Shared space is an urban design approach which seeks to minimise the segregation of pedestrians and vehicles. This is done by removing features such as kerbs, road markings, traffic signs. It has been suggested that, by creating a sense of uncertainty and making it unclear who has priority. This is conducive to an environment for both pedestrians and vehicles. Shared space schemes are motivated by a desire to reduce the dominance of vehicles, vehicle speeds. Shared space design can take different forms depending on the level of demarcation and segregation between different transportation modes. Variations of shared space are used in urban settings, especially those that have been made nearly car-free. As a separate concept, shared space normally applies to semi-open spaces on busier roads, the origin of term is generally linked with the work of Dutch traffic engineer Hans Monderman, who pioneered the method in the Dutch province of Friesland. Prior to the adoption of the term, street design projects carried out in Chambéry, the term was used by Tim Pharoah to describe informal street layouts with no traffic demarcation.
The term has been applied, especially by Ben Hamilton-Baillie. The European Shared Space project developed new policies and methods for the design of public spaces with streets between 2004 and 2008 under the leadership of Hans Monderman until his death in 2008. A review of the evolution of the shared space concepts is offered in Transport Reviews, Shared space is a design approach rather than a design type characterised by standard features. Hans Monderman suggested that a behavior in traffic is more positively affected by the built environment of the public space than by conventional traffic control devices. A reason for the apparent paradox that reduced regulation leads to safer roads may be found by studying the risk compensation effect, were losing our capacity for socially responsible behaviour. The greater the number of prescriptions, the more peoples sense of personal responsibility dwindles. When you dont exactly know who has right of way, you tend to seek eye contact with other road users and you automatically reduce your speed, you have contact with other people and you take greater care.
Monderman has stated that objections are more a matter of communication than design, the UKs Department for Transport issued national guidance on shared space in 2011. Their primary research in Ashford, suggested that in streets with high volumes of traffic, most people, but particularly women and older people, found the shared space intimidating and preferred the previous layout with conventional crossings. There are wide-ranging reservations about the practicality of the shared space philosophy, Shared space is bitterly opposed by many organisations representing blind, partially sighted and deaf people
OpenStreetMap is a collaborative project to create a free editable map of the world. OSM is considered a prominent example of volunteered geographic information, created by Steve Coast in the UK in 2004, it was inspired by the success of Wikipedia and the predominance of proprietary map data in the UK and elsewhere. Since then, it has grown to over 2 million registered users, who can collect data using manual survey, GPS devices, aerial photography and these crowdsourced data are made available under the Open Database Licence. The site is supported by the OpenStreetMap Foundation, an organisation registered in England. Rather than the map itself, the data generated by the OpenStreetMap project are considered its primary output, OpenStreetMap data have been favourably compared with proprietary datasources, though data quality varies worldwide. Steve Coast founded the project in 2004, initially focusing on mapping the United Kingdom, in the UK and elsewhere, government-run and tax-funded projects like the Ordnance Survey created massive datasets but failed to freely and widely distribute them.
In April 2006, the OpenStreetMap Foundation was established to encourage the growth and distribution of free data and provide geospatial data for anybody to use. In December 2006, Yahoo. confirmed that OpenStreetMap could use its aerial photography as a backdrop for map production, sponsors of the event included Google, Yahoo. and Multimap. In October 2007, OpenStreetMap completed the import of a US Census TIGER road dataset, in December 2007, Oxford University became the first major organisation to use OpenStreetMap data on their main website. In March, two announced that they have received venture capital funding of €2.4 million for CloudMade. In November 2010, Bing changed their licence to use of their satellite imagery for making maps. In 2012, the launch of pricing for Google Maps led several prominent websites to switch from their service to OpenStreetMap and other competitors. Map data is collected from scratch by volunteers performing systematic ground surveys using tools such as a handheld GPS unit, the data is entered into the OpenStreetMap database.
