Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Oracle Corporation is a multinational computer technology corporation, headquartered in Redwood Shores, California. In 2015 Oracle was the second-largest software maker by revenue, after Microsoft, larry Ellison co-founded Oracle Corporation in 1977 with Bob Miner and Ed Oates under the name Software Development Laboratories. Ellison took inspiration from the 1970 paper written by Edgar F. Codd on relational database management systems named A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks and he heard about the IBM System R database from an article in the IBM Research Journal provided by Oates. Also derived from Codds theories, Ellison wanted to make Oracles product compatible with System R, SDL changed its name to Relational Software, Inc in 1979, again to Oracle Systems Corporation in 1982, to align itself more closely with its flagship product Oracle Database. At this stage Bob Miner served as the senior programmer. In 1995, Oracle Systems Corporation changed its name to Oracle Corporation, officially named Oracle, but sometimes referred to as Oracle Corporation, part of Oracle Corporations early success arose from using the C programming language to implement its products.
This eased porting to different operating systems, many of the products have been added to Oracles portfolio through acquisitions. Oracles E-delivery service provides generic downloadable Oracle software and documentation, Oracle Database Release 10, In 2004, Oracle Corporation shipped release 10g as the latest version of Oracle Database. Release 11, Release 11g became the current Oracle Database version in 2007, Oracle Corporation released Oracle Database 11g Release 2 in September 2009. This version was available in four commercial editions—Enterprise Edition, Standard Edition, Standard Edition One, the licensing of these editions shows various restrictions and obligations that are considered complex. The Enterprise Edition, the most expensive of the Database Editions, has the fewest restrictions —, Oracle Corporation constrains the Standard Edition and Standard Edition One with more licensing restrictions, in accordance with their lower price. Release 12, Release 12c became available on July 1,2013, Oracle acquired Rdb in 1994 from Digital Equipment Corporation.
Oracle has since made many enhancements to product and development continues as of 2008. Released in 2008, the Oracle Beehive collaboration software provides team workspaces, calendar, instant messaging, customers can use Beehive as licensed software or as software as a service. Oracle sells a suite of business applications, users can access these facilities through a browser interface over the Internet or via a corporate intranet. The Social Engagement and Monitoring cloud provides the most effective and efficient responses across social, SEM is able to route correct responses to the right team, member, or customer-experience channel to ensure the best customer service. The analysis helps vendors to understand what is important to customers and it identifies trends and anomalies to make real-time course corrections. It can identify brand advocates, the SEM cloud identifies customer intention and interests by analyzing the common ways customers talk about a product or a service
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution. It is divided into 100 smaller cent units, the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. The U. S. dollar was originally commodity money of silver as enacted by the Coinage Act of 1792 which determined the dollar to be 371 4/16 grain pure or 416 grain standard silver, the currency most used in international transactions, it is the worlds primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their currency, and in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean, the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while the country mints its own coins, or accepts U. S. coins that can be used as payment in U. S. dollars. After Nixon shock of 1971, USD became fiat currency, Article I, Section 8 of the U. S.
Constitution provides that the Congress has the power To coin money, laws implementing this power are currently codified at 31 U. S. C. Section 5112 prescribes the forms in which the United States dollars should be issued and these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as legal tender in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar, the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins and these other coins are more fully described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the Statements are currently being expressed in U. S. dollars, the U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States. The word dollar is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution, dollars is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales.
In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act, Section 20 of the act provided, That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units. And that all accounts in the offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation. In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States, unlike the Spanish milled dollar the U. S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the form is significantly more common
New York Stock Exchange
The New York Stock Exchange, is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York. It is by far the worlds largest stock exchange by market capitalization of its companies at US$19.3 trillion as of June 2016. The average daily trading value was approximately US$169 billion in 2013, the NYSE trading floor is located at 11 Wall Street and is composed of 21 rooms used for the facilitation of trading. A fifth trading room, located at 30 Broad Street, was closed in February 2007, the main building and the 11 Wall Street building were designated National Historic Landmarks in 1978. The NYSE is owned by Intercontinental Exchange, an American holding company that it lists, previously, it was part of NYSE Euronext, which was formed by the NYSEs 2007 merger with Euronext. NYSE and Euronext now operate as divisions of Intercontinental Exchange, the NYSE has been the subject of several lawsuits regarding fraud or breach of duty and in 2004 was sued by its former CEO for breach of contract and defamation.
The earliest recorded organization of securities trading in New York among brokers directly dealing with each other can be traced to the Buttonwood Agreement, previously securities exchange had been intermediated by the auctioneers who conducted more mundane auctions of commodities such as wheat and tobacco. In 1817 the stockbrokers of New York operating under the Buttonwood Agreement instituted new reforms, after sending a delegation to Philadelphia to observe the organization of their board of brokers, restrictions on manipulative trading were adopted as well as formal organs of governance. Several locations were used between 1817 and 1865, when the present location was adopted, the invention of the electrical telegraph consolidated markets, and New Yorks market rose to dominance over Philadelphia after weathering some market panics better than other alternatives. The Civil War greatly stimulated speculative securities trading in New York, by 1869 membership had to be capped, and has been sporadically increased since.
