The liver is an organ only found in vertebrates which detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion and growth. In humans, it is located below the diaphragm, its other roles in metabolism include the regulation of glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells and the production of hormones. The liver is an accessory digestive organ that produces bile, a fluid containing cholesterol and bile acids, an alkaline compound which helps the breakdown of fat. Bile aids in digestion via the emulsification of lipids; the gallbladder, a small pouch that sits just under the liver, stores bile produced by the liver, afterwards moved to the small intestine to complete digestion. The liver's specialized tissue consisting of hepatocytes regulates a wide variety of high-volume biochemical reactions, including the synthesis and breakdown of small and complex molecules, many of which are necessary for normal vital functions. Estimates regarding the organ's total number of functions vary, but textbooks cite it being around 500.
Terminology related to the liver starts in hepat- from ἡπατο-, from the Greek word for liver. It is not yet known how to compensate for the absence of liver function in the long term, although liver dialysis techniques can be used in the short term. Artificial livers are yet to be developed to promote long-term replacement in the absence of the liver; as of 2018, liver transplantation is the only option for complete liver failure. The liver is a wedge-shaped organ with four lobes of unequal size and shape. A human liver weighs 1.5 kg, has a width of about 15 cm. There is considerable size variation between individuals, with the standard reference range for men being 970–1,860 g and for women 600–1,770 g, it is both the largest gland in the human body. Located in the right upper quadrant of the abdominal cavity, it rests just below the diaphragm, to the right of the stomach and overlies the gallbladder; the liver is connected to two large blood vessels: the hepatic artery and the portal vein and common hepatic duct.
The hepatic artery carries oxygen-rich blood from the aorta via the celiac plexus, whereas the portal vein carries blood rich in digested nutrients from the entire gastrointestinal tract and from the spleen and pancreas. These blood vessels subdivide into small capillaries known as liver sinusoids, which lead to lobules. Lobules are the functional units of the liver; each lobule is made up of millions of hepatic cells. The lobules are held together by a fine, irregular, fibroelastic connective tissue layer extending from the fibrous capsule covering the entire liver known as Glisson's capsule; this extends into the structure of the liver, by accompanying the blood vessels and nerves at the hepatic hilum. The whole surface of the liver except for the bare area, is covered in a serous coat derived from the peritoneum, this adheres to the inner Glisson's capsule; the liver is grossly divided into two parts when viewed from above – a right and a left lobe - and four parts when viewed from below. The falciform ligament divides the liver into a left and right lobe.
From below, the two additional lobes are located between the right and left lobes, one in front of the other. A line can be imagined running from the left of the vena cava and all the way forward to divide the liver and gallbladder into two halves; this line is called "Cantlie's line". Other anatomical landmarks include the ligamentum venosum and the round ligament of the liver, which further divide the left side of the liver in two sections. An important anatomical landmark, the porta hepatis, divides this left portion into four segments, which can be numbered starting at the caudate lobe as I in an anticlockwise manner. From this parietal view, seven segments can be seen, because the eighth segment is only visible in the visceral view. On the diaphragmatic surface, apart from a triangular bare area where it connects to the diaphragm, the liver is covered by a thin, double-layered membrane, the peritoneum, that helps to reduce friction against other organs; this surface covers the convex shape of the two lobes where it accommodates the shape of the diaphragm.
The peritoneum folds back on itself to form the falciform ligament and the right and left triangular ligaments. These peritoneal ligaments are not related to the anatomic ligaments in joints, the right and left triangular ligaments have no known functional importance, though they serve as surface landmarks; the falciform ligament functions to attach the liver to the posterior portion of the anterior body wall. The visceral surface or inferior surface is concave, it is covered in peritoneum apart from where it attaches the porta hepatis. The fossa of gall bladder lies to the right of the quadrate lobe, occupied by the gallbladder with its cystic duct close to the right end of porta hepatis. Several impressions on the surface of the liver accommodate the various adjacent structures and organs. Underneath the right lobe and to the right of the gallbladder fossa are two impressions, one behind the other and separated by a ridge; the one in front is a shallow colic impression, formed by the hepatic flexure and the one behind is a deeper renal impression accommodating part of the right kidney and part of the suprarenal gland.
