Ljubljana Castle

Ljubljana Castle is a castle complex standing on Castle Hill above downtown Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia. It is a key landmark of the town. A medieval fortress, it was constructed in the 11th century and rebuilt in the 12th century, it acquired its present outline with an complete overhaul in the 15th century, whereas the majority of the buildings date to the 16th and 17th centuries. A defense structure and since the first half of the 14th century the seat of the lords of Carniola, it was since the early 19th century used for various other purposes and today is used as a major cultural venue; the castle is depicted on the city's coat of arms, along with a dragon on top. According to archeological surveys, the area of the present castle has been settled continuously since 1200 BC, when the first settlements and fortifications were built; the hill summit became a Roman army stronghold after fortifications were built in Illyrian and Celtic times. The first Ljubljana Castle is believed to have been a wooden and stone fortification built in the 11th century.

The oldest written mention of Ljubljana Castle is inscribed on a parchment sheet Nomina defunctorum, kept by the Udine Cathedral Archive and most dates to the second half of 1161. It mentions the nobleman Rudolf of Tarcento, a lawyer of the Patriarchate of Aquileia, who had bestowed a canon with 20 farmsteads beside the castle of Ljubljana to the Patriarchate. According to the historian Peter Štih's deduction, this happened between 1112 and 1125; until 1144 the castle became property of the House of Sponheim. In 1256, Ljubljana Castle was mentioned in a document as the most important castle of the rulers of Carniola. In the late 1270, it was conquered by King Ottokar II of Bohemia. In 1278, after the defeat of Ottokar, it became property of Rudolph of Habsburg. In the 15th century it was completely demolished and rebuilt with a complete wall and towers at the entrance, where a drawbridge was placed. St. George's Chapel was built at that time. In the 16th and 17th centuries, other objects were built.

The castle's purpose was to defend the empire against Ottoman invasion as well as peasant revolt. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the castle became an arsenal. In 1797 the town of Ljubljana and the castle were occupied for the first time by the French army, again in 1809. In the period of the Illyrian Provinces, the castle was used as a military hospital. In 1815, back in the Austrian Empire, it became a prison, which it remained until 1895, with a hiatus between 1848 and 1868, resuming that function during World War II; the castle's Viewing Tower dates to 1848. Because it was not a home of a ruler or another important noble person and because a fortification in the area was no longer required, the castle started to lose its importance; the maintenance costs were too high. In the 19th century, the castle was redesigned as a prison and as a military stronghold, making it less popular among the citizens. Several famous people were jailed in the castle, including the Italian revolutionary Silvio Pellico, the Hungarian Prime Minister Lajos Batthyany and the Slovene author Ivan Cankar.

In 1905, the castle was bought by Municipality of Ljubljana for 60,200 Kronen, on the explicit wish of the mayor, Ivan Hribar, who planned to establish a city museum in it. The plan was however not carried out. Instead, the city decided to settle poor families into it; the residents stayed there until 1963. The remains of the fortifications on Castle Hill were reworked in the 1930s a promenade called Šance, designed by the Slovenian architect Jože Plečnik. Extensive renovation works commenced in the late 1960s. In the 1990s, the castle began to be used as a place for cultural events. In 1974, a monument by the sculptor Stojan Batič dedicated to the Slovene peasant revolts was erected in the vicinity of the castle; the Ljubljana Castle funicular, a funicular railway to the top of Castle Hill, was built in 2006 and began service on 28 December 2006. Today the castle consists of the following buildings. To the right of the entrance is the Archers Tower, next to it is the gunpowder store are the dungeon and the Tower of Erasmus named after the infamous robber-knight Erazem Lueger and the master of the Predjama castle, the former prison for the nobles, at last is the information center.

