The Livonian Chronicle of Henry is a document in Latin describing historic events in Livonia and surrounding areas from 1180 to 1227. It was written ca. 1229 by a priest named Henry. Apart from the few references in the Primary Chronicle compiled in Kievan Rus' in the twelfth century, it is the oldest known written document about the history of Estonia and Latvia. A modern translation was published in 1961 by James A Brundage and is available through Columbia University Press. Papal calls for renewed holy war at the end of the twelfth century inspired not only the disastrous Fourth Crusade that sacked Constantinople in 1204, but a series of simultaneous "Northern Crusades" that are less covered in English-language popular history, but which were more successful in the long run. Before the crusades, the region of Livonia was a mixed outpost, a pagan society where merchants from the Hanseatic League encountered merchants of Novgorod, where Germanic and Russian trade and cults all mingled; the specific ethnic groups that intermingled and traded with the Germans, Danish and Russians here included the Wends, who were merchants from Lübeck, the Estonians, the Karelians, the Kuronians, the Lettgallians, the Semgallians, the Livonians and the Lithuanians.
The Western merchants would trade silver and other luxury goods for furs, honey, dried fish, amber. Livonia had been an promising location in terms of resources, Arnold of Lübeck, in his Chronicle of the Slavs wrote that the land was "abundant in many riches" and was "fertile in fields, plentiful in pastures, irrigated by rivers", "also sufficiently rich in fish and forested with trees"; the Scandinavian rulers and German military knightly orders led by the German Prince-Bishops conquered and resettled the Baltic world and drew it into the Western orbit. The Livonian Chronicle of Henry was written during the first generation of conversion in Livonia when Albert of Buxhoeveden had authority over the land; the Teutonic Order continued to implement Christianity across Livonia after the Livonian Brothers of the Sword, the crusading army established by Albert of Riga, was absorbed by them in 1237. This crusade and other Baltic crusades have been debated on their legitimacy to the claim of being labeled as crusades.
This is because these crusades were not directed towards the Holy Land like the others before it, meaning that the religious motives were less clear-cut than those that had Jerusalem set as their final destination because of the fact that Jerusalem has such a strong historical influence in the Christian faith and Livonia and other Baltic states have less of an obvious significance to Christianity. The Livonian Chronicle of Henry provides eyewitness accounts of the events, with an invaluable and human history, it provides insight, not only into military operations in the East during this tumultuous period but into the conflicted attitudes of an eyewitness. The other famous early Livonian text, the Rhymed Chronicle has less historical value, as it was intended as a patriotic and Christian courtly entertainment; the Livonian Chronicle of Henry utilizes two major points of justification for the conquest of Livonia: that it was the Land of the Virgin Mary, which began after Bishop Meinhard, the first Bishop who attempted to spread Christianity to Livonia, established a Cult of Mary convent in Livonia.
Following this, Albert of Riga helped perpetuate this association by naming the Episcopal Cathedral in Livonia as the church of the Virgin Mary in the early 1200s. The second main justification was. Pope Innocent III granted the absolution of sins for those taking Pilgrimage to Livonia after tensions arose between the German Christians and the pagans. Bishop Meinhard had attempted to convert the pagans without success and appointed Theodoric II as an employee to help with the Christianization of Livonia; this concerned the people of Livonia who plotted to kill Theodoric II, which proved unsuccessful but increased German mistrust because Theodoric and other Germans discovered their plot to kill him. When Pope Innocent III gave absolution of sin to those who went to aid in the Christianization of Livonia, Henry makes the association between the lands of Livonia and Jerusalem by stating that, "In enjoining the Livonian pilgrimage for the plenary remission of sins, made it equal with that to Jerusalem".
Honorius III and Gregory IX continued to promote Livonia as comparable to Jerusalem by enforcing privileges to Livonian crusaders. Other reasons include justification on the basis of the defense of Christianity, the conversion of pagans, the return of apostates to Christianity. Many have questioned to what extent the Christianization of Livonia was in fact about commercial and political gains. Henry mentions in his chronicle that there was a notable number of German merchants in the crusading army, but does not describe their stake in the crusade. Conversely, in the Livonian Rhymed Chronicle, the writer states that these merchants would, "Sell to greater advantage there than elsewhere". Politically, because Livonia was so rich in natural resources and was such an important trading hub for so many nations and people, gaining political control over this land would bring political advancement to Germany over the other nations that were vying for the resources that existed in Livonia during this time.
