India Quay will be the closest DLR station to the Canary Wharf Crossrail station.
The station is not served by any London Buses Routes. As of April 2017 DLR trains from Bank towards Lewisham do not stop at this station, meaning to get here from the City of London passengers must either change at Poplar or travel on to Canary Wharf and get the next train in the opposite direction; the station was closed from 1991 to 1993 as the surrounding area was rebuilt. The station is near to the Museum in Docklands and the adjoining hotel and leisure facilities on the north quay of West India Docks, indeed the platforms of the station extend over part of the dock. Between March and October 2007 the station's canopy was replaced in a £1.85m project funded by Transport for London. Throughout the project, TfL highlighted the sustainable nature of the project through its use of recycled materials while justifying the replacement as necessary due to the windy conditions as a result of taller developments nearby. Construction was completed in May 2009 of a new single track dive-under as part of the current capacity upgrades.
A ramp takes trains from Bank to Canary Wharf under the current Canary Wharf to Poplar track. The new track bypasses West India Quay, before coming back up to rejoin the route to Canary Wharf. To construct the new track next to West India Quay the easternmost platform had to be demolished. A consequence of this was, that during construction, trains from Canary Wharf to Poplar and trains from Bank to Canary Wharf had to cross each other at the same level which limited junction capacity; the work was completed in May 2009 but the bypass track was not commissioned until 24 August. It is used Monday-Friday until 1900 by all trains running from Bank to Lewisham but trains running in the opposite direction still call at West India Quay during peak hours; until the Delta Junction upgrade in 2009, West India Quay used to contain four platforms with four tracks. From west to east these platforms served trains to Westferry, to Poplar, from Westferry, Poplar. After reconstruction, the old platform 1 ceased to exist, but re-numbering occurred and trains from Poplar now arrive on the eastern track.
Docklands Light Railway website - West India Quay station page Article on the replacement of the canopies
St George's Channel is a sea channel connecting the Irish Sea to the north and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. The name "St George's Channel" was used interchangeably with "Irish Sea" or "Irish Channel" to encompass all the waters between Ireland to the west and Wales to the east; some geographers restricted it to the portion separating Wales from Leinster, sometimes extending south to the waters between the West Country of England and East Munster. In Ireland "St George's Channel" is now taken to refer only to the narrowest part of the channel, between Carnsore Point in Wexford and St David's Head in Pembrokeshire. However, it remains common in Ireland to talk about a cross-channel trip, cross-channel soccer, etc. where "cross-channel" means "to/from Great Britain". The current edition of the International Hydrographic Organization's publication Limits of Oceans and Seas defines the southern limit of "Irish Sea and St. George's Channel" as "A line joining St. David's Head to Carnsore Point".
The 2002 draft fourth edition omits the "and St. George's Channel" part of the label. A 2004 letter from the St. George's Channel Shipping Company to Seascapes, an RTÉ Radio programme, said that St George's Channel bordered the Irish coast between Howth Head and Kilmore Quay, criticised contributors to the programme who had used "Irish Sea" for these waters; the name "St George's Channel" is recorded in 1578 in Martin Frobisher's record of his second voyage. It is said to derive from a legend that Saint George had voyaged to Roman Britain from the Byzantine Empire, approaching Britain via the channel that bears his name; the name was popularised by English settlers in Ireland after the Plantations. Nicobar Islands.
George Goddard was a Mormon pioneer and a leader in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Goddard was born in England, he was converted to the LDS Church in January 1851. He and his wife and children emigrated from England to Utah Territory, arriving in Salt Lake City on 1852-09-15. In 1857 and 1858, Goddard served as a church missionary to Canada. From 1856 to 1883, Goddard was the clerk to LDS Church presiding bishop Edward Hunter. From 1874 to 1884, Goddard was the clerk of the LDS Church's biannual general conferences. In 1872, Goddard became the inaugural first assistant to George Q. Cannon, the first superintendent of the Deseret Sunday School Union. Goddard served in this capacity for 26 years, until his death in 1899. Goddard was a member of the Mormon Tabernacle Choir and a patriarch in the church, he was buried at Salt Lake City Cemetery. Goddard is credited with having first printed the LDS Church's Articles of Faith in card form, having published several thousand copies for the church's Sunday School on February 18, 1878.
Andrew Jenson. LDS Biographical Encyclopedia, vol. 1. George Goddard at Find a Grave Palmquist, P. E.. R.. Pioneer Photographers of the Far West: A Biographical Dictionary, 1840-1865. Stanford University Press. P. 261. ISBN 978-0-8047-3883-5. Retrieved August 10, 2018
Lake Bumbunga is a salt lake located in South Australia's Mid North between the town of Lochiel and the farming locality of Bumbunga. Salt has been mined there continuously since 1881. According to anthropologist Norman Tindale, the name Bumbunga derives from the Parnpangka term for "rain water lake". Visible from Highway 1 for a distance of 10 km, the 15 square km Lake Bumbunga is a dramatic departure from the surrounding landscape due to its seasonal pink colouration and wide expanse; the lake is the largest of a system of Quaternary Holocene saline lakes extending about 30 km north of Lochiel, draining an area to the east of the Barunga Range where it merges with the Hummock Range. Salt is dissolved from saline mud produced; each summer a large portion of the lake dries up. Salt is harvested by exposing salt water to the action of sun and wind to the point where it becomes saturated with common salt by evaporation; the less soluble salts, iron oxide and calcite, followed by gypsum, are precipitated out at this stage.
The water is pumped into crystallising ponds, where common salt precipitates. The process is stopped before all the salt comes down in order to avoid contamination with magnesium and potassium salts; the final liquors, known as bitterns, are drained away from the salt, harvested. At Lake Bumbunga, brine is pumped into three 25 hectare crystalliser ponds for refining; the potential of Lake Bumbunga's shallow waters for salt harvesting was recognised in 1868. Salt was harvested from the lake bed in summer months from 1881. Evaporation pans, furnaces and men's quarters were built at the northern end of the lake. Mining provided other economic benefits for many years. By 1910 there were at least three lease-holders scraping thousands of tons of salt from evaporation pans when the lake dried up – in December. In 1913, the Australian Salt Company was incorporated and held all the lake leases until 1971, when the company became a wholly owned subsidiary of Cheetham Salt Company Limited – now Cheetham Salt Limited, Australia's largest producer and refiner of solar salt.
Efficiency of transportation was improved in 1926 after a 9 km branch line was built from the nearby Salisbury railway line, enabling transport directly to Port Adelaide. During the Second World War, when salt was need for munitions manufacture, employment rose from 30 workers to 100 working in three shifts a day and two trains a week transported the product in bags. In 1967, 1000 tonnes a day were harvested. Forty years average annual production was reported as 10,000 tonnes. From 1996 to 2012, the works closed and no salt was harvested. With harvesting becoming practicable using only front-end loaders and trucks, the maintenance and salt works buildings became redundant and were demolished in 2000. List of lakes of South Australia Photo of Lake Bumbunga posted to Flickr