Provinces of Spain
Spain and its autonomous communities are divided into fifty provinces. Spain's provincial system was recognized in its 1978 constitution but its origin dates back to 1833. Ceuta and the Plazas de soberanía are not part of any provinces; the layout of Spain's provinces follows the pattern of the territorial division of the country carried out in 1833. The only major change of provincial borders since that time has been the subdivision of the Canary Islands into two provinces rather than one; the provinces served as transmission belts for policies enacted in Madrid, as Spain was a centralised state for most of its modern history. The importance of the provinces has declined since the adoption of the system of autonomous communities in the period of the Spanish transition to democracy, they remain electoral districts for national elections and as geographical references: for instance in postal addresses and telephone codes. A small town would be identified as being in, Valladolid province rather than the autonomous community of Castile and León.
The provinces were the "building-blocks". No province is divided between more than one of these communities. Most of the provinces—with the exception of Álava, Biscay, Guipúzcoa, Balearic Islands, La Rioja, Navarra — are named after their principal town. Only two capitals of autonomous communities — Mérida in Extremadura and Santiago de Compostela in Galicia — are not the capitals of provinces. Seven of the autonomous communities comprise no more than one province each: Asturias, Balearic Islands, Cantabria, La Rioja, Madrid and Navarra; these are sometimes referred to as "uniprovincial" communities. The table below lists the provinces of Spain. For each, the capital city is given, together with an indication of the autonomous community to which it belongs and a link to a list of municipalities in the province; the names of the provinces and their capitals are ordered alphabetically according to the form in which they appear in the main Wikipedia articles describing them. Unless otherwise indicated, their Spanish language names are the same.
List of Spanish provinces by population List of Spanish provinces by area Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces Autonomous communities of Spain Comarcas of Spain ISO 3166-2:ESGeneral: Political divisions of Spain Maps of the provinces of Spain Maps of Spain's Provinces List of municipalities of Spain listed by province from the Spanish INE
The Iberians were a set of people that Greek and Roman sources identified with that name in the eastern and southern coasts of the Iberian peninsula, at least from the 6th century BC. The Roman sources use the term Hispani to refer to the Iberians; the term Iberian, as used by the ancient authors, had two distinct meanings. One, more general, referred to all the populations of the Iberian peninsula without regard to ethnic differences; the other, more restricted ethnic sense, refers to the people living in the eastern and southern coasts of the Iberian Peninsula, which by the 6th century BC had absorbed cultural influences from the Phoenicians and the Greeks. This pre-Indo-European cultural group spoke the Iberian language from the 7th to the 1st century BC. Other peoples related to the Iberians are the Vascones, though more related to the Aquitani than to the Iberians; the rest of the peninsula, in the northern, northwestern and southwestern areas, was inhabited by Celts or Celtiberians groups and the Pre-Celtic or Proto-Celtic Indo-European Lusitanians and the Turdetani.
The Iberian culture developed from the 6th century BC, as early as the fifth to the third millennium BC in the eastern and southern coasts of the Iberian peninsula. The Iberians lived in villages and oppida and their communities were based on a tribal organization; the Iberians in the Spanish Levant were more urbanized than their neighbors in the central and northwestern regions of the Iberian peninsula. The peoples in the central and northwest regions were Celtic, semi-pastoral and lived in scattered villages, though they had a few fortified towns like Numantia, they had a knowledge of writing, including bronze, agricultural techniques. In the centuries preceding Carthaginian and Roman conquest, Iberian settlements grew in social complexity, exhibiting evidence of social stratification and urbanization; this process was aided by trading contacts with the Phoenicians and Carthaginians. By the late 5th and early 4th centuries BC a series of important social changes led to the consolidation of an aristocracy and the emergence of a clientele system.
"This new political system led, among other things, to cities and towns that centered around these leaders known as territorial nucleation. In this context, the oppidum or fortified Iberian town became the centre of reference in the landscape and the political space."The settlement of Castellet de Banyoles in Tivissa was one of the most important ancient Iberian settlements in the north eastern part of the Iberian peninsula, discovered in 1912. The'Treasure of Tivissa', a unique collection of silver Iberian votive offerings was found here in 1927. Lucentum was another ancient Iberian settlement, as well as Castelldefels Castle. Mausoleum of Pozo Moro near the town of Chinchilla de Monte-Aragón in Castile-La Mancha seems to mark the location of another big settlement. Sagunto is the location of an ancient Iberian and Roman city of Saguntum, where a big fortress was built in the 5th century BC. Greek colonists made the first historical reference to the Iberians in the 6th century BC, they defined Iberians as non-Celtic peoples south of the Ebro river.