Mapathon competition events are held by OpenStreetMap team and by non-profit organisations. The availability of photography and other data from commercial and government sources has added important sources of data for manual editing. Special processes are in place to handle automated imports and avoid legal and technical problems, editing of maps can be done using the default web browser editor called iD, an HTML5 application using D3. js and written by MapBox. The earlier Flash-based application Potlatch is retained for intermediate-level users, JOSM and Merkaartor are more powerful desktop editing applications that are better suited for advanced users. The GNOME Maps application developed for the GNOME desktop environment, which runs on many Linux operating systems, the project has a geographically diverse user-base, due to emphasis of local knowledge and ground truth in the process of data collection
Expressways of China
The expressway network of China is an integrated system of national and provincial-level expressways in China. It is the worlds largest expressway system by length, having surpassed the length of the American Interstate Highway System in 2011. Between the end of 2014 and 2015, the length of the network grew from 111,950 kilometres to 123,000 kilometres meaning 11,050 kilometres of expressway were built in 2015 alone. This backbone is known as the 71118 network, in addition, the provincial-level divisions of China each have their own expressway systems. Expressways in China are a recent addition to the transportation infrastructure in the country. Previously, the road network consisted of a system of at-grade China National Highways. Chinas first expressway, the Shanghai–Jiading Expressway, opened in October 1988 and this 17.37 kilometres expressway now forms part of Shanghais expressway network. The early 1990s saw the start of the countrys massive plan to upgrade its network of roads, in 1999, the length of the network exceeded 10,000 kilometres in length.
Many of the major expressways parallel routes of the older China National Highways, prior to the 1980s, freight and passenger transport activities were predominantly achieved by rail transport rather than by road. The 1980s and 1990s saw a trend toward roads as a method of transportation. In 1978, rail transport accounted for 54. 4% of the freight movement in China. By 1997, road transports share of freight movement had increased to 13. 8% while the railways share decreased to 34. 3%. Similarly, roads share of transport increased from 29. 9% to 53. 3% within the same time period. The shift from rail to road can be attributed to the development of the expressway network in China. On 7 June 1984, Chinas expressway ambitions began when construction of the Shenyang–Dalian Expressway began between the cities of Shenyang and Dalian, the expressway is now part of the longer G15 Shenyang–Haikou Expressway. Later that year, construction began on the Shanghai–Jiading Expressway in the city of Shanghai, the Shanghai–Jiading Expressway opened on 31 October 1988, becoming the first completed expressway in China.
This replaced the proposal for five north-south and seven east-west core routes. The total costs of the expressway network are estimated to be 2 trillion yuan
A controlled-access highway is a type of highway which has been designed for high-speed vehicular traffic, with all traffic flow and ingress/egress regulated. Common English terms are freeway and expressway, other similar terms include Interstate and parkway. Some of which may be limited-access highways, although this term can refer to a class of highway with somewhat less isolation from other traffic. In countries following Vienna convention, the motorway qualification implies they are forbidden for walking or parking, a controlled-access highway provides an unhindered flow of traffic, with no traffic signals, intersections or property access. They are free of any at-grade crossings with roads, railways, or pedestrian paths. Entrances and exits to the highway are provided at interchanges by slip roads, on the controlled-access highway, opposing directions of travel are generally separated by a median strip or central reservation containing a traffic barrier or grass. Elimination of conflicts with other directions of traffic dramatically improves safety and capacity, controlled-access highways evolved during the first half of the 20th century.
Italy opened its first autostrada in 1924 connecting Milan to Varese, Germany began to build its first 30-kilometre autobahn controlled-access highway without speed limits in 1932 between Cologne and Bonn. It rapidly constructed a system of such roads in anticipation of their use in the Second World War. The first North American freeways opened in the New York City area in the 1920s, heavily influenced by the railways, did not build its first motorway, the Preston By-pass, until 1958. Most technologically advanced nations feature a network of freeways or motorways to provide high-capacity urban travel, or high-speed rural travel. Many have a national-level or even international-level system of route numbering, exit is marked with another symbol. The definitions of motorway from the OECD and PIARC are almost identical, british Standards Motorway, Limited-access dual carriageway road, not crossed on the same level by other traffic lanes, for the exclusive use of certain classes of motor vehicle.