The suprarenal impression is a small, depressed area on the liver. It is located close to the right of the fossa, between the bare area and the caudate lobe, immediatel
Simon Beasley is a former Australian rules footballer who played with Swan Districts in the WAFL and Footscray in the Victorian Football League, now known as the Australian Football League. Recruited from Swan Districts in the WAFL, Beasley moved to Melbourne in 1982 to pursue his career as a stockbroker, signed with Footscray in the VFL, he made his debut in the Round 1 of the 1982 VFL season against a rampant Essendon side at Windy Hill, the Bulldogs losing by 109 points. However, Beasley did not take long to establish himself as a prominent full-forward, kicking 12 goals against Geelong in Round 16 and ending his debut season with a respectable 82 goals in an under-performing side. In 1985, the Bulldogs rose up the ladder, finishing in second place at the end of the home-and-away season before losing to Hawthorn in the Preliminary Final. Beasley played a key role, taking out the Coleman Medal with 93 goals during the home-and-away season, his personal best, he reached the century mark with a seven-goal performance in the First Semi-Final against North Melbourne and ended the season with 105 goals, becoming only the second Bulldog after Kelvin Templeton to kick 100 goals in a season.
The following year his career was affected by a dispute with former club Swan Districts, who demanded $50,000 from the Bulldogs to keep Beasley in Victoria as the WAFL Swans believed his lease had expired – though nothing was given. In 1988, Beasley kicked 82 goals to overtake Templeton as the Bulldogs’ most prolific goalscorer. However, after a major back injury in the pre-season Beasley played in the reserves for the first three rounds of 1989, he did return in the fourth round and kicked six goals the following week against Melbourne, but the following four rounds saw only six further goals and his knee and back injuries forced Beasley into retirement in June. In 2006 Beasley was appointed to host the Western Region Football League's show on Channel 31, renamed The Simon Beasley Show. Beasley obtained his bookmaker license in 2002. In 2009, he was charged with and pleaded guilty to breaching betting regulations between April 2006 and October 2008, he had taken 1,598 bets totalling $3.8 million in turnover without lodging them with racing authorities.
Beaseley was disqualified from bookmaking for four years. Simon Beasley player profile page at WAFL FootyFacts
County Londonderry known as County Derry, is one of the six counties of Northern Ireland. Prior to the partition of Ireland, it was one of the counties of the Kingdom of Ireland from 1613 onward and of the United Kingdom after the Acts of Union 1800. Adjoining the north-west shore of Lough Neagh, the county covers an area of 2,074 km² and today has a population of about 247,132. Since 1972, the counties in Northern Ireland, including Londonderry, have no longer been used by the state as part of the local administration. Following further reforms in 2015, the area is now governed under three different districts. Despite no longer being used for local government and administrative purposes, it is sometimes used in a cultural context in All-Ireland sporting and cultural events. Since 1981, it has become one of four counties in Northern Ireland that has a Catholic majority, with 57% of the Catholic population residing within Derry City Council; the county flower is the Purple Saxifrage. The place name Derry is an anglicisation of the old Irish Daire, meaning "oak-grove" or "oak-wood".
As with the city, its name is subject to the Derry/Londonderry name dispute, with the form "Londonderry" preferred by unionists and "Derry" by nationalists. British authorities use the name "Londonderry". Mountsandel located near Coleraine in County Londonderry is "perhaps the oldest recorded settlement within Ireland". At an early period, what became the county of Coleraine was inhabited by the O'Cahans, who were tributary to the O'Neills. Towards the close of the reign of Elizabeth I their territory was seized by England, with the purpose of checking the power of the O'Neills, was made the county of Coleraine, named after the regional capital. A short description of County Coleraine is given in Harris's Hibernica, in Captain Pynnar's Survey of the Escheated Counties of Ulster, Anno 1618: On 2 March 1613, James I granted a charter to The Honourable The Irish Society to undertake the plantation of a new county; this county was named a combination of London and Derry. This charter declared that the "City of Londonderry" and everything contained within the new county: This new county would comprise the County Coleraine—which consisted of the baronies of Tirkeeran and Keenaght—and at the behest of The Irish Society the following additional territory was added: all but the south-west corner of the barony of Loughinsholin a part of County Tyrone, as it had sufficient wood for construction.
The Irish Society was made up of the twelve main livery companies of London, which themselves were composed of various guilds. Whilst The Irish Society as a whole was given possession of the city of Londonderry and Coleraine, the individual companies were each granted an estimated 3,210 acres throughout the county; these companies and the sites of their headquarters were: Clothworkers, based at Killowen and Clothworker's Hall in the barony of Coleraine. As a result of the Local Government Act 1898, the city was detached from the county for administrative purposes, becoming a separate county borough from 1899; the county town of County Londonderry, seat of the Londonderry County Council until its abolition in 1973, was therefore moved to the town of Coleraine. The highest point in the county is the summit of Sawel Mountain on the border with County Tyrone. Sawel is part of the Sperrin Mountains. To the east and west, the land falls into the valleys of the Foyle rivers respectively; the county is home to a number of important buildings and landscapes, including the well-preserved 17th-century city walls of Derry.