Pembina Pipeline is a Canadian corporation that operates transportation and storage infrastructure delivering oil and natural gas to and from parts of Western Canada. Western Canada is the source of all the product transported by its systems; some of the pipelines and facilities have short term contracts with oil producers while others are long term. For 37 years until 1997 when it went public and established itself as a trust, Pembina was a regular owned business. On October 1, 2010 it converted to a corporation from a trust, changing its official name from Pembina Pipeline Income Fund to Pembina Pipeline Corporation; as of 2016 the company had more than 1260 employees up from 427 in 2010. The company's total assets nearly doubled in 2017; the company's roots can be traced back to 1954 when the Pembina Pipeline system was built to serve the Pembina oil field in the region of Drayton Valley, Alberta. For the next 37 years the company remained focussed on delivering oil to Edmonton using the Pembina pipeline.
In 1991 it made its first acquisition, Peace Pipe Line Ltd. five years before it made its second move, buying half of the Bonnie Glen System, a 250 km long network serving oil fields in Alberta. It wasn't until the 4th quarter of 1997 that Pembina joined the Toronto Stock Exchange, going public with an IPO of over 600 million dollars. 1997 was the year Inter Pipeline Fund the leading transporter of oilsands bitumen, was established. Three years in 2000 it made its biggest move to date that doubled its size overnight when it took over Federated Pipe Lines Ltd in a $340 million deal from a group headed by Imperial Oil. After the takeover, Pembina's network in Western Canada was 7000 km long and transported nearly 550,000 b/d of oil and natural gas. Acquired the Cutbank Complex on June 2, 2009 from Talisman Energy subsidiary Talisman Energy Canada for Cdn$300 million in cash. On June 24, 2003, it paid $185 million for 50% of an ethylene storage facility in Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta from Pittsburgh-based Nova Chemicals Corp.
The deal ensures that Pembina will not have to cover operating costs or capital expenditures for 20 years but gives main control of it to the other 50% owner, Dow Chemical Canada Inc. In 2001 the company made two big moves, the first in July when Pembina Corp sold a salt cavern in Hardisty, Alberta to Canadian Crude Separators Inc; the other in November by subsidiary Pembina Pipeline Corp when it acquired 100% of the main Syncrude pipeline by taking over its operator, Alberta Oil Sands Pipeline Ltd. for $225 million. In 2012 Pembina purchased a Canadian company, for $3.1 billion in stock. In 2017, it purchased a rival energy infrastructure company, for $9.7 billion. At the time, Veresen was a natural gas transportation company, while Pembina focused on transporting oil and other liquids. In 2019 Pembina purchased Kinder Morgan Canada Limited, along with a portion of the Cochin pipeline, for $4.35 billion. Operations are segmented into 3 parts, 2 of them distinguished by the type of oil they transport with the other dealing with services related to storage/logistics as well as marketing.
Conventional Oil Infrastructure - oversees pipelines in British Columbia and Alberta that transport crude oil and NGL's. There are the BC System. Alberta System wholly owns and runs 3 systems the largest of, the Peace System and owns 50% of another, the Glen System and has a 10% interest in the Wabasca Oil Field System. Equal Energy Ltd is one of many minor producers that use the peace pipeline, Equal's 16 wells near Grand Prairie, Alberta deliver oil to the system. BC Systems is 100% owned, has been in operation since 1960, encompasses 3 storing facilities; the crude oil pipelines connect Taylor, Alberta to Kamloops. The total capacity is half of the smallest Alberta pipeline system. Oil Sands and Heavy Oil Infrastructure - manages pipelines used to transport synthetic crude from upgrading facilities; the division oversees Syncrude and Horizon pipelines, the last 2 new. All 3 have long term contracts. Syncrude represents half of the total design capacity. Horizon serves Canadian Natural Resources at their most important synthetic oil-producing area.
