Tales of Brave Ulysses
"Tales of Brave Ulysses" is a song recorded in 1967 by British group Cream. In the UK and US, it was released as the B-side to the "Strange Brew" single in June 1967. In November, the song was included on Disraeli Gears; the song features one of the earliest uses of a wah-wah pedal, which guitarist Eric Clapton plays throughout the song. The song was the first collaboration between artist Martin Sharp. Clapton composed the music, inspired by the Lovin' Spoonful's 1966 hit "Summer in the City". "I just started chatting to Eric," said Sharp, who lived in the same building. "I told him. He, in turn, told me. So I gave him my poem. Two weeks he turned up with it on the B-side of a 45 record."The song was the B-side for "Strange Brew" in June 1967, several months ahead of the group's second album, Disraeli Gears, which included both songs. AllMusic's Matthew Greenwald calls it, "One of a few overtly psychedelic songs to have aged gracefully... Lyrically, it's a factual and colorful rendering of the great Greek tragedy Ulysses".
In his 2007 autobiography, Clapton recalls: When he heard that I was a musician, he told me he had written a poem that he thought would make good lyrics for a song. As it happens, I had in my mind at that moment an idea inspired by a favorite song of mine by the Lovin' Spoonful called "Summer in the City," so I asked him to show me the words, he wrote them down on a napkin and gave them to me... These became the lyrics of the song "Tales of Brave Ulysses"; the song uses a "C/B flat/F chord pattern", which Greenwald describes as "simple but effective". Jack Bruce, on bass provides the vocal, Ginger Baker is on drums. Cream recorded the song at Atlantic Studios in New York City in May 1967, during the sessions for Disraeli Gears. Atlantic brought in engineer Tom Dowd and producer Felix Pappalardi to work with Cream on their next album. For the recording, Clapton used a wah-wah pedal guitar effects unit for the first time. Cream performed the song in concert and a 10 March 1968 recording from Winterland in San Francisco is included on Live Cream Volume II.
In May 1968, the group were filmed performing it for The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour television programme. "Tales of Brave Ulysses" was overshadowed by "White Room", which utilised the chord progression and wah-wah to create one of Cream's biggest hits. Hjort, Christopher. Strange Brew: Eric Clapton & the British Blues Boom, 1965–1970. London, UK: Jawbone Press. Pp. g. 29. ISBN 978-1-906002-00-8. Ertegün, Ahmet. Classic Albums: Cream – Disraeli Gears. Eagle Rock Entertainment. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics Grimm, Beca. "You've Never Heard Cream's'Disraeli Gears'?!". All Things Considered. Retrieved 9 September 2016
Peter Edward "Ginger" Baker is an English drummer and a founder of the rock band Cream. His work in the 1960s earned him the reputation of "rock's first superstar drummer," while his individual style melds a jazz background with African rhythms. Baker is credited as a pioneer of drumming in genres like heavy metal and world music. Baker began playing drums at age 15, took lessons from Phil Seamen. In the 1960s, he joined Blues Incorporated; the two clashed but would be rhythm section partners again in the Graham Bond Organisation and Cream, the latter of which Baker co-founded with Eric Clapton in 1966. Cream achieved worldwide success but lasted only until 1968, in part due to Baker's and Bruce's volatile relationship. After working with Clapton in Blind Faith and leading Ginger Baker's Air Force, Baker spent several years in the 1970s living and recording in Africa with Fela Kuti, in pursuit of his long-time interest in African music. Among Baker's other collaborations are his work with Gary Moore, Masters of Reality, Public Image Ltd, Atomic Rooster, Bill Laswell, jazz bassist Charlie Haden, jazz guitarist Bill Frisell and Ginger Baker's Energy.
Baker's drumming is regarded for its style and use of two bass drums instead of the conventional one. In his early days, he performed lengthy drum solos, most notably in the Cream song "Toad", one of the earliest recorded examples in rock music. Baker is an inductee of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of Cream, of the Modern Drummer Hall of Fame in 2008, of the Classic Drummer Hall of Fame in 2016. Ginger Baker was born in South London, his mother worked in a tobacco shop. An athletic child, Baker began playing drums at about 15 years old as an outlet for his restless energy. In the early 1960s he took lessons from Phil Seamen, one of the leading British jazz drummers of the post-war era, he gained early fame as a member of the Graham Bond Organisation with future Cream bandmate Jack Bruce. The Graham Bond Organisation was an R&B/blues group with strong jazz leanings. Baker founded the rock band Cream in 1966 with guitarist Eric Clapton. A fusion of blues, psychedelic rock and hard rock, the band released four albums in a little over two years before breaking up in 1968.
