Kyriaki is a village and a community of the Livadeia municipality, Greece. Before the 2011 local government reform Kyriaki was an independent community, the 2011 census recorded 2,298 in the community of Kyriaki and 2,185 in the village proper. The community of Kyriaki covers an area of 130.36 km2, Kyriaki Agios Athanasios Karyoti Tarsos Panagia Kalamiotissa A few farmlands are around the area. The mountains that are filled with grasslands and rocks covers around the area. The Gulf of Corinth is approximately 5 to 6 km southwest, list of settlements in Boeotia Kyriaki on GTP Travel Pages
Davleia is a village and a former municipality in Boeotia, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Livadeia and its name comes from the ancient settlement Daulis. The municipal unit has an area of 94.985 km2, the municipality includes the eastern portion of Mount Parnassos. Davleia is located ESE of Lamia, SW of Kamena Vourla, W of Livadeia and Thiva, NE of Itea, in ancient Greece, this city in Phocis was called Daulis and at a stage Daulia and Daulion. Mentioned by Homer, it was said to be named either in reference to the character of the area or after a nymph Daulis. In Greek mythology, Daulis was the hometown of Tereus, Daulis was the city at the end of the road not taken by Oedipus. During the Greco-Persian Wars, Daulis was destroyed for the first time in 480 BC, in 395 BC, the city was attacked by Thebes. In 346 BC, Daulis was destroyed again during the so-called Third Sacred War, in 220 BC, the city was attacked by the Aetolians. In 198 BC, the Romans occupied Daulis by a stratagem, in Late Antiquity, Daulia was a seat of a bishop and is now a titular see of the Catholic Church.
Remains of the walls of the citys acropolis can be seen today above the modern town, list of settlements in Boeotia Local website
Pausanias was a Greek traveler and geographer of the 2nd century AD, who lived in the time of Roman emperors Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. He is famous for his Description of Greece, a work that describes ancient Greece from his first-hand observations. This work provides crucial information for making links between classical literature and modern archaeology, andrew Stewart assesses him as, A careful, pedestrian writer. interested not only in the grandiose or the exquisite but in unusual sights and obscure ritual. He is occasionally careless, or makes unwarranted inferences, and his guides or even his own notes sometimes mislead him, yet his honesty is unquestionable, before visiting Greece, he had been to Antioch and Jerusalem, and to the banks of the River Jordan. In Egypt, he had seen the pyramids, while at the temple of Ammon, in Macedonia, he appears to have seen the alleged tomb of Orpheus in Libethra. Crossing over to Italy, he had something of the cities of Campania.
He was one of the first to write of seeing the ruins of Troy, Alexandria Troas, Pausanias Description of Greece is in ten books, each dedicated to some portion of Greece. He begins his tour in Attica, where the city of Athens, subsequent books describe Corinthia, Messenia, Achaea, Boetia and Ozolian Locris. He famously leaves out key portions of Greece such as Crete, the project is more than topographical, it is a cultural geography. Pausanias digresses from description of architectural and artistic objects to review the mythological and historical underpinnings of the society that produced them and his work bears the marks of his attempt to navigate that space and establish an identity for Roman Greece. He is not a naturalist by any means, though he does from time to comment on the physical realities of the Greek landscape. He notices the pine trees on the sandy coast of Elis, the deer and the boars in the oak woods of Phelloe. Pausanias is most at home in describing the art and architecture of Olympia.
