SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Liturgy

Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group. As a religious phenomenon, liturgy represents a communal response to and participation in the sacred through activity reflecting praise, supplication or repentance, it forms a basis for establishing a relationship with a divine agency, as well as with other participants in the liturgy. Technically liturgy forms a subset of ritual; the word liturgy, sometimes equated in English as "service", refers to a formal ritual, which may or may not be elaborate, enacted by those who understand themselves to be participating in an action with the divine. The word liturgy, derived from the technical term in ancient Greek, which means "work for the people" is a literal translation of the two words "litos ergos" or "public service". In origin, it signified the expensive offerings wealthy Greeks made in service to the people, thus to the polis and the state. Through the leitourgia, the rich carried a financial burden and were correspondingly rewarded with honours and prestige.

The leitourgia were assigned by the polis, the State and the Roman Empire, became obligatory in the course of the 3rd century A. D; the performance of such supported the patron's standing among the popular at large. The holder of a Hellenic leitourgia was not taxed a specific sum, but was entrusted with a particular ritual, which could be performed with greater or lesser magnificence; the chief sphere remained that of civic religion, embodied in the festivals: M. I. Finley notes "in Demosthenes' day there were at least 97 liturgical appointments in Athens for the festivals, rising to 118 in a Panathenaic year." However, groups of rich citizens were assigned to pay for expenses such as civic amenities and payment of warships. Under the Roman Empire, such obligations, known as munera, devolved into a competitive and ruinously expensive burden, avoided when possible; these included a wide range of expenses having to do with civic infrastructure and amenities. Buddhist liturgy is a formalized service of veneration and worship performed within a Buddhist Sangha community in nearly every traditional denomination and sect in the Buddhist world.

It is done once or more times a day and can vary among the Theravada and Vajrayana sects. The liturgy consists of chanting or reciting a sutra or passages from a sutras, a mantra, several gathas. Depending on what practice the practitioner wishes to undertake, it can be done at a temple or at home; the liturgy is always performed in front of an object or objects of veneration and accompanied by offerings of light, incense and food. Jewish liturgy is the prayer recitations; these prayers with instructions and commentary, are found in the siddur, the traditional Jewish prayer book. In general, Jewish men are obligated to pray three times a day within specific time ranges. While, according to the Talmud, women are only required to pray once daily, as they are exempted from obligations that are time dependent. All public prayer requires a quorum of 10 adults, to be present. Traditionally, three prayer services are recited daily: Shacharit or Shaharit, from the Hebrew shachar or shahar "morning light", Mincha or Minha, the afternoon prayers named for the flour offering that accompanied sacrifices at the Temple in Jerusalem, Arvit or Maariv, from "nightfall".

Additional prayers: Musaf are recited by Orthodox and Conservative congregations on Shabbat, major Jewish holidays, Rosh Chodesh. A fifth prayer service, Ne'ila, is recited only on the Day of Atonement. In Christianity, a distinction is made between "liturgical" and "non-liturgical" churches based on how elaborate or antiquated the worship. Others object to this usage, arguing that this terminology obscures the universality of public worship as a religious phenomenon, thus the open or waiting worship of Quakers is liturgical, since the waiting itself until the Holy Spirit moves individuals to speak is a prescribed form of Quaker worship, sometimes referred to as "the liturgy of silence". In Christianity, the term "the liturgy" refers to a standardised order of events observed during a religious service, be it a sacramental service or a service of public prayer. In the ancient tradition, sacramental liturgy is the participation of the people in the work of God, the saving work of Jesus Christ.

The term "liturgy" in Greek means "work for the people", but a better translation is "public service" or "public work", as made clear from the origin of the term as described above. The early Christians adopted the word to describe their principal act of worship, the Sunday service, which they considered to be a sacrifice; this service, liturgy, or ministry is a duty for Christians as a priestly people by their baptism into Christ and participation in His high priestly ministry. It is God's ministry or service to

Shenzhen Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine

The Shenzhen Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine is a public hospital, specialized in Traditional Chinese medicine. It locates at Jingtianbei neighborhood next in Futian District in Shenzhen, it ran into operation on July 1998 as Futian District Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital in a multipurpose medical building, a five stories building with emergency service, consulting rooms, wards. Before its establishment, the only one outpatient department had been put into used at Lianhuabei neighborhood it was renamed as Lianhuabei Community NO. 1 Healthcare Centre. In June 1996, its first practice surgery Lianhuabei Community NO. 1 Healthcare Centre had been established, supplying general health service to Lianhuabei neighborhood that had more than 400,000 population. Since 1998 to 2001, three community healthcare centres Jingmi, Tian'an Te'fa has been put into operation. In 2002, Outpatient Department of Futian District NO.2 Hospital at Huangmugang neighborhood had been operated by Futian District Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital.

In a same year, Lianhua'ercun Community Healthcare Centre of Futian District NO.2 Hospital was handed over to the latter. Five more community healthcare centres ran into service in 2007, they are Fuzhong, Yu'tian, Jingxin and Jinghua. Since July 2015, the hospital has been managed by Futian District Government and Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine. Meanwhile, it was named as Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine - Shenzhen Hospital, Futian government still invests on it. On 19 December 2016, the hospital declares its accreditation of Level Three, Grade A has been approved to the classification by State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine

Fearful owl

The fearful owl is a medium-sized owl endemic to the Solomon Islands archipelago. It is seen at elevations of up to 800 m above sea level, where it is found in tall lowland or hill forests; the fearful owl is a large forest owl growing to a length of about 38 cm. It has distinct white eyebrows; the inner edge of the facial disk is white. It is mottled brown with deep ochre underparts and blackish streaks; this species may be confused with the Solomon hawk owl, although the latter is smaller and more slender. It is similar in appearance to the laughing owl, now extinct, its call is similar to a clear human scream, increasing in volume and tone and emitted in a series, each pulse being repeated at intervals of ten seconds. The fearful owl is endemic to the island of Bougainville in Papua New Guinea and to Choiseul Island and to Santa Isabel Island in the Solomon Islands, it is found in old-growth lowland and hill forest in primary forest but sometimes in nearby secondary forest and woodland edges to at least 2,000 m above sea level.

Though nesting in tree holes and cracks, nests of the fearful owl have been found on the epiphyte-covered branches of large fig trees, both in primary forest and close to the forest edge and near gardens. The fearful owl preys on phalangers the northern common cuscus. Overhunting of the northern common cuscus may be threatening the fearful owl, although habitat loss due to logging is the primary cause of population decline. BirdLife Species Factsheet