Midstream and Marketing - Pembina's storage/terminal business. 18% of revenue comes from storage and related services not connected with the Cutbank Complex and Ethylene storage. Cutbank is made up of 3 gas plants, 9 compressor stations and a 300 km long system that gathers and processes natural gas liquids. Kakwa is 50 % operated by another company. Ethylene Storage 50% - is an underground operation, the contract runs until 2023 and is operated by Dow Chemicals. Dow Chemicals along with Nova Chemicals Corp are the biggest customers. Pembina Pipeline was the sole source of fund
Grevillea victoriae known as royal grevillea or mountain grevillea, is a shrub, endemic to south-eastern New South Wales and mountainous parts of Victoria in Australia. Grevillea victoriae is a shrub that grows to between 4 metres in height, it has obovate to ovate leaves that range between 1.5 and 14 cm in length and 0.5 to 4.5 cm in width. Pendant clusters of red or orange flowers appear in summer; the species was first formally described by Victorian Government Botanist Ferdinand von Mueller, his description published in Transactions of the Philosophical Society of Victoria in 1855. Mueller discovered the species when he climbed to the plateau of Mount Buffalo in 1853, he described it as "a majestic plant, when, by descending into the vallies it assumes a height of 12 feet or more." The specific epithet victoriae was named for Queen Victoria. In 1993 Don McGillivray published an outline of 11 races of Grevillea victoriae as well as an associated description of unassigned specimens prompting fellow botanists to take a closer look at the Grevillea victoriae complex.
The following year, Grevillea hockingsii from Queensland and G. mollis from New South Wales were segregated from the Grevillea victoriae complex by Peter Olde and Bill Molyneux. Bob Makinson segregated two further species, G. oxyantha and G. rhyolitica, in 1997. Grevillea epicroca, G. irassa and G. monscalana were segregated and G. miqueliana was reinstated as a separate species in the Flora of Australia in 2000. In this publication, Makinson defined a Victoriae Subgroup within the genus Grevillea as follows: In 2005 Bill Molyneux and Val Stajsic described the new species Grevillea bemboka and G. callichlaena and the new subspecies G. miqueliana subsp. Cincta and elevated G. brevifolia subsp. Polychroma to species status. A new species, Grevillea burrowa, was formally described in 2015. There are three recognised subspecies in Grevillea victoriae sensu stricto: G. victoriae subsp. Brindabella - newly described in 2010. G. victoriae subsp. Nivalis - Kosciuszko grevillea, formally described in 2000 by Stajsic and Molyneux in Taxonomic studies in the Grevillea victoriae F.
Muell. Species complex. G. victoriae subsp. Victoriae Grevillea victoriae occurs in rocky, mountainous areas of south-eastern Australia in forest and heath. Associated tree species include Eucalyptus Eucalyptus delegatensis. G. Victoriae subsp. Victoriae is found on some of Victoria's highest mountains including Mount Bogong, Mount Buffalo, Mount Buller, Mount Hotham, Mount Howitt, Mount St Bernard and Mount Torbreck. G. victoriae subsp. Nivalis occurs in sub-alpine areas around Mount Kosciuszko and nearby ranges from Mount Gibbo and Mount Sassafras in the Victorian Alps northwards to Talbingo in New South Wales. In rare cases it may be seen above the treeline. G. victoriae subsp. Brindabella occurs in the Brindabella Range on the border of New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. Eastern spinebills and yellow-faced honeyeaters are known to feed on the nectar of Grevillea victoriae sensu lato. In Kosciuszko National Park, it has been noted that many bird species leave the area when Grevillea victoriae finishes flowering in January Taxa within the Grevillea victoriae complex are believed to be fire intolerant, regenerating from seed only.
On the Department of Sustainability and Environment's Advisory List of Rare Or Threatened Plants In Victoria, the subspecies victoriae is listed as "rare". The subspecies nivalis is regarded as endangered. Grevillea victoriae has a reputation for being hardy and reliable in cultivation, has been grown in all states of Australia, as well as New Zealand, the United States and Great Britain. Plants require a well-drained position with full-exposure to sun or partial shade and will benefit from pruning to maintain a more compact shape. Originating from mountainous regions, the species has a high tolerance to snow, it is useful as a screening plant. In certain parts of North America, hummingbirds feed on the flowers of cultivated plants in the winter. Plants are propagated by seed or cuttings and have been grafted on to Grevillea robusta rootstocks. A number of hybrid cultivars involving Grevillea victoriae sensu lato have been developed including the following:'Audrey' - G. juniperina x G. victoriae'Bairnsdale' - selected seedling of G.'Poorinda Constance"Canterbury Gold' - G. juniperina x G. victoriae var.leptoneura'Glen Pearl' - G. victoriae x G. juniperina'Lady O' - G. victoriae hybrid x G. rhyolitica'Orange Box' - G. polychroma x G. juniperina subsp.
