Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Carroll County, Missouri
Carroll County is a county located in the U. S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the county had a population of 9,295, its county seat is Carrollton. The county was organized on January 2, 1833 from part of Ray County and named for Charles Carroll of Carrollton, a signer of the Declaration of Independence. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 701 square miles, of which 695 square miles is land and 6.8 square miles is water. Livingston County Chariton County Saline County Lafayette County Ray County Caldwell County U. S. Route 24 U. S. Route 65 Route 10 Route 139 As of the census of 2000, there were 10,285 people, 4,169 households, 2,880 families residing in the county; the population density was 15 people per square mile. There were 4,897 housing units at an average density of 7 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.95% white, 1.72% Black or African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.13% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.14% from other races, 0.79% from two or more races.
0.71% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 32.7 % were of 25.3 % American, 11.8 % English and 9.2 % Irish ancestry. There were 4,169 households out of which 30.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.40% were married couples living together, 8.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.90% were non-families. 27.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.96. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.20% under the age of 18, 7.40% from 18 to 24, 24.50% from 25 to 44, 22.90% from 45 to 64, 20.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 94.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,643, the median income for a family was $36,773. Males had a median income of $26,135 versus $17,468 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $15,522. About 9.70% of families and 13.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.00% of those under age 18 and 12.80% of those age 65 or over. Bosworth R-V School District – Bosworth Bosworth Elementary School Bosworth High School Carrollton R-VII School District – Carrollton Adams-Dieterich Elementary School Adams Primary School Carrollton Elementary School Carrollton Middle School Carrollton High School Hale R-I School District – Hale Hale Elementary School Hale High School Norborne R-VIII School District – Norborne Norborne Elementary School Norborne High School Tina-Avalon R-II School District – Tina Tina-Avalon Elementary School Tina-Avalon High School Carrollton Public Library Norborne Public Library The Republican Party predominantly controls politics at the local level in Carroll County. Republicans hold all but three of the elected positions in the county. All of Carroll County is a part of Missouri’s 39th District in the Missouri House of Representatives and is represented by Joe Don McGaugh.
All of Carroll County is a part of Missouri’s 21st District in the Missouri Senate and is represented by Denny Hoskins. All of Carroll County is included in Missouri’s 6th Congressional District and is represented by Sam Graves in the U. S. House of Representatives. Former U. S. Senator Hillary Clinton received more votes, a total of 548, than any candidate from either party in Carroll County during the 2008 presidential primary. Tina Brunswick Coloma Miami Station Stet Leon E. Bates, labor leader James Fergason and business leader in electronics. Known for work with liquid-crystal displays. Mormon War National Register of Historic Places listings in Carroll County, Missouri Turner, S. K. Twentieth century history of Carroll County, Missouri vol 1 online.
U.S. Route 65 in Missouri
U. S. Route 65 is a north–south U. S. highway that runs from Louisiana to Albert Lea, Minnesota. In Missouri, the highway enters the state from Arkansas, just south of Branson; the highway exits the state into Iowa near South Lineville. US 65 enters Missouri between the towns of Omaha and Ridgedale, Missouri; the road is a four-lane expressway, traveling through both Branson and Hollister towards Springfield. Through the Branson area, it is a freeway. North of Branson, the highway intersections with both Route 465 and U. S. Route 160. All the way to Highlandville, U. S. 160 is the old alignment of U. S. 65. Just south of Route EE at the Highlandville exit, U. S. 65 returns to freeway status. The freeway is called "Schoolcraft Freeway" in Springfield, named in honor of Henry Rowe Schoolcraft. In Springfield, the highway has junctions with U. S. Route 60 and Interstate 44; the I-44 interchange includes a flyover ramp connecting northbound U. S. 65 with westbound I-44. Construction is completed that added two at U.
S. 60. In September 2011, U. S. 65 became a six-lane divided freeway in Springfield between Interstate 44 and U. S. 60. It was the first six-lane highway in Southwest Missouri. North of Springfield, it returns to a non-interstate highway. From Springfield to Buffalo, U. S. 65 has been upgraded as a four-lane non-interstate highway. This project began with the addition of a partial four-lane highway through the Fair Grove area to replace a dangerous traffic light intersection with an overpass, it culminated with the entire length of U. S. 65 becoming a four-lane highway from Springfield to just outside of Buffalo. The project was completed in summer 2010. Through Buffalo, the highway now becomes two lanes with a center left-turn lane; this part of the highway has seen upgrades in recent years, such as adding rumble strips and extending the middle turn lanes to just outside the city's northern portion. From Buffalo to Preston, entering Hickory County, U. S. 65 remains a two-lane highway and has a four-way intersection with U.
