Liverpool and Manchester Railway

The Liverpool and Manchester Railway was the first inter-city railway in the world. It opened on 15 September 1830 between the Lancashire towns of Manchester in England, it was the first railway to rely on locomotives driven by steam power, with no horse-drawn traffic permitted at any time. Trains were hauled by company steam locomotives between the two towns, though private wagons and carriages were allowed. Cable haulage of freight trains was down the steeply-graded 1.26-mile Wapping Tunnel to Liverpool Docks from Edge Hill junction. The railway was built to provide faster transport of raw materials, finished goods and passengers between the Port of Liverpool and the cotton mills and factories of Manchester and surrounding towns. Designed and built by George Stephenson, the line was financially successful, influenced the development of railways across Britain in the 1830s. In 1845 the railway was absorbed by its principal business partner, the Grand Junction Railway, which in turn amalgamated the following year with the London and Birmingham Railway and the Manchester and Birmingham Railway to form the London and North Western Railway.

During the Industrial revolution huge tonnages of raw material were imported through Liverpool and carried to the textile mills near the Pennines where water, steam power, enabled the production of the finished cloth, much of, transported back to Liverpool for export. The existing means of water transport, the Mersey and Irwell Navigation, the Bridgewater Canal and the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, dated from the 18th century, were felt to be making excessive profits from the cotton trade and throttling the growth of Manchester and other towns. Goods were transported between Liverpool and the factories around Manchester either by the canals or by poor-quality roads. Road accidents were frequent, including waggons and coaches overturning, which made goods traffic problematic; the proposed railway was intended to achieve cheap transport of raw materials, finished goods and passengers between the Port of Liverpool and east Lancashire, in the port's hinterland. There was support for the railway from both Liverpool and London but Manchester was indifferent and opposition came from the canal operators and the two local landowners, the Earl of Derby and the Earl of Sefton, over whose land the railway would cross.

The proposed Liverpool and Manchester Railway was to be one of the earliest land-based public transport systems not using animal traction power. Before public railways had been horse-drawn, including the Lake Lock Rail Road, Surrey Iron Railway and the Oystermouth Railway near Swansea; the original promoters are acknowledged to be Joseph Sandars, a rich Liverpool corn merchant, John Kennedy, owner of the largest spinning mill in Manchester. They were influenced by William James. James was a land surveyor, he advocated a national network of railways, based on what he had seen of the development of colliery lines and locomotive technology in the north of England. The Liverpool and Manchester Railway Company was founded on 20 May 1824, it was established by Henry Booth, who became its secretary and treasurer, along with merchants from Liverpool and Manchester. Charles Lawrence was the Chairman, Lister Ellis, Robert Gladstone, John Moss and Joseph Sandars were the Deputy Chairmen. A bill was drafted in 1825 to Parliament, which included a 1-inch to the mile map of the railway's route.

The first bill was rejected but the second passed in May the following year. In Liverpool 172 people bought 1,979 shares, in London 96 took 844, Manchester 15 with 124, 24 others with 286; the Marquess of Stafford held 1,000. The first survey for the line was carried out by James in 1822; the route was the same as what was built, but the committee were unaware of what land had been surveyed. James subsequently was imprisoned that November; the committee lost confidence in his ability to plan and build the line and, in June 1824, George Stephenson was appointed principal engineer. As well as objections to the proposed route by Lords Sefton and Derby, Robert Haldane Bradshaw, a trustee of the Duke of Bridgewater's estate at Worsley, refused any access to land owned by the Bridgewater Trustees and Stephenson had difficulty producing a satisfactory survey of the proposed route and accepted James' original plans with spot checks; the survey was shown to be inaccurate. Francis Giles suggested that putting the railway through Chat Moss was a serious error and the total cost of the line would be around £200,000 instead of the £40,000 quoted by Stephenson.

Stephenson was cross examined by the opposing council led by Edward Hall Alderson and his lack of suitable figures and understanding of the work came to light. When asked, he was unable to specify the levels of the track and how he calculated the cost of major structures such as the Irwell Viaduct; the bill was thrown out on 31 May. In place of George Stephenson, the railway promoters appointed George and John Rennie as engineers, who chose Charles Blacker Vignoles as their surveyor, they set out to placate the canal interests and had the good fortune to approach the Marquess directly through their counsel, W. G. Adam, a relative of one of the trustees, the support of William Huskisson who knew the Marquess personally. Implacable opposition

Albania–India relations

India-Albania relations are the bilateral ties between the Republic of India and the Republic of Albania. Bilateral relations between India and Albania are friendly. Mother Teresa, one of India's national symbols, was of Albanian origin. Diplomatic relations were established between India and Albania in 1956; the Indian Ambassador in Bucharest is accredited to Tirana, while Albania is represented in India through its embassy in Beijing. From 2008 to 2014 Albania had a permanent Embassy in India, closed due to budget cuts made by the government. On 27 November 2015 India and Albania abolished visas for diplomatic and service passports. Trade has been modest between Albania. During 2014-15 bilateral trade was measured at US$671.13 million. Principal commodities imported from India were aluminum, spices, vegetables and electrical machinery, construction material and plastic products, while India imports chemical industry products, plant extracts for pharmaceutical use, inorganic chemicals and metal alloys.

