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Lituus

The word lituus meant a curved augural staff, or a curved war-trumpet in the ancient Latin language. This Latin word continued in use through the 18th century as an alternative to the vernacular names of various musical instruments; the lituus was a crooked wand used as a cult instrument in ancient Roman religion by augurs to mark out a ritual space in the sky. The passage of birds through this templum indicated divine favor or disfavor for a given undertaking; the lituus was used as a symbol of office for the college of the augurs to mark them out as a priestly group. The ancient lituus was an Etruscan high-pitched brass instrument, straight but bent at the end, in the shape of a letter J, similar to the Gallic carnyx, it was used by the Romans for processional music and as a signalling horn in the army. For the Roman military it may have been particular to the cavalry, both the Etruscan and Roman versions were always used in pairs, like the prehoistoric lurer. Unlike the Roman litui, the Etruscan instruments had detachable mouthpieces and in general appear to have been longer.

The name lituus is Latin, thought to have been derived from an Etruscan cultic word describing a soothsayer's wand modelled on a shepherd's crook and associated with sacrifice and favourable omens. Earlier Roman and Etruscan depictions show the instrument used in processions funeral processions. Players of the lituus were called liticines, though the name of the instrument appears to have been loosely used to describe other military brass instruments, such as the tuba or the buccina. In 17th-century Germany a variant of the bent ancient lituus was still used as a signalling horn by nightwatchmen. From the end of the 10th through the 13th centuries, chroniclers of the Crusades used the word lituus vaguely—along with the Classical Latin names for other Roman military trumpets and horns, such as the tuba and buccina and the more up-to-date French term trompe—to describe various instruments employed in the Christian armies. However, it is impossible to determine just what sort of instrument might have been meant, it is unlikely there litui were the same as the Etrusco-Roman instrument.

In the early 15th century, Jean de Gerson listed the lituus among those string instruments that were sounded by beating or striking, either with the fingernails, a plectrum, or a stick. Other instruments Gerson names in this category are the cythara, psalterium and campanula. Throughout the postclassical era the name lituus continued to be used when discussing ancient and Biblical instruments, but with reference to contemporary musical practice in the Renaissance it referred to "bent horns" made of wood the crumhorn and the cornett; the crumhorn was associated with the lituus because of the similarity of its shape. The equation of the crumhorn with the lituus was strong among German writers. A 1585 English translation of Hadrianus Junius's Nomenclator defines lituus as "a writhen or crooked trumpet winding in and out; the early Baroque composer and author Michael Praetorius used the word as a Latin equivalent of the German "Schallmeye" or for the "Krumbhoerner" —in the latter case offering the Italian translations storti, cornamuti torti.

A more particular term, lituus alpinus, was used in 1555 by the Swiss naturalist Conrad Gessner when he published the earliest detailed description of the Alphorn: "nearly eleven feet long, made from two pieces of wood curved and hollowed out, fitted together and skillfully bound with osiers". A study made of Swedish dictionaries found that during the seventeenth century lituus was variously translated as sinka, krum trometa, claret, or horn. In the eighteenth century the word once again came to describe contemporary brass instruments, such as in a 1706 inventory from the Ossegg monastery in Bohemia, which equates it with the hunting horn: "litui vulgo Waldhörner duo ex tono G". In 1732 Johann Gottfried Walther referred back to Renaissance and Medieval definitions, defining lituus as "a cornett it signified a shawm or, in Italian tubam curvam, a HeerHorn". In 1738, the well-known horn player Anton Joseph Hampel served as a godfather at the baptism of a daughter of the renowned Dresden lutenist Silvius Leopold Weiss.

In the baptismal register he was described as "Lituista Regius"—"royal lituus player". In the second half of the 18th century the lituus was described in one source as a Latin name for the trumpet or horn; the only known Baroque composition specifying an instrument by the Latin name lituus is Bach's motet O Jesu Christ, meins Lebens Licht. Scientists from Edinburgh University tried to recreate the lituus in May 2009, in the form of a long wooden trumpet, when the instrument had been out of use for 300 years. "Lituus". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16. 1911. Gessner, Conrad. 1555. "Descriptio Montis Fracti iuxta Lvcernam, et primum Chorographica, praefertim quod ad paludem Pilati in eo memorabilem". In his De raris et admirandis herbis qvae sive qvod noctv luceant, siue alias ob causas, lunariae nominantur, commentariol

U.S. Route 5 in Connecticut

U. S. Route 5, a north–south U. S. Highway, paralleled by Interstate 91, begins at the city of New Haven in Connecticut and heads north through western Massachusetts and eastern Vermont to the international border with Canada. Within Connecticut, US 5 proceeds north from New Haven and passes through Meriden and Hartford towards Springfield, Massachusetts. US 5 begins at exit 5 of I-91 northeast of Downtown New Haven, heading north through the suburbs of New Haven, it crosses the Quinnipiac River in North Haven. US 5 continues north through the town of Wallingford before entering the city of Meriden. North of Meriden, it becomes a four-lane divided highway known as the Berlin Turnpike, where a long overlap with Route 15 begins. US 5 continues through the southern suburbs of Hartford along the Berlin Turnpike, shifting just south of the city line to the Wilbur Cross Highway, a limited access highway; the Wilbur Cross Highway bypasses downtown Hartford and crosses the Connecticut River on the Charter Oak Bridge into East Hartford.