ITE Freeway, A divided major roadway with full control of access and this definition applies to toll as well as toll-free roads. Freeway A, This designates roadways with greater complexity and high traffic volumes. Usually this type of freeway will be found in areas in or near the central core. Freeway B, This designates all other divided roadways with full control of access where lighting is needed, principal arterials may cross through urban areas, serving suburban movements. The traffic is characterized by high speeds and full or partial access control, other roads leading to a principal arterial are connected to it through side collector roads
Traffic calming uses physical design and other measures to improve safety for motorists and cyclists. It aims to encourage safer, more driving and potentially reduce traffic flow. Urban planners and traffic engineers have many strategies for calming, including narrowed roads. Such measures are common in Australia and Europe, but less so in North America, Traffic calming is a calque of the German word Verkehrsberuhigung – the terms first published use in English was in 1985 by Carmen Hass-Klau. In its early development in the UK in the 1930s, traffic calming was based on the idea that residential areas should be protected from through-traffic, subsequently, it became valued for its ability to improve pedestrian safety and reduce noise and air pollution from traffic. For much of the century, streets were designed by engineers who were charged only with ensuring smooth motor vehicular traffic flow. Traffic calming initiatives have grown to other design functions as well. For example, it has shown that car traffic severely impairs the social and recreational functions of public streets.
Traffic engineers refer to three Es when discussing traffic calming, engineering and enforcement, engineering measures involve physically altering the road layout or appearance to actively or passively retard traffic by increasing the cognitive load of driving. Measures include speed humps, curb extensions, and living street, the town of Hilden in Germany has achieved a rate of 24% of trips being on two wheels, mainly via traffic calming and the use of 30 km/h or 20 mph zones. In 1999, the Netherlands had over 6000 woonerven where cyclists and pedestrians have priority over cars. A number of changes to roads are being made to encourage more attentive driving, reduced speed, reduced crashes. Visual traffic calming includes lane narrowings, road diets, use of next to streets, on-street parking. Physical devices include speed humps, speed cushions, and speed tables, such measures normally slow cars to between 10 and 25 miles per hour. Most devices are made of asphalt or concrete but rubber traffic calming products are emerging as an alternative with several advantages.
Narrowing measures include, Lane narrowings can be created by extending sidewalks, adding bollards or planters, curb extensions narrow the width of the roadway at pedestrian crossings Chokers are curb extensions that narrow roadways to a single lane at certain points Road diets remove a lane from the street. For example, allowing parking on one or both sides of a street to reduce the number of driving lanes, pedestrian refuges or small islands in the middle of the street can help reduce lane widths. Converting one-way streets into two-way streets forces opposing traffic into close proximity, using polymer cement overlay applies a brick texture and appearance to asphalt surfaces to indicate a high traffic crosswalk
A dual carriageway is a class of highway with carriageways for traffic travelling in opposite directions separated by a central reservation. Roads with two or more carriageways which are designed to higher standards with controlled access are generally classed as motorways, freeways, a road without a central reservation is a single carriageway regardless of the number of lanes. Dual carriageways have improved road traffic safety over single carriageways and typically have speed limits as a result. In some places, express lanes and local/collector lanes are used within a system to provide more capacity. A very early example of a dual carriageway was the Via Portuensis, in 1907 the Long Island Motor Parkway opened, and roughly 20% of it featured a semi-dual-carriageway design. The New York City Belt Parkway system, which was built between 1907 and 1934, pioneered the same design, however the majority of it featured concrete or brick railings as lane dividers instead of grass medians. In 1924 the first Italian autostrada was opened running 55 km from Milan to Varese and it featured a broad road bed and did not feature lane dividers except near cities and through the mountains.
The London end of the Great West Road became Britains first dual carriageway when it was opened in 1925 by King George V, in 1927 the Rome bypass was opened. It ran 92 km bypassing Rome to the east, almost the entire length featured a dual-carriageway design. In the early 1930s it was extended all the way to Naples. Most of the routing was destroyed by the Allies in the World War II. By 1930 several US and European cities had built dual-carriageway highways, in 1932 the first German autobahn opened between Cologne and Bonn. It ran 21 km and became a precedent for future highways, although it, like the first autostrada, did not feature a dual-carriageway design, it inspired the mass construction of future high-speed roadways. During the 1930s, Germany and the Soviet Union began construction of a network of dual carriageway expressways. By 1942, Germany had over 3,200 km of dual carriageway roads, Italy had nearly 1,300 km, opened to traffic in 1940, the 160-mile-long Pennsylvania Turnpike was the first rural dual carriageway built in the United States.