Yet, even in the most secluded regions of Greece, he is fascinated by all kinds of depictions of gods, holy relics, Pausanias has the instincts of an antiquary. Some magnificent and dominating structures, such as the Stoa of King Attalus in the Athenian Agora or the Exedra of Herodes Atticus at Olympia are not even mentioned. While he never doubts the existence of the gods and heroes, he criticizes the myths. His descriptions of monuments of art are plain and unadorned and they bear the impression of reality, and their accuracy is confirmed by the extant remains. He is perfectly frank in his confessions of ignorance, when he quotes a book at second hand he takes pains to say so
Parori, formerly Beskeni is a small village located about 27 kilometres north of Livadeia, the capital of Boeotia in Central Greece. Today, Parori is inhabited by only a number of full-time residents. Located east of Davleia at the foot of Parnassus mountain, the village was named Bescheni until 1930, when it was renamed to Parori. The Parori a sample of the architecture of Parnassus area, with its stone houses, narrow cobbled streets, beautiful tiled roofs. It is worth seeing the traditional stone floors for cereals, the name Parori become from two possible scenarios. The first theory posits that it derives from its location at the foot of Mount Parnassus, from 1930 to 1998, the village was a separate community. In 1998 it was integrated into the Municipality of Davleia, and with the 2011 Kallikratis plan, Parori Village in www ΠΑΡΟΡΙ ΒΟΙΩΤΙΑΣ Facebook Account Information to trip here. Soultanis Panagiotis Facebook Account List of settlements in Boeotia
Praxiteles of Athens, the son of Cephisodotus the Elder, was the most renowned of the Attic sculptors of the 4th century BC. He was the first to sculpt the nude form in a life-size statue. Some writers have maintained that there were two sculptors of the name Praxiteles, one was a contemporary of Pheidias, and the other his more celebrated grandson. Though the repetition of the name in every other generation is common in Greece. Plinys date,364 BC, is probably that of one of his most noted works, the subjects chosen by Praxiteles were either human beings or the less elderly and dignified deities such as Apollo and Aphrodite rather than Zeus, Poseidon or Themis. Praxiteles and his school worked almost entirely in marble, at the time the marble quarries of Paros were at their best, nor could any marble be finer for the purposes of the sculptor than that of which the Hermes from Olympia was fashioned. Some of the statues of Praxiteles were coloured by the painter Nicias, opinions have varied, reaching a low with the sculptor Aristide Maillol, who railed, Its kitsch, its frightful, its sculpted in soap from Marseille.
The sculpture was located where Pausanias had seen it in the late 2nd century AD, Hermes is represented in the act of carrying the child Dionysus to the nymphs who were charged with his rearing. The uplifted right arm is missing, but the possibility that the god holds out to the child a bunch of grapes to excite his desire would reduce the subject to a genre figure, C. Waldstein noted in 1882, remarking that Hermes looks past the child, the statue is today exhibited at the Archaeological Museum of Olympia. Opposing arguments have been made that the statue is a copy by a Roman copyist, since the Romans adopted much of Greek culture and art, this is a possibility. Mary Wallace suggested a 2nd-century date and a Pergamene origin on the basis of the sandal type, other works that appear to be copies of Praxiteles sculpture express the same gracefulness in repose and indefinable charm as the Hermes and Infant Dionysus. Among the most notable of these are the Apollo Sauroktonos, or the lizard-slayer, several Roman copies from the 1st century are known including those at the Louvre Museum, the Vatican Museums, and the National Museums Liverpool.
On June 22,2004, the Cleveland Museum of Art, the work is alleged to be the only near-complete original work by Praxiteles, though the dating and attribution of the sculpture will continue to be studied. The Apollo Lykeios or Lycian Apollo, another Apollo-type reclining on a tree, is attributed to Praxiteles. It shows the god resting on a support, his right arm touching the top of his head, and his hair fixed in braids on the top of a head in a haircut typical of childhood. It is called Lycian not after Lycia itself, but after its identification with a lost work described by Lucian as being on show in the Lykeion, one of the gymnasia of Athens. The Resting Satyr of the Capitol at Rome has commonly been regarded as a copy of one of the Satyrs of Praxiteles, the style is hard and poor, a far superior replica exists in a torso in the Louvre
Vehicle registration plates of Greece
Greek vehicle registration plates are composed of three letters and four digits per plate. The letters represent the district that issues the plates while the numbers begin from 1000 to 9999, similar plates with digits beginning from 1 to 999 are issued for motorcycles which exceed 50 cc. With the exception of Athens and Thessaloniki, all districts are represented by the first 2 letters, the final letter in the sequence changes in Greek alphabetical order after 9,000 issued plates. For example, Patras plates are ΑΧΑ-1000, where ΑΧ represents the Achaia prefecture of which Patras is the capital, when ΑΧΑ-9999 is reached the plates turn to ΑΧΒ-1000 and this continues until ΑΧΧ is finished. Only the letters from the intersection between the Latin and Greek alphabets by glyph appearance are used, namely Α, Β, Ε, Ζ, Η, Ι, Κ, Μ, Ν, Ο, Ρ, Τ, Υ, Χ. This is because Greece is a party to the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic. The rule applies in a way in Russia, Belarus and Herzegovina. Combinations used for residents are L-NNNN and are limited.