Baker joined the short-lived "supergroup" Blind Faith, composed of Eric Clapton, bassist Ric Grech from Family, Steve Winwood from Traffic on keyboards and vocals. They released Blind Faith, before breaking up. In 1970 Baker formed and recorded with fusion rock group Ginger Baker's Air Force. In November 1971, Baker decided to set up a recording studio in Lagos the capital of Nigeria. Baker was one of the first rock musicians to realize the potential of African music, he decided that it would be an interesting experience to travel to Nigeria overland across the Sahara Desert. Baker invited documentary filmmaker Tony Palmer to join him and Ginger Baker in Africa follows his odyssey as he makes his journey and arrives in Nigeria to set up his studio. After many frustrating set-backs & technical hitches, Batakota studios opened at the end of January 1973, it would operate through the seventies as a facility for both local and western musicians. Baker sat in for Fela Kuti during recording sessions in 1971 released by Regal Zonophone as Live!'
Fela appeared with Ginger Baker on Stratavarious alongside Bobby Gass, a pseudonym for Bobby Tench from the Jeff Beck Group. Stratavarious was re-issued as part of the compilation Do What You Like. Baker formed Baker Gurvitz Army with brothers Paul and Adrian Gurvitz in 1974; the band recorded three albums, Baker Gurvitz Army, Elysian Encounter and Hearts on Fire, the band toured through England and Europe in 1975. The band broke up in 1976, not long after the death in a plane crash of Bill Fehilly. After the failure of the recording studio in Lagos, Baker spent most of the early 1980s on an olive ranch in a small town in Italy. During this period, he played little music and managed to kick the heroin habit that contributed to the downfall of his career. Producer Bill Laswell talked him into doing some session work on John Lydon's Public Image Ltd. album, called Album, in 1985. In the early 1980s, Baker joined Hawkwind for an album and tour, he recorded two additional albums with the group. Baker moved to Los Angeles in the late 80's intending to become an actor.
He appeared in the 1990 TV series Nasty Boys as Ginger. In 1992 Baker played with the hard-rock group Masters of Reality with bassist Googe and singer/guitarist Chris Goss on the album Sunrise on the Sufferbus; the album sold fewer than 10,000 copies. Baker lived in part due to his passion for polo. Baker not only participated in polo events at the Salisbury Equestrian Park, but he sponsored an ongoing series of jam sessions and concerts at the equestrian centre on weekends. In 1994, he formed The Ginger Baker Trio with guitarist Bill Frisell, he joined BBM, a short-lived power trio with the line-up of Baker, Jack Bruce and Irish blues rock guitarist Gary Moore. On 3 May 2005, Baker reunited with Eric Clapton and Jack Bruce for a series of Cream concerts at the Royal Albert Hall and Madison Square Garden; the London concerts were recorded and released as Royal Al
Ticknor and Fields
Ticknor and Fields was an American publishing company based in Boston, Massachusetts. In 1832 William Davis Ticknor and John Allen began a small bookselling business which operated out of the Old Corner Bookstore located on Washington and School streets in Boston, Massachusetts; the space had been used by publishers Carter & Hendee, who hired a teenaged James Thomas Fields as an apprentice. When Ticknor and Allen began their business, Fields joined them. A year Allen withdrew from the firm, Ticknor continued business under William D. Ticknor and Company; when John Reed and Fields became partners in 1845, the imprint was changed to Ticknor and Fields. Reed retired in 1854 and the imprint was renamed as Ticknor and Fields, which became well known. During these years the firm purchased and printed the Atlantic Monthly and the North American Review. In 1842 Ticknor became the first American publisher to pay foreign writers for their works, beginning with a check to Alfred Tennyson; these were prosperous years for the firm, they compiled an impressive list of authors, Horatio Alger, Lydia Maria Child, Charles Dickens, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, James Russell Lowell, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Alfred Tennyson, Henry David Thoreau, Mark Twain, John Greenleaf Whittier.