The latter half of the century saw rapid growth in securities trading. Securities trade in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was prone to panics. The Stock Exchange Luncheon Club was situated on the floor from 1898 until its closure in 2006. The main building, located at 18 Broad Street, between the corners of Wall Street and Exchange Place, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1978, as was the 11 Wall Street building. The NYSE announced its plans to merge with Archipelago on April 21,2005, NYSEs governing board voted to merge with rival Archipelago on December 6,2005, and became a for-profit, public company. It began trading under the name NYSE Group on March 8,2006, Wall Street is the leading US money center for international financial activities and the foremost US location for the conduct of wholesale financial services. It comprises a matrix of wholesale financial sectors, financial markets, financial institutions, the principal sectors are securities industry, commercial banking, asset management, and insurance.
Prior to the acquisition of NYSE Euronext by the ICE in 2013, Marsh Carter was the Chairman of the NYSE, the chairman is Jeffrey Sprecher
Governors Ball Music Festival
The Governors Ball Music Festival is a multi-day music festival held on Randalls Island in New York City. Launched in 2011, the features an array of genres and styles of music, including rock, hip-hop, Americana, folk. It is produced by Founders Entertainment, an independent festival promotion company based in New York City, the inaugural Governors Ball was held on June 18,2011, on Governors Island in New York City. The one-day lineup featured Girl Talk, Pretty Lights, Empire of the Sun, Big Boi, Neon Indian, People Under The Stairs, Mac Miller, Das Racist, Passion Pit, Miami Horror and Reptar. Governors Ball 2012, the year of the festival, was held June 23–24,2012. Randalls Island was chosen as the due to the events growth. Food offerings at the 2012 event included Coolhaus ice cream, Lukes Lobster, Waffles & Dinges, Food Freaks, Philz Steaks, Ports Coffee, and Pie for the People. Activities at the event included lawn games such as cornhole, ladder golf, and croquet, ping pong, shortly after the 2012 festival, Founders Entertainment announced that the 2013 festival would take place on June 7–9 on Randalls Island.
It rained heavily on the Friday, June 7, the day of the festival. The festival was forced to shut down early on Friday evening due to weather-related safety concerns. Much of the green lawns sprawled throughout the grounds for the festival had been mushed to mud by Saturday morning, leading to extremely muddy conditions for most of the festival, the Man, Cold War Kids, Dinosaur Jr. On January 8,2014, dates were announced for the festivals 2014 edition and it took place once again over three days on Randalls Island, from June 6 to June 8. On January 9, Rolling Stone announced that Outkast would be one of the headliners, the lineup included The Strokes, Vampire Weekend, Jack White, Interpol, Governors Ball 2015 took place June 5–7,2015. It rained during the day, unlike previous years. Ponchos and umbrellas were sold, at the festival carried on, Governors Ball 2015 had a lineup of, Florence and the Machine, Lana Del Rey, Björk, St. The sixth iteration of Governors Ball took place over June 3–5,2016, all three days of the festival sold out.
Saturday evening, the grounds were subject to heavy rains. However, Sunday was cancelled due to rain and safety concerns
C3 Presents is a concert promotion, event production and artist management company based out of Austin, Texas. C3 was founded by Charles Attal, Charlie Jones and Charlie Walker in 2007, the C3 founders told reporters that they were excited by the development, but made no mention of the Big Day Out festival. C3 books and promotes over 1,000 shows nationwide, including Austin venues Stubbs BBQ, Emos, C3 was involved with the team of Barack Obama after he was elected as the U. S. president in 2008. The company first worked with Obama during his campaign and oversaw a number of outdoor rallies in Texas. C3 produced Obamas election-night rally at Grant Park in Chicago, Illinois, in November 2008, as well as the parade, the numerous performers at the inaugural balls included Miley Cyrus, Melissa Etheridge, John Legend, Herbie Hancock and Santigold. The company produced the televised We Are One, The Obama Inaugural Celebration at the Lincoln Memorial event in Washington, televised on the HBO cable channel, the special garnered 4.1 million viewers on television and 700,000 viewers online.