Until 2003, taxis used L-NNNN, the plate was aligned with the prefecture, when number plates were introduced to Greece, they were numbered and in the late 1950s the system was L-NNN and LL-NNN. The letters were Greek letters and Latin letters, respectively, in 1956, the system was NNNNNN. In 1972, they became lettered and the system was LL-NNNN while trucks used L-NNNN, in 1983, the system was LLL-NNNN and the first two letters are prefecture letters. In 2004, the euroband was added, the first 2 of 3 letters of a licence plate usually represent the prefecture where the car was registered. Π. — Disabled in war ΔΟΚ — Test plates ΔΣ — Corps Diplomatique or foreign delegation Ε. Α. or ΕΛ. ΑΣ. — Hellenic Police ΛΣ — Coast Guard ΞΑ — Foreign missions ΕΣ — Hellenic Army ΠΑ — Hellenic Air Force ΠΝ — Hellenic Navy ΠΣ — Fire Guard ΠΚ — President of the Government, i. e
History of Athens
Athens is one of the oldest named cities in the world, having been continuously inhabited for at least 5000 years. Following a period of decline under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. The name of Athens, connected to the name of its patron goddess Athena, the etiological myth explaining how Athens acquired this name through the legendary contest between Poseidon and Athena was described by Herodotus, Ovid, Plutarch and others. It even became the theme of the sculpture on the West pediment of the Parthenon, both Athena and Poseidon requested to be patrons of the city and to give their name to it, so they competed with one another for the honour, offering the city one gift each. Poseidon produced a spring by striking the ground with his trident, Athena created the olive tree, symbolizing peace and prosperity. The Athenians, under their ruler Cecrops, accepted the olive tree, a sacred olive tree said to be the one created by the goddess was still kept on the Acropolis at the time of Pausanias. It was located by the temple of Pandrosus, next to the Parthenon, according to Herodotus, the tree had been burnt down during the Persian Wars, but a shoot sprung from the stump.
The Greeks saw this as a symbol that Athena still had her there on the city. Plato, in his dialogue Cratylus, offers his own etymology of Athenas name connecting it to the phrase ἁ θεονόα or hē theoû nóēsis. The site on which Athens stands was first inhabited in the Neolithic period, perhaps as a settlement on top of the Acropolis. The Acropolis is a defensive position which commands the surrounding plains. The settlement was about 20 km inland from the Saronic Gulf, in the centre of the Cephisian Plain, to the east lies Mount Hymettus, to the north Mount Pentelicus. Ancient Athens, in the first millennium BC, occupied a small area compared to the sprawling metropolis of modern Greece. The Acropolis was situated just south of the centre of this walled area, the Agora, the commercial and social centre of the city, lay about 400 m north of the Acropolis, in what is now the Monastiraki district. The hill of the Pnyx, where the Athenian Assembly met, the Eridanus river flowed through the city. One of the most important religious sites in ancient Athens was the Temple of Athena, known today as the Parthenon, which stood on top of the Acropolis, where its evocative ruins still stand.