The Old Corner Bookstore had become the publishing meeting place for these authors. Many writers visited many times a week; the success of the firm was in part to the matched but varied talents of Ticknor and Fields. Ticknor gave his attention to the financial and manufacturing departments while Fields focused on literary relations and social aspects of the business, it was during these years that Ticknor and Fields developed a close relationship with the Riverside Press, founded by Henry Oscar Houghton in 1852. In the spring of 1864, Ticknor accompanied Nathaniel Hawthorne on a trip to restore the author's health, at the urging of his wife Sophia Hawthorne. During the trip, Ticknor became ill with pneumonia. Hawthorne wrote to Fields that "our friend Ticknor is suffering under a billious attack... He had seemed uncomfortable, but not to an alarming degree." Ticknor died on the morning of April 10, 1864. Upon Ticknor's sudden and unexpected death, interests in the firm were carried on by his son Howard M. Ticknor.
During these years the business had outgrown the Old Corner Bookstore and Fields, now in charge of the company, was no longer interested in the retail store. He sold the Old Corner Bookstore on November 12, 1864, moved the publishing house to 124 Tremont Street; the firm began to publish Our Young Folks edited by Howard M. Ticknor; the younger Ticknor soon retired and, in 1868, the firm was reorganized as Fields, Osgood, & Co. Benjamin Holt Ticknor, son of William Davis Ticknor, was admitted at a partner in 1870. On New Year's Day, 1871, Fields announced his retirement from the business at a small gathering of friends, intending to focus on his own writing. On January 2, 1871, the remaining partners bought out Fields's share of the company for $120,000 and it was renamed James R. Osgood & Co. Osgood, who considered Fields a mentor, attracted substantial new talent and published new works by Thomas Bailey Aldrich, Bret Harte, William Dean Howells, Henry James, Sarah Orne Jewett, Lucy Larcom, Elizabeth Stuart Phelps Ward, Celia Thaxter, Charles Dudley Warner.
The firm invested in heliotype printing technology, various periodicals, established a New York office. Within a few years, the company was in financial difficulty and Osgood and B. H. Ticknor were forced to sell off various assets, including many stereotype plates. By December 1878, they were forced to merge with Hurd & Houghton and became Houghton, Co. Henry Oscar Houghton became a partner in the deal; the partnership would last until 1880, when Osgood left to form a second J. R. Company. Houghton's company, now Houghton, Co, retained the rights to the Tickner and Fields backlist; the second J. R. Osgood and Co. was taken over by Benjamin Holt Ticknor in 1885 under the name Ticknor and Company. Ticknor and Company operated until 1889 when it became part of Houghton, Co. In 1908 the name was changed to Houghton Mifflin Company. In 1979, Houghton Mifflin revived the Fields name as and imprint. Chester Kerr was the editor from its reestablishment to 1984. Fiske, John.. Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography, New York: D. Appleton and Company Ticknor, Caroline..
Hawthorne and His Publisher, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company - via the Internet Archive American National Biography Online, retrieved June 25, 2008 The LUCILE Project, retrieved June 25, 2008 Ticknor and Fields listing at Biblio.com Ticknor and Fields records, 1839-1881, Houghton Library, Harvard University
Billboard is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries. It publishes pieces involving news, opinion, reviews and style, is known for its music charts, including the Hot 100 and Billboard 200, tracking the most popular songs and albums in different genres, it hosts events, owns a publishing firm, operates several TV shows. Billboard was founded in 1894 by William Donaldson and James Hennegan as a trade publication for bill posters. Donaldson acquired Hennegen's interest in 1900 for $500. In the early years of the 20th century, it covered the entertainment industry, such as circuses and burlesque shows, created a mail service for travelling entertainers. Billboard began focusing more on the music industry as the jukebox and radio became commonplace. Many topics it covered were spun-off into different magazines, including Amusement Business in 1961 to cover outdoor entertainment, so that it could focus on music.