To the courtyard surround the Estate Hall and the Palatium, two buildings with the rooms destined to concerts and gala receptions. Next to it is Fridericks Tower, the chapel of St. George and the panoramic tower in, the virtual Museum. In the old gunpowder store the permanent exhibition The Slovenian history was opened in 2010. Next to it are located the Hall of Hribar, that in the past was used like the store of arms, the Pentagonal Tower. To the left of the entrance is the only contemporary building, built in the 80's of last century, in which there are two wedding rooms and souvenir shop. Visitors to the castle can go down to the gallery'S', several rooms and the cisterns that are under the patio. Below the level of the patio is the upper funicular station; the funicular was built in 2006, but the idea about the connection between the city and the castle goes back to the end of the century, when Ivan Hribar was mayor of Ljubljan

Good Golly, Miss Molly

"Good Golly, Miss Molly" is a hit rock'n' roll song first recorded in 1956 by the American musician Little Richard and released in January 1958 as Specialty single 624 and next in July 1958 on Little Richard. The song, a jump blues, was written by producer Robert "Bumps" Blackwell. Although it was first recorded by Little Richard, Blackwell produced another version by the Valiants, who imitated the fast first version recorded by Little Richard, not released at this time. Although the Valiants' version was released first, Little Richard had the hit, reaching #4. Like all his early hits, it became a rock'n' roll standard and has subsequently been recorded by hundreds of artists; the song is ranked #94 on the Rolling Stone magazine's list of the 500 Greatest Songs of All Time. Little Richard first heard the phrase "Good golly, Miss Molly" from a Southern DJ named Jimmy Pennick, he modified the lyrics into the more suggestive "Good golly, Miss Molly/You sure like to ball." Little Richard himself claimed that he took Ike Turner's piano intro from his influential 1951 rock and roll song "Rocket 88," and used it for "Good Golly, Miss Molly."

"I always liked that record," Richard recalled, "and I used to use the riff in my act, so when we were looking for a lead-in to'Good Golly, Miss Molly', I did that and it fit." Supervised by Bumps Blackwell. Personnel: Little Richard - vocal, piano with: Lee Allen - tenor saxophone Alvin "Red" Tyler - baritone saxophone Roy Eustis Montrell - guitar Frank Fields - leader, bass Earl Palmer - drumsOne take and one false start from this session were released in 1989 on Little Richard Specialty Sessions as fast versions. Supervised by Art Rupe. Personnel: Little Richard - vocal, piano with: Lee Allen - tenor saxophone Alvin Tyler - baritone saxophone Roy Eustis Montrell - guitar Frank Fields - bass Earl Palmer - leader, drumsAt least ten takes were recorded. Take 9 was selected as master for single and album of 1958. Three other takes were released in 1989 on Little Richard Specialty Sessions. After leaving Specialty Records Little Richard returned to "Good Miss Molly" many times. In he recorded this song: Circa December 1964 for Vee-Jay Records, released on Little Richard's Greatest Hits In December 1965 for Modern Records, released on The Wild and Frantic Little Richard In January 25, 1967 for Okeh Records, released on Little Richard's Greatest Hits: Recorded Live!

May, 1970, private recording made at the Boston Tea Party, was released by Shout! Records, in the 2000s. Circa late 1972 for the film Let the Good Times Roll, released by Bell Records circa May 1973 as single Bell-1780 without flip and on double LP Let the Good Times Roll In August 1976 for K-tel International, released on Little Richard LiveThese are studio recordings. In November 1962 Jerry Lee Lewis released the single "Good Golly Miss Molly", reissued on compilation album Breathless and on Rockin' Rhythm & Blues. In 1966, Mitch Ryder and the Detroit Wheels incorporated Good Golly Miss Molly into their version of Devil With the Blue Dress On, their version scored a major hit, not only in Ryder's native Detroit, but nationwide, placing at #4 on the Billboard Top 100. Creedence Clearwater Revival recorded the song in 1969 on their Bayou Country album with changed lyrics. 500 Greatest Songs of All Time Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