By 1955 several states had built dual carriageway freeways and turnpikes, completed in 1994, the major highway system links all the major cities of the United States. In the UK, although the dual carriageway applies to any road with physically separated lanes. Such major dual carriageways usually have two lanes of traffic in each direction, with the lane nearest the centre being reserved for overtaking, occasionally dual carriageways have only one lane in each direction, or more than two lanes each way
A sidewalk or pavement, known as a footpath or footway, is a path along the side of a road. A sidewalk may accommodate moderate changes in grade and is separated from the vehicular section by a curb. There may be a strip or road verge either between the sidewalk and the roadway or between the sidewalk and the boundary. In some places, the term may be used for a paved path, trail or footpath that is not next to a road, for example. The term sidewalk is usually preferred in most of North America, the term pavement is more common in the United Kingdom, as well as parts of the Mid-Atlantic United States such as Philadelphia and New Jersey. Many Commonwealth countries use the term footpath, the professional, civil engineering and legal term for this in North America is sidewalk while in the United Kingdom it is footway. In the United States, the sidewalk is used for the pedestrian path beside a road. Shared use paths or multi-use paths are available for use by pedestrians and bicyclists. Walkway is a comprehensive term that includes stairs, passageways.
In the UK, the footpath is mostly used for paths that do not abut a roadway. The term shared-use path is used where cyclists are able to use the same section of path as pedestrians. There is evidence that sidewalks were built in ancient times and it was claimed that the Greek city of Corinth was paved by the 4th-century, and the Romans were particularly prolific sidewalk builders – they called them semitas. However, by the Middle Ages, narrow roads had reverted to being used by pedestrians and wagons without any formal separation between the two categories. Early attempts at ensuring the maintenance of foot-ways or sidewalks were often made, such as the 1623 Act for Colchester. Following the Great Fire of London in 1666, attempts were made to bring some order to the sprawling city. Purbeck stone was used as a durable paving material. Bollards were installed to protect pedestrians from the traffic in the middle of the road, the Corporation was made responsible for the regular upkeep of the roads, including their cleaning and repair, for which they charged a tax from 1766.
By the late 19th-century large and spacious sidewalks were constructed in European capitals
Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and Finland to the east, at 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the third-largest country in the European Union by area, with a total population of 10.0 million. Sweden consequently has a low density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre. Approximately 85% of the lives in urban areas. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats/Götar and Swedes/Svear, Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is heavily forested. Sweden is part of the area of Fennoscandia. The climate is in very mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence. Today, Sweden is a monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state. The capital city is Stockholm, which is the most populous city in the country, legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister, Sweden is a unitary state, currently divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities.
Sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages, in the 17th century, it expanded its territories to form the Swedish Empire, which became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, the last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since then, Sweden has been at peace, maintaining a policy of neutrality in foreign affairs. The union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905, leading to Swedens current borders, though Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars, Sweden engaged in humanitarian efforts, such as taking in refugees from German-occupied Europe. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995 and it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides health care. The modern name Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod and this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige literally means Realm of the Swedes, excluding the Geats in Götaland, the etymology of Swedes, and thus Sweden, is generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning ones own, referring to ones own Germanic tribe
The degree of isolation from local traffic allowed varies between countries and regions. The precise definition of these terms varies by jurisdiction, the first implementation of limited-access roadways in the United States was the Bronx River Parkway in New York, in 1907. The New York State Parkway System was constructed as a network of high-speed roads in, the first limited access highway built is thought to be the privately built Long Island Motor Parkway in Long Island, New York. The Southern State Parkway opened in 1927, while the Long Island Motor Parkway was closed in 1937 and replaced by the Northern State Parkway, in the United States, the national Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices uses full control of access only for freeways. This definition is used by some states, some of which restrict freeways only to motor vehicles capable of maintaining a certain speed. Some other states use controlled access to mean a higher standard than limited access, while Australias larger capital cities feature controlled-access highway networks, the smaller metropolitan areas mostly rely on limited-access highways for high-speed local traffic.