After Donaldson died in 1925, Billboard was passed down to his children and Hennegan's children, until it was sold to private investors in 1985, has since been owned by various parties. The first issue of Billboard was published in Cincinnati, Ohio by William Donaldson and James Hennegan on November 1, 1894, it covered the advertising and bill posting industry, was known as Billboard Advertising. At the time, billboards and paper advertisements placed in public spaces were the primary means of advertising. Donaldson handled editorial and advertising, while Hennegan, who owned Hennegan Printing Co. managed magazine production. The first issues were just eight pages long; the paper had columns like "The Bill Room Gossip" and "The Indefatigable and Tireless Industry of the Bill Poster". A department for agricultural fairs was established in 1896; the title was changed to The Billboard in 1897. After a brief departure over editorial differences, Donaldson purchased Hennegan's interest in the business in 1900 for $500 to save it from bankruptcy.
That May, Donaldson changed it from a monthly to a weekly paper with a greater emphasis on breaking news. He improved editorial quality and opened new offices in New York, San Francisco and Paris, re-focused the magazine on outdoor entertainment such as fairs, circuses and burlesque shows. A section devoted to circuses was introduced in 1900, followed by more prominent coverage of outdoor events in 1901. Billboard covered topics including regulation, a lack of professionalism and new shows, it had a "stage gossip" column covering the private lives of entertainers, a "tent show" section covering traveling shows, a sub-section called "Freaks to order". According to The Seattle Times, Donaldson published news articles "attacking censorship, praising productions exhibiting'good taste' and fighting yellow journalism"; as railroads became more developed, Billboard set up a mail forwarding system for traveling entertainers. The location of an entertainer was tracked in the paper's Routes Ahead column Billboard would receive mail on the star's behalf and publish a notice in its "Letter-Box" column that it has mail for them.
This service was first introduced in 1904, became one of Billboard's largest sources of profit and celebrity connections. By 1914, there were 42,000 people using the service, it was used as the official address of traveling entertainers for draft letters during World War I. In the 1960s, when it was discontinued, Billboard was still processing 1,500 letters per week. In 1920, Donaldson made a controversial move by hiring African-American journalist James Albert Jackson to write a weekly column devoted to African-American performers. According to The Business of Culture: Strategic Perspectives on Entertainment and Media, the column identified discrimination against black performers and helped validate their careers. Jackson was the first black critic at a national magazine with a predominantly white audience. According to his grandson, Donaldson established a policy against identifying performers by their race. Donaldson died in 1925. Billboard's editorial changed focus as technology in recording and playback developed, covering "marvels of modern technology" such as the phonograph, record players, wireless radios.
It began covering coin-operated entertainment machines in 1899, created a dedicated section for them called "Amusement Machines" in March 1932. Billboard began covering the motion picture industry in 1907, but ended up focusing on music due to competition from Variety, it created a radio broadcasting station in the 1920s. The jukebox industry continued to grow through the Great Depression, was advertised in Billboard, which led to more editorial focus on music; the proliferation of the phonograph and radio contributed to its growing music emphasis. Billboard published the first music hit parade on January 4, 1936, introduced a "Record Buying Guide" in January 1939. In 1940, it introduced "Chart Line", which tracked the best-selling records, was followed by a chart for jukebox records in 1944 called Music Box Machine charts. By the 1940s, Billboard was more of a music industry specialist publication; the number of charts it published grew after World War II, due to a growing variety of music interests and genres.
It had eight charts by 1987, covering different genres and formats, 28 charts by 1994. By 1943, Billboard had about 100 employees; the magazine's offices moved to Brighton, Ohio in 1946 to New York City in 1948. A five-column tabloid format was adopted in November 1950 and coated paper was first used in Billboard's print issues in January 1963, allowing for photojournalis
Cream were a British rock power trio formed in 1966 consisting of drummer Ginger Baker, guitarist/singer Eric Clapton and lead singer/bassist Jack Bruce. The group's third album, Wheels of Fire, is the world's first platinum-selling double album; the band is regarded as the world's first successful supergroup. In their career, they sold more than 15 million records worldwide, their music included songs based on traditional blues such as "Crossroads" and "Spoonful", modern blues such as "Born Under a Bad Sign", as well as more current material such as "Strange Brew", "Tales of Brave Ulysses" and "Toad". The band's biggest hits were "I Feel Free", "Sunshine of Your Love", "White Room", "Crossroads", "Badge"; the band made a significant impact on the popular music of the time, along with Jimi Hendrix and other notable guitarists and bands, popularised the use of the wah-wah pedal. They provided a heavy yet technically proficient musical theme that foreshadowed and influenced the emergence of British bands such as Led Zeppelin, Deep Purple and Black Sabbath in the late 1960s and the early 1970s.