After the concert, Jones and Walker met the Obama family, C3 Presents is the third largest concert promoter in the United States, behind Live Nation and AEG Live. First in 2007, and again in 2010,2011 and 2012 C3 was awarded Top Independent Promoter from Billboard, in addition to promotion and production, C3 Presents has an artist management division operating in both New York City and Austin, Texas. C3 Management has a current roster of over 30 musicians
Yahoo Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Sunnyvale, California. Yahoo was founded by Jerry Yang and David Filo in January 1994 and was incorporated on March 2,1995, Yahoo was one of the pioneers of the early internet era in the 1990s. Marissa Mayer, a former Google executive, Google Employee number 20 and it is globally known for its Web portal, search engine Yahoo. Search, and related services, including Yahoo, advertising, online mapping, video sharing, fantasy sports, and its social media website. It is one of the most popular sites in the United States, according to news sources, roughly 700 million people visit Yahoo websites every month. Yahoo itself claims it attracts more than half a billion consumers every month in more than 30 languages, in January 1994 Yang and Filo were electrical engineering graduate students at Stanford University, when they created a website named Jerry and Davids guide to the World Wide Web. The site was a directory of websites, organized in a hierarchy.
In March 1994, Jerry and Davids Guide to the World Wide Web was renamed Yahoo, the yahoo. com domain was created on January 18,1995. The word yahoo is a backronym for Yet Another Hierarchically Organized Oracle or Yet Another Hierarchical Officious Oracle, the term hierarchical described how the Yahoo database was arranged in layers of subcategories. However and Yang insist they mainly selected the name because they liked the definition of a yahoo, unsophisticated. This meaning derives from the Yahoo race of beings from Gullivers Travels. Yahoo grew rapidly throughout the 1990s, like many search engines and web directories, Yahoo added a web portal. By 1998, Yahoo was the most popular starting point for web users and it made many high-profile acquisitions. Its stock price skyrocketed during the bubble, Yahoo stocks closing at an all-time high of $118.75 a share on January 3,2000. However, after the bubble burst, it reached a post-bubble low of $8.11 on September 26,2001. Yahoo began using Google for search in 2000, over the next four years, it developed its own search technologies, which it began using in 2004.
In response to Googles Gmail, Yahoo began to offer unlimited email storage in 2007, the company struggled through 2008, with several large layoffs. In February 2008, Microsoft Corporation made a bid to acquire Yahoo for $44.6 billion
Marketing is the study and management of exchange relationships. Marketing is used to create the customer, to keep the customer, with the customer as the focus of its activities, it can be concluded that Marketing is one of the premier components of Business Management - the other being Innovation. Other services and management activities such as Operations, Human Resources, Law, the term developed from the original meaning which referred literally to going to a market to buy or sell goods or services. The Chartered Institute of Marketing defines marketing as the management process responsible for identifying and satisfying customer requirements profitably, a similar concept is the value-based marketing which states the role of marketing to contribute to increasing shareholder value. Marketing practice tended to be seen as an industry in the past. The overall process starts with marketing research and goes through market segmentation, business planning and execution, ending with pre and it is related to many of the creative arts.
The marketing literature is adept at re-inventing itself and its vocabulary according to the times, the term marketing concept pertains to the fundamental premise of modern marketing. This concept proposes that in order to satisfy its organizational objectives and marketing concepts are directly related. An orientation, in the context, relates to a perception or attitude a firm holds towards its product or service. There exist several common orientations, A firm employing a product orientation is chiefly concerned with the quality of its own product, a firm would assume that as long as its product was of a high standard, people would buy and consume the product. A firm using a sales orientation focuses primarily on the selling/promotion of a particular product, this entails simply selling an already existing product, and using promotion techniques to attain the highest sales possible. Such an orientation may suit scenarios in which a firm holds dead stock, or otherwise sells a product that is in high demand, a firm focusing on a production orientation specializes in producing as much as possible of a given product or service.
Thus, this signifies a firm exploiting economies of scale, until the minimum efficient scale is reached, a production orientation may be deployed when a high demand for a product or service exists, coupled with a good certainty that consumer tastes do not rapidly alter. The marketing orientation is perhaps the most common used in contemporary marketing. It involves a firm essentially basing its marketing plans around the marketing concept, the marketing orientation often has three prime facets, which are, A firm in the market economy can survive by producing goods that persons are willing and able to buy. Consequently, ascertaining consumer demand is vital for a firms future viability, in this sense, a firms marketing department is often seen as of prime importance within the functional level of an organization. Information from a marketing department would be used to guide the actions of other departments within the firm. As an example, a department could ascertain that consumers desired a new type of product
Beverly Hills, California
Beverly Hills is a city in Los Angeles County, United States, surrounded by the cities of Los Angeles and West Hollywood. By 2013, its population had grown to 34,658, sometimes referred to as 90210, one of its primary ZIP codes, it was home to many actors and celebrities throughout the 20th century. The city includes the Rodeo Drive shopping district and the Beverly Hills Oil Field, gaspar de Portolá arrived in the area that would become Beverly Hills on August 3,1769, travelling along native trails which followed the present-day route of Wilshire Boulevard. The area was settled by Maria Rita Quinteros de Valdez and her husband in 1828 and they called their 4,500 acres of property the Rancho Rodeo de las Aguas. in 1854, she sold the ranch to Benjamin Davis Wilson and Henry Hancock. By the 1880s, the ranch had been subdivided into parcels of 75 acres and was being bought up by anglos from Los Angeles. Henry Hammel and Andrew H. Denker acquired most of it, at this point, the area was known as the Hammel and Denker Ranch.