In South Australia the terms expressway and freeway can be synonymous, the Southern and Northern Expressways are both controlled-access highways. However, perhaps confusingly, the Port River Expressway is a limited-access highway, dual carriageways that connect capital cities and regional centres, such as the M31 Hume Highway between Sydney and Melbourne, are almost all limited-access highways. In spite of this, freeway terminology is used on signage for most regional limited access highways in the state of Victoria, the Expressway Network of the Peoples Republic of China is the longest highway system in the world. The network is known as National Trunk Highway System. As of 2011, the length is 85,000 kilometres. Expressways in China are a recent addition to a complex network of roads. Chinas first expressway was built in 1988, until 1993, very few expressways existed. The network is expanding rapidly after 2000, in 2011,11,000 kilometres of expressways were added to the network. The Philippines has many expressways and highways particularly concentrated on the island of Luzon, the country currently has 6 completed and available expressways and 8 major highways including the Pan-Philippine Highway known as Asian Highway 26.
The Expressways of Pakistan are a network of multiple-lane, high-speed highways in Pakistan and they are one class lower than the countrys motorways and are usually upgraded versions of the national highways. The total length of Pakistans expressways is 260-kilometre as of November,2016, around 770-kilometre of expressways are currently under construction in different part of country. Most of these expressways will be complete between 2017 and 2020, Expressways in Taiwan may be controlled-access highways similar to National Freeways or limited-access roads
A curb, or kerb, is the edge where a raised sidewalk or road median/central reservation meets a street or other roadway. Previously, small wooden bollards had been put up to demarcate the area of the reserved for pedestrian use. The Corporation was responsible for the regular upkeep of the roads, including their cleaning and repair. With the introduction of macadam roads in the early 19th-century, curbs became ubiquitous in the streets of London, curbs may fulfill any or several of a number of functions. They separate the road from the roadside, and discourage drivers from parking or driving on sidewalks and they provide structural support to the pavement edge. Curbs can be used to channel water from rain or melted snow. There is an aspect, in that curbs look formal. Since curbs add to the cost of a road, they are limited to urban and suburban areas. Curbs are not universally used, even in urban settings, in low-speed environments, curbs are effective at channeling motor vehicle traffic. On higher speed roads, curbs should not be used because they can destabilize vehicles that strike them, a high-speed vehicle that hits a curb may actually turn towards the sidewalk, rather than be directed away from it. A vehicle that strikes a curb can be tripped into a crash or vaulted into the air.
The vehicle could be vaulted over a barrier into the object the barrier is intended to shield. This is a reason why they are used on rural or high speed roads. Where curb is used with a barrier, the barrier should either be close to or well behind the curb. Depending on the area and the distance between the travel lane and the edge of pavement, a line can be used to indicate the outside edge of the road. Retroreflective road marking material can be applied to the curb itself to make it more conspicuous, there are a number of types of curb, categorized by shape, material and whether the curb is combined with a gutter. Most curb is constructed separately from the pavement, and the gutter is formed at the joint between the roadway and the curb, combined curb and gutter has a concrete curb and gutter cast together in one piece. Integral curb is curbing constructed integrally as a part of a concrete pavement, curbs often have a vertical or nearly-vertical face, called barrier, non-mountable, or insurmountable curb
For legal purposes motor vehicles are often identified within a number of vehicle classes including cars, motorcycles, off-road vehicles, light trucks and regular trucks. These classifications vary according to the codes of each country. ISO3833,1977 is the standard for road vehicles types, terms, as of 2010 there were more than one billion motor vehicles in use in the world excluding off-road vehicles and heavy construction equipment. Global vehicle ownership per capita in 2010 was 148 vehicles in operation per 1000 people, the United States has the largest fleet of motor vehicles in the world, with 239.8 million in 2010. Vehicle ownership per capita in the US is the highest in the world with 769 vehicles in operation per 1000 people. The Peoples Republic of China has the second largest fleet in the world, with more than 78 million vehicles. In 2011, a total of 80 million cars and commercial vehicles were built, led by China, the US publisher Wards, estimate that as of 2010 there were 1.015 billion motor vehicles in use in the world.