In Feb 2012, a venture of India Albania Trade Expo was held to experience the potential of outsourced jobs in India where the cost effectiveness of the Indian businesses was on focus and to exploit the potential deals and ventures from the Albanian side. The Expo was treated as an international platform to about 300 Indian companies to explore the untapped markets of Albania to achieve the bilateral profits. Both countries are signatories of the double taxation avoidance agreement to help the exchange of banking information and containing the fiscal evasion related to taxes on income; the agreement included exchange of information between tax authorities of the both countries and information exchange pertaining to banking and sometimes, rendering information without any recourse to domestic interest. India and Albania agreed to boost cooperation with Indian investment in the energy sector like Oil and Gas sector. A Memorandum of Collaboration has been signed in New Delhi where the Union Minister of Human Resource Development and Minister of State for Petroleum and Natural Gas were present

Alliance for Open Media

The Alliance for Open Media is a non-profit industry consortium for the development of open, royalty-free technology for multimedia delivery headquartered in Wakefield, Massachusetts, USA. It adopts the principles of the development of open web standards for the creation of video standards that can serve as royalty-free alternatives to the hitherto dominant standards of the Moving Picture Experts Group and the related business model that exploits intellectual property through patent royalties and became associated with financial uncertainties for internet companies and innovators, its first project was to develop AV1, a new open video codec and format as a successor to VP9 and a royalty-free alternative to HEVC, which uses elements from Daala, VP10. The governing members are Amazon, Apple, ARM, Facebook, Google, IBM, Intel Corporation, Mozilla, Nvidia, Samsung Electronics and Tencent; some collaboration and some work that would be merged into AV1 predates the official launch of the Alliance.

Following the successful standardization of an audio standard in the Internet Engineering Task Force in 2012, a working group for the standardization of a royalty-free video format began to form under the lead of people from the Foundation, who had begun working on their experimental video format Daala back in 2010. In May 2015, the Internet Video Codec working group of the IETF was started and presented with coding techniques from Xiph's/Mozilla's Daala. Cisco Systems joined forces and offered their own prototype format Thor to the working group on July 22; the lack of a suitable video format that made the W3C end up not putting a video format in the specification for HTML5 and the failed negotiations for one mandatory video format for WebRTC showed need for a competitive open video standard. The emergence of a second patent pool for HEVC in spring 2015 provided some important motivational background for investments in an alternative video format and growing support the Alliance because it spread uncertainty regarding royalties for MPEG's next-generation video format.

On September 1, 2015, the Alliance for Open Media was announced with the goal of developing a royalty free video format as an alternative to licensed formats such as H.264 and HEVC. The founding members are Amazon, Google, Microsoft and Netflix; the plan was to release the video format by 2017. The alliance saw expansion of its member list since inception. On April 5, 2016, the Alliance for Open Media announced that AMD, ARM, Nvidia had joined, Adobe, Ateme and Vidyo joined in the months following. On November 13, 2017, Facebook joined as a governing member. In January 2018 the alliance's website was updated to add Apple as a governing member of the alliance. On April 3, 2019, Samsung Electronics joined as a governing member. October 1, 2019, Tencent joined as a governing member. In 2018, the founder and chairman of the MPEG acknowledged the Alliance to be the biggest threat to their business model, furthermore stating that: Alliance for Open Media has occupied the void created by MPEG’s outdated video compression standard, absence of competitive standards and unusable modern standard...

Everybody realises. The Alliance's first project is the creation of a next-generation state of the art open video compression format and codec, optimized for streaming media over the internet, for both commercial and non-commercial content, including user-generated content. A line of new video formats named. Alliance members from the chip industry are meant to ensure hardware-friendly design. AOMedia planned for the first version of its format to be completed before the end of 2017. However, work on the bitstream specification will be continued in 2018, it is assumed to get rapid adoption and is the primary contender for standardisation by the video coding standard working group NetVC of the Internet Engineering Task Force. Main distinguishing features of AV1 are its royalty-free licensing terms and state of the art performance. AV1 is designed for real-time applications and for higher resolutions than typical usage scenarios of the current generation of video formats; the Alliance is incorporated in the USA as a tax-exempt non-profit organization and a subsidiary "project" of the independent Joint Development Foundation that's headquartered in Wakefield.

The Alliance will release new video codecs as free software under the BSD 2-Clause License. It adopted the patent rules of the W3C which mandate technology contributors to disclose all patents that may be relevant and to agree to a royalty-free patent license; the Alliance's patent license contains a defensive termination clause to discourage patent lawsuits. Software development happens in the open using a public source code repository and issue tracking system, welcomes contributions from the general public. Contributions have to gain consensus for their adoption. Different sub-groups inside the Alliance handle testing, reviews for IPR/patent problems hardware-friendliness, editing of specification documents. There are two levels of membership: organizations can join as an ordinary member, or as a governing member with a seat on the board of directors. Confusingly, these are dubbed "founding members" in AOM terminology, although they need not be members since the Alliance was founded. There is a broad representation of the video industry among the Alliance members, featuring several hardware and content producers, OTT video distributors, providers of real-time conferencing solutions, browser