Juniperina'Poorinda Constance' - New South Wales form of G. juniperina x red flower form of G. victoriae'Poorinda Golden Lyre' - G. alpina x G. victoriae'Poorinda Leane' - G. juniperina x G. victoriae'Poorinda Pink Coral' - north-east Victorian form of G. juniperina x G. victoriae'Poorinda Queen' - G. juniperina x yellow flower form of Grevillea victoriae Herbarium specimen at Royal Botanic Gardens Kew
Equal Education is a movement of learners, parents and community members working for quality and equality in South African education, through analysis and activism. After two decades of democracy in South Africa the education received by young people remains unequal. Despite attempts to overhaul the system, class- and race-linked inequalities are still much reflected in the education system. Education was the foundation upon which inequality was built and entrenched during the years of apartheid, yet today unequal educational opportunities remain among the greatest obstacles to equality and freedom in South Africa; this page details the past advocacy campaigns. Since its founding, EE's campaigning has centred on issues concerning poor and inadequate school infrastructure, beginning with a campaign in mid-2008 to fix the broken windows of a school in Khayelitsha. EE has since campaigned for a national roll-out of school libraries and the adoption of regulations providing for Minimum Norms and Standards for School Infrastructure.
EE has run campaigns against late-coming in South African schools. In 2008, EE led its first campaign. EE argued that a quality education required a conducive teaching environment. In the case of Luhlaza, EE had found that teachers and learners were in agreement that the lack of windows meant that the school was too cold to study and learn sufficiently in. To fix the problem, EE initiated a petition to fix the broken windows, endorsed by over 2000 people. Important endorsements came from Robin April, Duncan Hindle, Mamphela Ramphele, Zackie Achmat, Judge Dennis Davis, Professor Mary Metcalfe, Noel Robb. At the same time, EE began working with local government officials in an attempt to bring resolution to the problem. A rally followed in Cape Town, which involved 450 Khayelitsha learners from 18 schools along with learners from Phillipi and the Cape Town City Bowl area. On 13 November 2008, at a public meeting in Khayelitsha, then-Western Cape MEC for Education Mr. Yousuf Gabru announced that funds had been allocated to fix Luhlaza.
Luhlaza was fixed over December and January 2008/2009. Today thousands of South African learners continue to attend schools where inadequate infrastructure derails effective teaching and learning; the vast majority of schools still lack the resources. By late 2010, EE began to focus on a national struggle for minimum norms and standards for school infrastructure, realizing that, to achieve a wholesale nationwide improvement in school infrastructure – a challenge confronted in many of EE's earlier campaigns – a strategic lever would be needed; this lever came in the form of minimum norms and standards for school infrastructure: the prospect of a law, to be created by the Minister as a set of regulations, premised on Section 5A of the amended South African Schools Act, to address the infrastructure requirements of every school in South Africa. As noted above, the idea of norms and standards for school infrastructure did not begin with EE. Throughout 2009 and into 2010, the current Minister of Basic Education, Angelina ‘Angie’ Motshekga, promised to adopt and implement norms and standards within a projected timeframe on five separate occasions, either in an address to Parliament or in writing.
On 11 June 2010, the National Policy for an Equitable Provision of an Enabling School Physical Teaching and Learning Environment was published. It strategically identified the development of norms and standards as a “first-priority” to be “developed and adopted by the end of the 2010/11 financial year”. A month these intentions were reinforced by the Director General, Mr Bobby Soobrayan, when he wrote to EE to confirm that “the Minister must develop national minimum norms and standards... by the end of the 2010/2011 financial year”, that the norms and standards “are with the DBE Legal Services and will be promulgated as regulations thereafter”. To help reinforce these commitments, on Human Rights Day in March 2011, 20,000 EE members and supporters marched to Parliament. In a memorandum handed over to the government, it was demanded that the Minister and the DBE keep their promise by adopting minimum norms and standards for school infrastructure before 1 April; this date passed without the promulgation of the norms and standards.