This figure represents the number of cars, light and heavy duty trucks, and buses, the world vehicle population passed the 500 million-unit mark in 1986, from 250 million motor vehicles in 1970. Between 1950 and 1970, the population doubled roughly every 10 years. Two US researchers estimate that the fleet will reach 2 billion motor vehicles by 2020. Navigant Consulting forecasts that the stock of light-duty motor vehicles will reach 2 billion units in 2035. The global rate of motorization increased in 2013 to 174 vehicles per 1000 inhabitants, in developing countries vehicle ownership rates rarely exceed 200 cars per 1,000 population. The five largest markets, Italy, the UK, the EU-27 member countries had in 2009 an estimated ownership rate of 473 passenger cars per 1000 people. According to Wards, Italy had the second highest vehicle ownership per capita in 2010, Germany had a rate of motorization of 534 vehicles per 1000 people and the UK of 525 vehicles per 1000 inhabitants, both in 2008.
France had a rate of 575 vehicles per 1000 people and Spain 608 vehicles per 1000 people in 2007, between 1991 and 2002 grew up 220% on its motorization rate, having had in 2002,560 cars per 1000 people. Italy leads in alternative fuel vehicles, with a fleet of 779,090 natural gas vehicles as of June 2012, with 225,000 flexible-fuel vehicles, has the largest flexifuel fleet in Europe by mid-2011. According to Wards, the United States has the largest fleet of vehicles in the world. Vehicle ownership per capita in the U. S. is the highest in the world with 769 vehicles in operation per 1000 inhabitants, or a ratio of 1,1.3 vehicles to people
Highways in Australia
Prior to European settlement, the earliest needs for trade and travel were met by narrow bush tracks, used by tribes of Indigenous Australians. The formal construction of roads began in 1788, after the founding of the colony of New South Wales, similar road networks were established in the other colonies of Australia. Local government authorities, often known as Road Boards, were established to be primarily responsible for funding and undertaking road construction. The early 1900s saw both the widespread use of motorised transportation, and the creation of state road authorities in each state. These authorities managed each states road network, with the arterial roads controlled and maintained by the state. The federal government became involved in funding in the 1920s. The depression of the 1930s slowed the funding and development of the road network until the onset on World War II. Supply roads leading to the north of the country were considered vital, resulting in the construction of Barkly, Stuart, in 1974, the federal government assumed responsibility for funding the nations most important road links, between state and territory capitals cities, which were declared National Highways.
Some sections of the 16, 000-kilometre-long National Highway system were no more than dirt tracks, the network was gradually improved, and by 1989, all gravel road sections had been sealed. National Routes were assigned to significant interstate routes which, both now and in the future, comprise the more important arteries of road communications throughout Australia in all its aspects. East-west routes were planned to have numbers, increasing from south to north, while north-south routes would have odd numbers. National Route 1 would be an exception, as a route along the coastline of Australia. A state route marking systems was designed to supplement the system, for inter-regional. Each state could choose their own numbering scheme, as long as National Route and State Route numbers werent duplicated in the same state, or nearby routes in another state. When the National Highway system was introduced, National Routes along it became National Highway routes with the same numbers, during the 1990s, planning began for a new alphanumeric route system.
Alphanumeric routes have been introduced in most states and territories in Australia, the earliest needs for trade and travel were met by narrow bush tracks, used by tribes of Indigenous Australian prior to European settlement. The formal construction of roads began in 1788, after the founding of the colony of New South Wales and these roads were little more than cleared paths, constructed without grading, drainage systems, and road surfaces. By the end of his term in 1822 the colony had a network of three roads, with the Great Western Road as the most important link, traversing the Blue Mountains from Sydney to Bathurst