Two other major sites, the Temple of Hephaestus and the Temple of Olympian Zeus or Olympeion lay within the city walls. According to Thucydides, the Athenian citizens at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War numbered 40,000, making with their families a total of 140,000 people in all
Chaeronea is a village and a former municipality in Boeotia, located about 80 kilometers east of Delphi. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Livadeia, the municipal unit has an area of 111.445 km2, the community 26.995 km2. It is located by the mountain Thourion and in the Kifisós river valley, first settled in the Prehistoric period at the site now known as Magoula Balomenou, its older name was Arne. Chaeronea was subject to Orchomenus which was, beginning in 600 BCE, in the late 5th century BCE, Chaironeia belonged to one of the 11 Boeotian districts along with Acraephnium and Copia. Chaeronea was the site of historical battles. Best known is that of 338 BCE, between Philip II of Macedon and a coalition of various Greek states, mainly Thebes and Athens, during the battle, the elite unit of Theban soldiers known as the Sacred Band of Thebes was wiped out completely. In 1818, the so-called Lion of Chaeronea, a nearly 20-foot-tall funerary monument erected in honor of the Sacred Band, was rediscovered by English travellers.
The fragmentary monument was reassembled and installed in 1902 by a called the Order of Chaeronea atop a pedestal at the site of its discovery. The ancient biographer and essayist Plutarch was born in Chaeronea, and several times refers to these, other battles around Chaeronea, After capturing Chaeronea in 447 BCE the Athenians were attacked and defeated in the same year by the Boeotians at the Battle of Coronea. In 146 BCE the Roman general Matellus defeated a unit of 1,000 Arkadians, in 86 BCE, Archelaus and Taxilos, generals of Mithridates VI of Pontus, landed in Boeotia. They were met by the Roman general Lucius Cornelius Sulla near Chaeronea, Battle between Catalans and Franks in March 15,1311. The Catalan Company defeated the Franks and took control of part of Greece. Turks participated with the side of Catalans, the battle is described by Ramon Muntaner, a Catalan soldier. Battle between Greeks and Turks in 1823 and 1825 during the Greek Revolution, the site of the Theban mass grave was excavated in 1879-80 by P.
Stamatakis, and the prehistoric site of Magoula Balamenou 23 years by the archaeologist G. Soteriadis
Nafpaktos is a town and a former municipality in Aetolia-Acarnania, West Greece, situated on a bay on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth,3 km west of the mouth of the river Mornos. It is named for Naupaktos, an important Athenian naval station in the Peloponnesian war, as a strategically crucial possession controlling access to the Gulf of Corinth, Naupactus changed hands many times during the Crusades and the Ottoman–Venetian Wars. It was under Venetian control in the 15th century, and came to be known by the Venetian form of its name, excepting a brief period of Venetian control in 1687–1699, Lepanto remained under Ottoman control until Greek independence in 1829. The modern municipality was incorporated in 1946, but merged into the larger Nafpaktia municipality in the 2010 reform, Nafpaktos is now both the name of a municipal unit within Nafpaktia and of the town proper within the Nafpaktos unit. The municipal district has an area of 159,947 square kilometres, the town is 9 km northeast of Antirrio,18 km northeast of Patras,35 km east of Missolonghi and 45 km southeast of Agrinio.
The Greek National Road 48/E65 passes north of the town and it is the second largest town of Aetolia-Acarnania, after Agrinio. The ancient name Naupaktos means boatyard and it was Latinized as Naupactus. By the late period, the local name had been corrupted to Nepahtos, Epaktos or Epahtos. By the Franks it was called Neopant, Nepant or Lepant, french sources of the 14th century give Nepant or Neopant, Venetian sources have Nepanto or Lepanto. The name was adapted in Ottoman Turkish from Greek Νέπαχτος as Aynabahti or İnebahtı, the ancient name was revived in modern Greece in the 19th century. In Greek legend, Naupactus is the place where the Heraclidae built a fleet to invade the Peloponnese, two major battles were fought here. In 404 it was restored to the Locrians, who subsequently lost it to the Achaeans, Philip II of Macedon gave Naupactus to the Aetolians, who held it till 191 BC, when after an obstinate siege it was surrendered to the Romans. It was still flourishing about 170, the Roman playwright Plautus mentions Naupactus in his comedy Miles Gloriosus as the destination of an Athenian master who is on a diplomatic mission to the city.