S. Route 54. At Warsaw, the highway crosses over the western end of the Lake of the Ozarks and again becomes a four-lane non-interstate highway at the intersection with Route 7. At Sedalia, it has an intersection with U. S. Route 50. At Marshall Junction, north of Sedalia in Saline County, U. S. 50 intersects with both Interstate 70 and U. S. Route 40. In Marshall, U. S. 65 returns to two-lanes and stays so all the way up to Iowa. At Waverly, the highway becomes concurrent with U. S. Route 24. In Waverly, U. S. 65 and U. S. 24 both cross the Missouri River on the Waverly Bridge. Further north, the road crosses U. S. Route 36 at Chillicothe and U. S. Route 136 at Princeton; the highway enters Iowa. The section of highway from Preston to Marshall Junction has been cited as a good drive for motorcyclists, with its sparsely populated areas and the hilly landscape. From 1922 to 1926, US 65 in Missouri was known as Route 3. US 65 followed Route 248 and US 160 between Branson and Springfield. Route 3 was planned on a shorter route between Springfield and Preston, with Route 71 on the longer alignment via Buffalo, but Route 3 was shifted east, absorbing Route 71.
All exits are unnumbered. Missouri portal U. S. Roads portal Media related to U. S. Route 65 in Missouri at Wikimedia Commons
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States. With over six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union; the largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City and Columbia; the state is the 21st-most extensive in area. In the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber and recreation; the Missouri River, after which the state is named, flows through the center of the state into the Mississippi River, which makes up Missouri's eastern border. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years; the Mississippian culture built mounds, before declining in the 14th century. When European explorers arrived in the 17th century they encountered the Osage and Missouria nations; the French established Louisiana, a part of New France, founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764. After a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory.
Missouri was admitted as a slave state as part of the Missouri Compromise. Many from Virginia and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland. Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch; the Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, California Trail all began in Missouri. As a border state, Missouri's role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business. Today, the state is divided into the independent city of St. Louis. Missouri's culture blends elements from Southern United States; the musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, St. Louis Blues developed in Missouri; the well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, lesser-known St. Louis-style barbecue, can be found across the state and beyond. Missouri is a major center of beer brewing.
Missouri wine is produced in Ozarks. Missouri's alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the state's major cities, popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, Table Rock Lake, Branson. Well-known Missourians include U. S. President Harry S. Truman, Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, Nelly; some of the largest companies based in the state include Cerner, Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, H&R Block, Wells Fargo Advisors, O'Reilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the "Mother of the West" and the "Cave State"; the state is named for the Missouri River, named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe. It is said that they were called the ouemessourita, meaning "those who have dugout canoes", by the Miami-Illinois language speakers; this appears to be folk etymology—the Illinois spoke an Algonquian language and the closest approximation that can be made in that of their close neighbors, the Ojibwe, is "You Ought to Go Downriver & Visit Those People."
This would be an odd occurrence, as the French who first explored and attempted to settle the Mississippi River got their translations during that time accurate giving things French names that were exact translations of the native tongue. Assuming Missouri were deriving from the Siouan language, it would translate as "It connects to the side of it," in reference to the river itself; this is not likely either, as this would be coming out as "Maya Sunni" Most though, the name Missouri comes from Chiwere, a Siouan language spoken by people who resided in the modern day states of Wisconsin, South Dakota, Missouri & Nebraska. The name "Missouri" has several different pronunciations among its present-day natives, the two most common being and. Further pronunciations exist in Missouri or elsewhere in the United States, involving the realization of the first syllable as either or. Any combination of these phonetic realizations may be observed coming from speakers of American English; the linguistic history was treated definitively by Donald M. Lance, who acknowledged that the question is sociologically complex, but that no pronunciation could be declared "correct", nor could any be defined as native or outsider, rural or urban, southern or northern, educated or otherwise.