They influenced American southern rock groups the Allman Brothers Band and Lynyrd Skynyrd. The band's live performances influenced progressive rock acts such as Rush. Cream were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1993, they were included in both Rolling Stone and VH1's lists of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time," at number 67 and 61 respectively. They were ranked number 16 on VH1's 100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock. By July 1966, Eric Clapton's career with the Yardbirds and John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers had earned him a reputation as the premier blues guitarist in Britain. Clapton, found the environment of Mayall's band confining, sought to expand his playing in a new band. In 1966, Clapton met Ginger Baker the leader of the Graham Bond Organisation, which at one point featured Jack Bruce on bass guitar and piano. Baker felt stifled in the Graham Bond Organisation and had grown tired of Graham Bond's drug addictions and bouts of mental instability. "I had always liked Ginger", explained Clapton.
"Ginger had come to see me play with the Bluesbreakers. After the gig he drove me back to London in his Rover. I was impressed with his car and driving, he was telling me that he wanted to start a band, I had been thinking about it too."Each was impressed with the other's playing abilities, prompting Baker to ask Clapton to join his new, then-unnamed group. Clapton agreed, on the condition that Baker hire Bruce as the group's bassist. Clapton had met Bruce when the bassist/vocalist played with the Bluesbreakers in November 1965. Impressed with Bruce's vocals and technical prowess, Clapton wanted to work with him on an ongoing basis. In contrast, while Bruce was in Bond's band, he and Baker had been notorious for their quarrelling, their volatile relationship included the sabotage of one another's instruments. After Baker fired Bruce from the band, Bruce continued to arrive for gigs. Baker and Bruce put aside their differences for the good of Baker's new trio, which he envisioned as collaborative, with each of the members contributing to music and lyrics.
The band was named "Cream", as Clapton and Baker were considered the "cream of the crop" amongst blues and jazz musicians in the exploding British music scene. The group were referred to and billed as "The Cream", but starting with its first record releases, the trio came to be known as "Cream". Before deciding upon "Cream", the band considered calling themselves "Sweet'n' Sour Rock'n' Roll". Of the trio, Clapton had the biggest reputation in England; the band made its unofficial debut at the Twisted Wheel on 29 July 1966. Its official debut came two nights at the Sixth Annual Windsor Jazz & Blues Festival. Being new and with few original songs to its credit, they performed blues reworkings that thrilled the large crowd and earned it a warm reception. In October the band got a chance to jam with Jimi Hendrix, who had arrived in London. Hendrix was a fan of Clapton's music, wanted a chance to play with him onstage, it was during the early organisation that they decided Bruce would serve as the group's lead vocalist.
While Clapton was shy about singing, he harmonised with Bruce and, in time, took lead vocals on several Cream tracks including "Four Until Late", "Strange Brew", "World of Pain", "Outside Woman Blues", "Crossroads", "Badge". The band's debut album, Fresh Cream, was recorded and released in 1966; the album reached number 39 in the United States. It was evenly split between self-penned originals and blues covers, including "Four Until Late", "Rollin' and Tumblin'", "Spoonful", "I'm So Glad" and "Cat's Squirrel." The rest of the songs were written by either Jack Ginger Baker. The track "Toad" contained one of the earliest examples of a drum solo in rock music as Ginger Baker expanded upon his early composition "Camels and Elephants", written in 1965 with the Graham Bond Organisation. Early Cream bootlegs display a much tighter band showcasing more songs. All of the songs are reasonably short five-minute version
Oakland is the largest city and the county seat of Alameda County, United States. A major West Coast port city, Oakland is the largest city in the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area, the third largest city overall in the San Francisco Bay Area, the eighth most populated city in California, the 45th largest city in the United States. With a population of 425,195 as of 2017, it serves as a trade center for the San Francisco Bay Area. An act to incorporate the city was passed on May 4, 1852, incorporation was approved on March 25, 1854, which made Oakland a city. Oakland is a charter city. Oakland's territory covers what was once a mosaic of California coastal terrace prairie, oak woodland, north coastal scrub, its land served as a rich resource when its hillside oak and redwood timber were logged to build San Francisco. Oakland's fertile flatland soils helped. In the late 1860s, Oakland was selected as the western terminal of the Transcontinental Railroad. Following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, many San Francisco citizens moved to Oakland, enlarging the city's population, increasing its housing stock and improving its infrastructure.