In 551/2, during the reign of Justinian I, the city was destroyed by an earthquake, the town and its hinterland were hit by an epidemic coming from Italy in 747/8 and almost deserted. From the late 9th century, probably the 880s, it was capital of the Byzantine thema of Nicopolis, at the same time, its bishopric was elevated to a metropolis. During the 9th–10th centuries, the town was an important harbour for the Byzantine navy, a rebellion of the local populace, which led to the death of the local strategos George, is recorded during the early reign of Constantine VIII. In 1040, the town did not take part in the uprising of Peter Delyan, St. Nicholas of Trani is recorded as having departed for Otranto in 1094 from the port. The history of the town over the two centuries is obscure, during the visit of Benjamin of Tudela in 1165, there was a Jewish community of about 100 in the town
Amfissa is a town in Phocis, part of the municipality of Delphi, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit. The municipal unit has an area of 315.174 km2, Amfissa dates back to antiquity, with its history spanning around 3,000 years, and has been traditionally the largest and capital city of Phocis. It was the most important city of the ancient Greek tribe of the Ozolian Locrians and it is believed that the name Άμφισσα derives from the ancient Greek verb αμφιέννυμι, meaning surround, since the city is surrounded by mountains Giona and Parnassus. According to the Greek mythology, the daughter of Macar, son of Aeolus, in 1833, after the establishment of the independent Greek State, the ancient name Amfissa was given back to the city. The Amfissians celebrated mysteries in honor of the boys, who might be the Dioskouroi. In Amfissa there were the tomb of Gorge, wife of Andraemon, recent excavations have revealed a Mycenaean tomb in Amfissa, preliminary findings indicate that the tomb was in use for more than two centuries, from the 13th to the 11th century B. C.
Findings of several excavations revealed that the town had developed its commerce with Corinth, Amfissa was organised as polis in the 7th century BC and flourished in arts and trade, which lasted for three centuries. Parts of the walls of the ancient acropolis of the date back between the 7th and the 6th century BC. In 653 BC, people from Amfissa migrated to Southern Italy, amfissas calendar differed from that of the other Ozolian towns, while four of the months names known are Argestyon, Panigyrion and Pokios. Its coins had the head of Apollo on the one side, and the inscription ΑΜΦΙΣΣΕΩΝ, a spear-head and a jaw-bone of Calydonian boar, following the Greek defeat by the Persians in the battle of Thermopylae, Persian troops invaded Phocis, Ozolian Locris and Boeotia. It is that Amfissa, due to its strong acropolis, during the Peloponnesian War, Amfissa fought on Spartas side, drifting the other towns of Ozolian Locris in this way. The towns form of government was oligarchic, similar to that of Sparta, the latter were the first to give him hostages and persuaded the other Locrian cities to do the same, as they were alarmed at the hostility of the neighbouring Phocians.
After the Peloponnesian War the Amfissians were allies to Thebes, as a result, the Amfissians and the rest of Locrians, along with the Thebans, attacked Phocis, and the Phocians, in turn, appealed to their ally, Sparta. These conflicts led to the Corinthian War, with the Amfissians on the side of Athens, Argos and Thebes. During the Third Sacred War,356 -346 BC, the Amfissians, who were allies of the Thebans, cultivated part of the Crissaean plain, which belonged to Delphi, and founded potteries in Kirra. In 339 BC, the Athenians offered golden shields to the Temple of Apollo in Delphi with inscriptions insulting to the Thebans, who provoked the deputy of Amfissa to oppose to this offer. In 338 BC, Philip attacked and destroyed Amfissa, expelling large parts of its population and giving the area to Delphi, the Amfissians managed to rebuild their town and give to it its former power, but in 322 BC it was sieged by Alexander of Aetolia. In 279 BC, four hundred Amfissian hoplites joined the Greek forces which defended Delphi against the Gauls, the Amfissians and the Aetolians tightened their old affiliation, and in 250 BC, Amfissa joined the Aetolian League as friend and relative of the Aetolians