From here, US 5 exits the Wilbur Cross Highway and runs along a four-lane, divided surface road to South Windsor before returning to a two-lane road the rest of the way to the Massachusetts state line in Enfield. US 5 follows the route used by the Upper Boston Post Road, an early colonial highway for transporting mail between New York City and Boston; the route was first improved in 1798 as the Hartford and New Haven Turnpike, which ran in a nearly straight line between the court houses of New Haven and Hartford. In 1922, the Upper Boston Post Road corridor was designated as Route 2 of the New England road marking system, crossing to the east of the Connecticut River in Hartford before continuing north to the Massachusetts state line. In 1926, Route 2 was redesignated as U. S. Route 5. Several realignments have been made in the cities of New Haven and Hartford with the opening of several expressways in these areas; because it is paralleled by Interstate 91 between New Haven and Hartford, US 5 serves as a secondary route today.

US 5 begins on State Street at exit 5 of Interstate 91 in New Haven. State Street continues southwest into downtown as a unnumbered street. US 5 starts out as an undivided four-lane road becoming two lanes just before crossing into Hamden. State Street continues north through Hamden and the industrial section of North Haven paralleling the Amtrak railroad tracks on the west side of the Quinnipiac River, it has an interchange with Route 40 in this area. US 5 turns right at the intersection with Bishop Street in North Haven and crosses the Quinnipiac River, the railroad tracks, I-91 overlapped with Route 22 on a four-lane wide road; the bridge ends at a four-way intersection where US 5 turns left on Washington Avenue, Route 22 continues straight on Clintonville Road, Route 103 begins on the right along Washington Avenue. The four-lane Washington Avenue runs through the commercial areas of North Haven still paralleling the railroad tracks, crosses under I-91 and continues into Wallingford as South Colony Street.

At the town line is the Wharton Brook State Park just north of, a short expressway connector to I-91. South Colony Street narrows to two lanes within the Wallingford town center. After crossing Center Street near the Wallingford train station, the road becomes North Colony Street and heads out of the town center; the road crosses Route 68 at a grade-separated junction about two miles followed by a series of junctions about half a mile apart each: an interchange with the Wilbur Cross Parkway, a split to the left where Route 71 begins and a merge from the left where Route 150 ends. At the merge with Route 150 just before the town line, US 5 follows South Broad Street into the city of Meriden. South Broad Street becomes Broad Street after the intersection with Hall Avenue as it passes by the eastern part of the city, avoiding the downtown area. Past Olive Street, the road becomes divided with a wide grassy median. At the north end of the divided section, it has an intersection with East Main Street, the main east–west business route through the city.

About 0.7 miles north of East Main Street, US 5 has an interchange with I-691. At the intersection with Brittania Street, the road becomes North Broad Street, which climbs up on a slope as it meets with the north end of the Wilbur Cross Parkway; the northbound roadway overpasses the Parkway and merges onto it from the right. This is the beginning of a 15-mile overlap with Route 15. Southbound at the beginning of the Parkway, US 5 is signed as an exit from the main roadway. North Broad Street continues north from the merge as a divided 4-lane arterial road for another 1.1 miles up to the Berlin town line, where the road becomes the Berlin Turnpike. US 5 and Route 15 run for 10 miles along the Berlin Turnpike within the towns of Berlin and Wethersfield; the Berlin Turnpike is a four-lane divided arterial road with some six-lane sections and is the alignment of the old Hartford and New Haven Turnpike. In Berlin, it has an interchange with the Route 9 expressway. In Wethersfield, Routes 5 and 15 leave the Berlin Turnpike to travel along the Wilbur Cross Highway, an expressway bypass along the south of downtown Hartford.

The Wilbur Cross Highway runs through Wethersfield and Hartford crosses the Connecticut River into East Hartford on the Charter Oak Bridge. Just prior to the river crossing in Hartford, the Wilbur Cross Highway runs parallel to and interconnects with I-91 near the vicinity of Brainard

Richard Cahoon

Richard Cahoon was an American editor of both film and television. During his career he edited over 40 feature films, over a dozen television series, his work earned him an Emmy nomination and two Eddie Awards. Cahoon's film career began at Universal Studios with his work on the 1929 William Wyler melodrama, The Shakedown, it was one of five films he would work on that year, including the comedy, The Cohens and Kellys in Atlantic City, In 1930, Cahoon became engaged to Margaret Pickstone. In the 1930s, some of the notable films on which he worked include: the Technicolor film Mamba, starring Jean Hersholt. After 1936, Cahoon's career cooled off a bit, he would only edit 3 films between 1936 and the end of the 1940s, including the final two films in the Scattergood Baines film series: Scattergood Survives a Murder and Cinderella Swings It. In the mid-1950s, Cahoon reinvigorated his career. After editing the Maureen O'Hara and Anthony Quinn film, The Magnificent Matador in 1955, he began working in the medium for which he achieved his greatest success: television.

That same year he would edit the premier episode of the short-lived television series and the Tenderfoot, titled "The Boston Kid". After editing The Indian Fighter, starring Kirk Douglas and Walter Matthau, Navy Wife, starring Joan Bennett, Gary Merrill, Shirley Yamaguchi, Cahoon would spend the remainder of his career focusing on the small screen. After working on several television shows in the mid and late 1950s, including You Are There, Broken Arrow, How to Marry a Millionaire, Tombstone Territory, Cahoon spent 9 years editing Perry Mason, for which he worked during the entire run of the series. In 1961, Cahoon would be nominated for an Emmy for his editing on the series, although he would lose to the editors of the Naked City. During the rest of the 1960s he would work on several other television series, including Twelve O'Clock High, The Fugitive, I Spy, his final editing position was on the television series, Medical Center, for which he would win two Eddie Awards, in 1971 and 1972. Cahoon died on September 1985, in Los Angeles California.

Richard Cahoon on IMDb