By 1888, Denker and Hammel were planning to build a town called Morocco on their holdings and they did not find enough to exploit commercially by the standards of the time, though. In 1906, they reorganized as the Rodeo Land and Water Company, renamed the property Beverly Hills, subdivided it, the development was named Beverly Hills after Beverly Farms in Beverly and because of the hills in the area. The first house in the subdivision was built in 1907, although sales remained slow, Beverly Hills was one of many all-white planned communities started in the Los Angeles area around this time. Restrictive covenants prohibited non-whites from owning or renting property unless they were employed as servants by white residents and it was forbidden to sell or rent property to Jews in Beverly Hills. Burton Green began construction on The Beverly Hills Hotel in 1911, the hotel was finished in 1912. The visitors drawn by the hotel were inclined to purchase land in Beverly Hills and that same year, the Rodeo Land and Water Company decided to separate its water business from its real estate business.
The Beverly Hills Utility Commission was split off from the company and incorporated in September 1914, buying all of the utilities-related assets from the Rodeo Land. In 1919, Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford bought land on Summit Drive and built a mansion, finished in 1921, the glamor associated with Fairbanks and Pickford as well as other movie stars who built mansions in the city contributed to its growing appeal. By the early 1920s the population of Beverly Hills had grown enough to make the water supply a political issue, in 1923 the usual solution, annexation to the city of Los Angeles, was proposed. There was considerable opposition to annexation among such famous residents as Pickford, Will Rogers, the Beverly Hills Utility Commission, opposed to annexation as well, managed to force the city into a special election and the plan was defeated 337 to 507. In 1925, Beverly Hills approved an issue to buy 385 acres for a new campus for UCLA. The cities of Los Angeles, Santa Monica and Venice issued bonds to pay for the new campus
Google is an American multinational technology company specializing in Internet-related services and products. These include online advertising technologies, cloud computing, Google was founded in 1996 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were Ph. D. students at Stanford University, in California. Together, they own about 14 percent of its shares, and they incorporated Google as a privately held company on September 4,1998. An initial public offering took place on August 19,2004, in August 2015, Google announced plans to reorganize its various interests as a conglomerate called Alphabet Inc. Google, Alphabets leading subsidiary, will continue to be the company for Alphabets Internet interests. Upon completion of the restructure, Sundar Pichai became CEO of Google, replacing Larry Page, rapid growth since incorporation has triggered a chain of products and partnerships beyond Googles core search engine. The company leads the development of the Android mobile operating system, the Google Chrome web browser, and Chrome OS, the new hardware chief, Rick Osterloh, stated, a lot of the innovation that we want to do now ends up requiring controlling the end-to-end user experience.
Google has experimented with becoming an Internet carrier, alexa, a company that monitors commercial web traffic, lists Google. com as the most visited website in the world. Several other Google services figure in the top 100 most visited websites, including YouTube, Googles mission statement, from the outset, was to organize the worlds information and make it universally accessible and useful, and its unofficial slogan was Dont be evil. In October 2015, the motto was replaced in the Alphabet corporate code of conduct by the phrase Do the right thing, Google began in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were both PhD students at Stanford University in Stanford, California. They called this new technology PageRank, it determined a websites relevance by the number of pages, and the importance of those pages and Brin originally nicknamed their new search engine BackRub, because the system checked backlinks to estimate the importance of a site. Originally, Google ran under Stanford Universitys website, with the domains google. stanford.
edu, the domain name for Google was registered on September 15,1997, and the company was incorporated on September 4,1998. It was based in the garage of a friend in Menlo Park, craig Silverstein, a fellow PhD student at Stanford, was hired as the first employee. The first funding for Google was an August 1998 contribution of $100,000 from Andy Bechtolsheim, co-founder of Sun Microsystems, given before Google was incorporated. At least three other investors invested in 1998, Amazon. com founder Jeff Bezos, Stanford University computer science professor David Cheriton. Author Ken Auletta claims that each invested $250,000, early in 1999, Brin and Page decided they wanted to sell Google to Excite. They went to Excite CEO George Bell and offered to sell it to him for $1 million, vinod Khosla, one of Excites venture capitalists, talked the duo down to $750,000, but Bell still rejected it. Googles initial public offering took place five years later, on August 19,2004, at that time Larry Page, Sergey Brin, and Eric Schmidt agreed to work together at Google for 20 years, until the year 2024