Learners responded by sending hundreds of letters expressing their frustrations to the Minister. Against this backdrop of broken promises, EE's Campaign for Minimum Norms and Standards intensified. Over the months that followed, it gained momentum with marches, letters, camp-outs and door-to-door mobilizing; the Department, remained lukewarm and dismissive. In August of the same year, EE reluctantly sent Minister Motshekga a letter of demand containing the threat of imminent litigation; the Minister responded, first by saying that she was under no obligation to pass the norms confirming that she had no intention of promulgating regulations for norms, but instead planned to produce “guidelines”. On 29 February 2012, on behalf of EE and the infrastructure committees of two schools in the Eastern Cape, the Legal Resources Centre filed an application in the Bhisho High Court against the Minister, all nine MECs for Education and the Minister of Finance to prescribe national minimum uniform norms and standards for school infrastructure
Joe Hudson is a fictional character on the New Zealand soap opera Shortland Street, portrayed by Rawiri Paratene from 2001 to 2002. In 2000 an Australian consultant made several large changes to the show that would see a more working class hospital portrayed. Joe, his wife Te Hana and children Mihi and Tama were created because of this; as part of the revamp, producers wished for a more community based cast with established family links, mimicking the past presence of the Warner and McKenna families. Rawiri Paratene was cast in the role; the Hudson's arrival was said to be a "shock" for the established character of Te Hana's brother, Victor Kahu. Paratene stated. I've come from a situation. Now, I've landed in a job where I work with a lot of game, fit young actors who I look to for guidance." Joe arrived to Ferndale with the Hudson family for a fresh start and clashed with his wife Te Hana's brother Victor, who thought Te Hana could do better. Joe was victimized by the police due to his race, he was hired as a security guard but was devastated to learn Te Hana had cheated on him with Geoff Greenlaw and the two bitterly separated.
Joe reluctantly stayed in Ferndale and for a while it seemed he and Te Hana were going to reconcile, but it was not to be and Joe soon left for a job in the Middle East. 2 years Joe had returned to New Zealand and was living in Northland as indicated when Tama Hudson visited him. Te Hana offered to take Tama's daughter, Rangimarie up north as Joe was willing to look after her. Joe was described as having been brought up on "the wrong side of the tracks." The families arrival to Ferndale was Joe's decision so as to. Joe resented the presence of brother in law, Victor Kahu. Producer Simon Bennett described the family. They’ve moved to the city from the country and they’re trying to start a new life with nothing,". Paratene enjoyed his character. He's a good man with lots of good points, which become his weak points. Things like pride, love for his whanau, stubbornness and independence are all areas where he can shine and stumble, and he's able to pull himself up again and grow." He was pleased about the development of the Hudson family and its portrayal of Māori culture, "I'm curious to see how Maori react to this family because traditionally we Maori are sensitive and protective about our image on the screen.
We're quick off the mark to react... The family are fantastic, I hope we can be quite daring with them because at the moment there's lots of room for them to grow and develop; the Hudson family affords actors the opportunity for all kinds of subtle inter-relationships amongst themselves and with the other characters. That's what excites me most." Producer Simon Bennett did not enjoy the introduction of the Hudson family, stating: "With the best will in the world the intention to introduce a down on their luck Maori family who moved from the country to the city came across as mawkish and somewhat PC in flavour." Paratene himself enjoyed Joe's introduction, believing the Hudson family inclusion not only reflected the show's growing determination to portray Maori and widen the family aspect of New Zealand drama, but believed it led the show in a more positive direction. The inclusion of the Hudson family did however bring on a more appropriately balanced amount of Māori culture into the soap both on and offscreen.