Politicians employ multiple pronunciations during a single speech, to appeal to a greater number of listeners. Informal respellings of the state's name, such as "Missour-ee" or "Missour-uh", are used informally to phonetically distinguish pronunciations. There is no official state nickname. However, Missouri's unofficial nickname is the "Show Me State"; this phrase has several origins. One is popularly ascribed to a speech by Congressman Willard Vandiver in 1899, who declared that "I come from a state that raises corn and cotton and Democrats, frothy eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. I'm from Missouri, you have got to show me." This is in keeping with the saying "I'm from Missouri" which means "I'm skeptical of the matter and not convinced." However, according to researchers, the phrase "show me" was in use
Sliced bread is a loaf of bread, sliced with a machine and packaged for convenience. It was first sold in 1928, advertised as "the greatest forward step in the baking industry since bread was wrapped"; this led to the popular idiom "greatest thing since sliced bread". Otto Frederick Rohwedder of Davenport, United States, invented the first single loaf bread-slicing machine. A prototype he built in 1912 was destroyed in a fire and it was not until 1928 that Rohwedder had a working machine ready; the first commercial use of the machine was by the Chillicothe Baking Company of Chillicothe, which sold their first slices on July 7, 1928. Their product, proved to be a success. Battle Creek, has a competing claim as the first city to sell bread sliced by Rohwedder's machine; the bread was advertised as "the greatest forward step in the baking industry since bread was wrapped." St. Louis baker Gustav Papendick bought Rohwedder's second bread slicer and set out to improve it by devising a way to keep the slices together at least long enough to allow the loaves to be wrapped.
After failures trying rubber bands and metal pins, he settled on placing the slices into a cardboard tray. The tray aligned the slices. W. E. Long, who promoted the Holsum Bread brand, used by various independent bakers around the country and promoted the packaging of sliced bread beginning in 1928. In 1930 Wonder Bread, first sold in 1925, started marketing sliced bread nationwide; as commercially sliced bread resulted in uniform and somewhat thinner slices, people ate more slices of bread at a time. They ate bread more because of the ease of getting and eating another piece of bread; this increased consumption of bread and, in turn, increased consumption of spreads, such as jam, to put on the bread. During 1943, U. S. officials imposed a short-lived ban on sliced bread as a wartime conservation measure. The ban was ordered by Claude R. Wickard who held the position of Food Administrator, took effect on January 18, 1943. According to The New York Times, officials explained that "the ready-sliced loaf must have a heavier wrapping than an unsliced one if it is not to dry out."
It was intended to counteract a rise in the price of bread, caused by the Office of Price Administration's authorization of a ten percent increase in flour prices. In a Sunday radio address on January 24, New York City Mayor LaGuardia suggested that bakeries that had their own bread-slicing machines should be allowed to continue to use them, on January 26, 1943, a letter appeared in The New York Times from a distraught housewife: I should like to let you know how important sliced bread is to the morale and saneness of a household. My husband and four children are all in a rush after breakfast. Without ready-sliced bread I must do the slicing for toast -- two pieces for each one --. For their lunches I must cut by hand at least twenty slices, for two sandwiches apiece. Afterward I make my own toast. Twenty-two slices of bread to be cut in a hurry! On January 26, John F. Conaboy, the New York Area Supervisor of the Food Distribution Administration, warned bakeries and other stores that were continuing to slice bread to stop, saying that "to protect the cooperating bakeries against the unfair competition of those who continue to slice their own bread... we are prepared to take stern measures if necessary."On March 8, 1943, the ban was rescinded.
While public outcry is credited for the reversal, Wickard stated that "Our experience with the order, leads us to believe that the savings are not as much as we expected, the War Production Board tells us that sufficient wax paper to wrap sliced bread for four months is in the hands of paper processor and the baking industry." Due to its convenience, sliced bread is popular in many parts of the world, the usual thickness varies by company and country: In the United Kingdom, sliced bread is sold as either "Extra Thick", "Thick", "Medium" or "Thin" varying across the 5–20 mm range. In the Republic of Ireland, the most popular bread type is known as "sliced pan", sold in 800- or 400-gram loaves, wrapped in wax paper, with the slices conveniently sized for making sandwiches and toast. In Japan, the same half-loaf of bread is labeled by the number of slices. Thin sliced crustless "sandwich bread" is sold in Japan, since regular 4–6 slice bread is deemed too thick. In Canada and the United States, Texas toast is a type of packaged bread, sliced at double the typical thickness of most sliced breads.
The phrase "the greatest thing since sliced bread" is a common idiom used to praise an invention or development. A writer for The Kansas City Star wrote that "the phrase is the ultimate depiction of innovative achievement and American know-how."In 1940, a package of bread consisting of two wrapped half-loaves was advertised as the "greatest convenience since sliced bread". Pullman loaf, origin of a style of long narrow bread pan, the loaves baked in it Sandwich bread US 1867377 — Rohwedder's 1928 bread slicer. "A Day in the Life" podcast on sliced bread