John V of Portugal

Dom John V, known as the Magnanimous and the Portuguese Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Braganza who ruled as King of Portugal during the first half of the 18th century. John V's reign saw the rise of Portugal and its monarchy to new levels of prosperity and prestige among European courts. John V's reign saw an enormous influx of gold into the coffers of the royal treasury, supplied by the royal fifth, received from the Portuguese colonies of Brazil and Maranhão. John spent lavishly on ambitious architectural works, most notably Mafra Palace, on commissions and additions for his sizable art and literary collections. Owing to his craving for international diplomatic recognition, John spent large sums on the embassies he sent to the courts of Europe, the most famous being those he sent to Paris in 1715 and Rome in 1716. Disregarding traditional Portuguese institutions of governance, John V ruled as an absolute monarch; as a continuation of a Braganza dynasty policy that stressed the importance of relations with Europe, John's reign was marked by numerous interventions into the affairs of other European states, most notably as part of the War of the Spanish Succession.

On the imperial front, John V pursued an expansionist policy, with significant territorial gains in Portuguese India and Portuguese America. John V was a pious man who devoted large parts of his day to prayer and religious study, he rewarded his long-awaited recognition as a lawful monarch by Pope Benedict XIV with a fervent devotion to the Catholic Church and some large donations to the Holy See. The Pope granted John V the style "Most Faithful Majesty,". However, John's relationship with the papacy varied at different periods in his reign. John was born on 22 October 1689 at Ribeira Palace in Lisbon to King Peter II and Queen Maria Sophia of Neuburg, he was baptized on November 19 at the Royal Palace Chapel and given the full name John Francis Anthony Joseph Benedict Bernard. John was not his father's first son. Upon his baptism, John was not given the traditional titles of the heir apparent to the Portuguese throne, Prince of Brazil and Duke of Braganza, but the default title Infante of Portugal.

This was intended as a sign of respect for his elder brother's death, which had happened only months before. John had a stimulating upbringing surrounded by some of the most brilliant minds of Europe at the time, it was agreed by the court that John's care as a child was to be run by women only, a custom of the Portuguese court, the Portuguese nobility as a whole. John's governess was Maria de Lencastre, the Marquise of Unhão, given that position more for her beauty and status than for her suitability as a child care giver; the policies that John's father had pursued made the Portuguese court wealthy, the national economy stable, the imperial military strong. This made a interesting childhood possible for John; as a child, he was under the tutelage and heavy influence of the Jesuit Fathers Francisco da Cruz, João Seco, Luís Gonzaga. Father Luís Gonzaga was in charge of the education of all of King Pedro's children; as the prince grew up, he was mentored in political affairs by Luís da Cunha, a prominent Portuguese diplomat.

When John reached age seven, his father determined that his eldest sons were sufficiently educated in basic subjects and decided to take over supervision of their instruction himself, though his interest in mentoring them faded. This was formalised when he and his brother Francisco, Duke of Beja, were admitted into the Order of Christ on 7 April 1696; that year, the king decided to confer on John the titles of the heir apparent, namely Prince of Brazil and Duke of Braganza. On 1 December 1696, on the anniversary of the Portuguese Restoration War of 1640, a grand ceremony was held in which John was invested with his titles; the ceremony involved the placing of a large ermine and red velvet mantle on his shoulders, as well as the adornment of his person with various jewels and royal regalia. Just over a month before John's tenth birthday in 1699, his mother Queen Maria Sofia died at the age of 33; this caused John to become depressed for many months. Catherine of Braganza, his aunt and the former Queen consort of England and Ireland took control of his education.

She resided in the palace she had built, Bemposta Palace, remained John's main tutor and female role model until her death in 1705. In April 1700, John fell ill. Fearing his imminent demise, he confessed his sins. To everyone's surprise, he rallied and soon returned to his normal activities, his complete recovery being considered a miracle by the court; the death of John's sister Teresa Maria in February 1704 saddened him. It caused him to avoid appearing at court for some months and to estrange himself from his father, who favoured John's younger brother, Count of Ourém. During this time, much gossip was spread and worries arose about whether John would recover from his depression. In May of that year, he returned to the court and reconciled with the king, saying