The Hudson "era" has since been identified as the peak of Māori inclusion in the show. It was said to introduce a large Māori audience and help define the race demographics
The phrase Shirt of Flame refers either to a specific form of the poison dress trope in folklore, or to a particular type of clothing given to people about to face burning at the stake. Creusa drew the attentions and favor of the hero Jason, in revenge the sorceress Medea gave her a shirt or dress to wear, which Medea had cursed to stick to her body and burn her to death; this is an example of the folklore trope of the poison dress. They went to Corinth, lived there for ten years, till Creon, king of Corinth, betrothed his daughter Glauce to Jason, who married her and divorced Medea, but she invoked the gods by whom Jason had sworn, after upbraiding him with his ingratitude she sent the bride a robe steeped in poison, which when Glauce had put on, she was consumed with fierce fire along with her father, who went to her rescue. According to legend, a cursed mantle was among the items used by Morgan Le Fey to attempt to kill King Arthur; the next morning there arrived a damsel at the Court with a message from Morgan le Fay, saying that she had sent the King her brother a rich mantle for a gift, covered with precious stones, begged him to receive it and to forgive her in whatever she might have offended him.
The King answered little, but the mantle pleased him, he was about to throw it over his shoulders when the lady of the lake stepped forward, begged that she might speak to him in private.'What is it?' asked the King.'Say on here, fear nothing."Sir,' said the lady,'do not put on this mantle, or suffer your Knights to put it on, till the bringer of it has worn it in your presence."Your words are wise,' answered the King,'I will do as you counsel me. Damsel, I desire you to put on this mantle that you have brought me, so that I may see it."Sir,' said she,'it does not become me to wear a King's garment."By my head,' cried Arthur,'you shall wear it before I put it on my back, or on the back of any of my Knights,' and he signed to them to put it on her, she fell down dead, burnt to ashes by the enchanted mantle. The King was filled with anger, more than he was before, that his sister should have dealt so wickedly by him. During the Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire, many early Christians were executed by being doused with tar and oil, set alight in Rome.
According to Tacitus, the Roman Emperor Nero used Christians as human torches. As such, they martyrs wore the metaphorical "Shirt of Flame", they were stripped and forced to wear a Tunica molesta or "annoying shirt", impregnated with oil, a "Shirt of Flame". "The tunica molesta, or flaming shirt, was used to execute criminals in ancient Greece and Rome." In Roman Catholic countries such as France and Spain, heretics after their trial were confined until the execution. The shirt of flame in the auto-da-fe under the Inquisition was worn at different times through the centuries; the outfit for those to be burned were funny hats, a shirt or tabard with flames, sometimes imps and demons, sewn upon them. These images were used to terrify the convicted heretics, as well to subject them to ridicule and abuse as they were paraded to the place of execution. In Spain, special clothing such as the sanbenito was worn as part of their penance. Made of yellow or faded sackcloth, these shirts used special symbols, including the Cross of Saint Andrew, for the convicted.
The humiliation of the shirt of flame outfit was part of the punishment, was used to warn others of the penalties of nonconformity in faith and practice. Heretics were people who did not conform to church teachings or doctrine. Many of them remained Catholic in most of their beliefs, but felt that they had betrayed that church or strayed from the church's teachings. Unlike areas with larger Protestant communities, the heretics were shamed and humiliated, rather than seeing themselves as martyrs to the Protestant religion; the shirt of flame worn by these men and women was never a gown of pride or sacrifice, but of despair. The white gown or Shirt of Flame used by Protestant martyrs was modeled in part on the long white garments worn by the martyrs "of the great tribulation" in heaven, as mentioned in chapter seven of the Bible's Book of Revelation. "9 After this I beheld, and, lo, a great multitude, which no man could number, of all nations, kindreds, people, tongues, stood before the throne, before the Lamb, clothed with white robes, palms in their hands... 13 And one of the elders answered, saying unto me, What are these which are arrayed in white robes? and whence came they?
14 And I said unto him, thou knowest. And he said to me, These are they which came out of great tribulation, have washed their robes, made them white in the blood of the Lamb." Under the De heretico comburendo of 1401, heretics in England would be executed by burning at the stake. Many Protestants were sentenced to "death by burning" in 16th-century England because of their faith. A number of them were ministers to small congregations, who were tried for heresy. Sometimes, they were given a special "Shirt of Flame". Just before their execution, they were stripped to their underclothes, which would be this special shirt; when he was sentenced to death by burning, John Bradford was give a special shirt by a Mrs. Marlet, for whom he had written a devotional work; this was a clean shirt, sewn for the burning, made in the style of a wedding shirt. "This clothing with a new shirt to wear at the stake became a common feature at the burnings, a way of signaling support for and honouring the victim, as though he were being dressed as a bridegroom for a wedding."