It continued to grow in the 20th century with its busy port, a thriving automobile manufacturing industry. The earliest known inhabitants were the Huchiun Indians; the Huchiun belonged to a linguistic grouping called the Ohlone. In Oakland, they were concentrated around Lake Merritt and Temescal Creek, a stream that enters the San Francisco Bay at Emeryville. In 1772, the area that became Oakland was colonized, with the rest of California, by Spanish settlers for the King of Spain. In the early 19th century, the Spanish crown granted the East Bay area to Luis María Peralta for his Rancho San Antonio; the grant was confirmed by the successor Mexican republic upon its independence from Spain. Upon his death in 1842, Peralta divided his land among his four sons. Most of Oakland fell within the shares given to Antonio Vicente; the portion of the parcel, now Oakland was called Encinal—Spanish for "oak grove"—due to the large oak forest that covered the area, which led to the city's name. During the 1850s—just as gold was discovered in California—Oakland started growing and developing because land was becoming too expensive in San Francisco.
The Chinese were struggling financially, as a result of the First Opium War, the Second Opium War, the Taiping Rebellion, so they began migrating to Oakland in an effort to provide for their families in China. However, the Chinese struggled to settle because they were discriminated against by the white community and their living quarters were burned down on several occasions; the majority of the Chinese migrants lived in unhealthy conditions in China and they had diseases, so plague spread into San Francisco though the Chinese were inspected for diseases upon their arrival to San Francisco. In 1851, three men—Horace Carpentier, Edson Adams, Andrew Moon—began developing what is now downtown Oakland. In 1852, the Town of Oakland became incorporated by the state legislature. During this time, Oakland had 75-100 inhabitants, two hotels, a wharf, two warehouses, only cattle trails. Two years on March 25, 1854, Oakland re-incorporated as the City of Oakland, with Horace Carpentier elected the first mayor, though a scandal ended his mayorship in less than a year.
The city and its environs grew with the railroads, becoming a major rail terminal in the late 1860s and 1870s. In 1868, the Central Pacific constructed the Oakland Long Wharf at Oakland Point, the site of today's Port of Oakland. A number of horsecar and cable car lines were constructed in Oakland during the latter half of the 19th century; the first electric streetcar set out from Oakland to Berkeley in 1891, other lines were converted and added over the course of the 1890s. The various streetcar companies operating in Oakland were acquired by Francis "Borax" Smith and consolidated into what became known as the Key System, the predecessor of today's publicly owned AC Transit. Oakland was one of the worst affected cities in California, impacted by the plague epidemic. Quarantine measures were set in place at the Oakland ports requiring the authorities at the port to inspect the arriving vessels for the presence of infected rats. Quarantine authorities at these ports inspected over a thousand vessels per year for plague and yellow fever.
By 1908, over 5,000 people were detained in quarantine. Hunters were sent to poison the affected areas in Oakland and shoot the squirrels, but the eradication work was limited in its range because the State Board of Health and the United States Public Health Service were only allotted about $60,000 a year to eradicate the disease. During this period Oakland did not have sufficient health facilities, so some of the infected patients were treated at home; the State Board of Health along with Oakland advised physicians to promptly report any cases of infected patients. Yet, in 1919 it still resulted in a small epidemic of Pneumonic plague which killed a dozen people in Oakland; this started when a man killed a squirrel. After eating the squirrel, he fell ill four days and another household member contracted the plague; this in turn was passed on either indirectly to about a dozen others. The officials in Oakland acted by issuing death certificates to monitor the spread of plague. At the time of incorporation in 1852, Oaklan