The Greeks dubbed as "Iberians" another people in the Caucasus region known as Caucasian Iberians. It is thought; the Iberians traded extensively with other Mediterranean cultures. Iberian pottery and metalwork has been found in France and North Africa; the Iberians had extensive contact with Greek colonists in the Spanish colonies of Emporion and Hemeroskopeion. The Iberians may have adopted some of the Greeks' artistic techniques. Statues such as the Lady of Baza and the Lady of Elx are thought to have been made by Iberians well acquainted with Greek art. Thucydides stated that one of the three original tribes of Sicily, the Sicani, were of Iberian origin, though "Iberian" at the time could have included what we think of as Gaul; the Iberians had contacts with the Phoenicians, who had established various colonies in southern Andalucia. Their first colony on the Iberian Peninsula was founded in 1100 BC and was called Gadir renamed by the Romans as Gades. Other Phoenician colonies in southern Iberia included Malaka and Abdera.
After the First Punic war, the massive war debt suffered by Carthage led them to attempt to expand their control over the Iberian peninsula. Hamilcar Barca began this conquest from his base at Cádiz by conquering the Tartessian Guadalquivir river region, rich in silver. After Hamilcar's death, his son-in-law Hasdrubal continued his incursions into Iberia, founding the colony of Qart Hadasht and extending his influence all the way to the southern bank of the river Ebro. After Hasdrubal's assassination in 221 BC, Hannibal assumed command of the Carthaginian forces and spent two years completing the conquest of the Iberians south of the Ebro. In his first campaign, Hannibal defeated the Olcades, the Vaccaei and the Carpetani expanding his control over the river Tagus region. Hannibal laid siege to Roman ally of Saguntum and this led to the beginning of the Second Punic War; the Iberian theater was a key battleground during this war and many Iberian and Celtiberian warriors fought for both Rome and Carthage, though most tribes sided with Carthage.
Rome sent Publius Cornelius Scipio to conquer Iberia from Carthage. Gnaeus subsequently defeated the Iberian Ilergetes tribe north of the Ebro who
A festival is an event ordinarily celebrated by a community and centering on some characteristic aspect of that community and its religion or cultures. It is marked as a local or national holiday, mela, or eid. Next to religion and folklore, a significant origin is agricultural. Food is such a vital resource. Religious commemoration and thanksgiving for good harvests are blended in events that take place in autumn, such as Halloween in the northern hemisphere and Easter in the southern. Festivals serve to fulfill specific communal purposes in regard to commemoration or thanking to the gods and goddesses. Celebrations offer a sense of belonging for religious, social, or geographical groups, contributing to group cohesiveness, they may provide entertainment, important to local communities before the advent of mass-produced entertainment. Festivals that focus on cultural or ethnic topics seek to inform community members of their traditions. In Ancient Greece and Rome, festivals such as the Saturnalia were associated with social organisation and political processes as well as religion.
In modern times, festivals may be attended by strangers such as tourists, who are attracted to some of the more eccentric or historical ones. The Philippines is one example of a modern society with a large number of festivals, as each day of the year has at least one specific celebration. There are more than 42,000 known major and minor festivals in the country, the majority of which are specific to the barangay level; the word "festival" was used as an adjective from the late fourteenth century, deriving from Latin via Old French. In Middle English, a "festival dai" was a religious holiday, its first recorded used as a noun was in 1589. Feast first came into usage as a noun circa 1200, its first recorded use as a verb was circa 1300; the term "feast" is used in common secular parlance as a synonym for any large or elaborate meal. When used as in the meaning of a festival, most refers to a religious festival rather than a film or art festival. In the Philippines and many other former Spanish colonies, the Spanish word fiesta is used to denote a communal religious feast to honor a patron saint.
Many festivals have religious origins and entwine cultural and religious significance in traditional activities. The most important religious festivals such as Christmas, Rosh Hashanah and Eid al-Adha serve to mark out the year. Others, such as harvest festivals, celebrate seasonal change. Events of historical significance, such as important military victories or other nation-building events provide the impetus for a festival. An early example is the festival established by Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Ramesses III celebrating his victory over the Libyans. In many countries, royal holidays commemorate dynastic events just as agricultural holidays are about harvests. Festivals are commemorated annually. There are numerous types of festivals in the world and most countries celebrate important events or traditions with traditional cultural events and activities. Most culminate in the consumption of specially prepared food and they bring people together. Festivals are strongly associated with national holidays.
Lists of national festivals are published to make participation easier. Among many religions, a feast is a set of celebrations in honour of God. A feast and a festival are interchangeable. Most religions have festivals that recur annually and some, such as Passover and Eid al-Adha are moveable feasts – that is, those that are determined either by lunar or agricultural cycles or the calendar in use at the time; the Sed festival, for example, celebrated the thirtieth year of an Egyptian pharaoh's rule and every three years after that. In the Christian liturgical calendar, there are two principal feasts, properly known as the Feast of the Nativity of our Lord and the Feast of the Resurrection. In the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican liturgical calendars there are a great number of lesser feasts throughout the year commemorating saints, sacred events or doctrines. In the Philippines, each day of the year has at least one specific religious festival, either from Catholic, Islamic, or indigenous origins.
Buddhist religious festivals, such as Esala Perahera are held in Sri Thailand. Hindu festivals, such as Holi are ancient; the Sikh community celebrates the Vaisakhi festival marking the new birth of the Khalsa. Among the many offspring of general arts festivals are more specific types of festivals, including ones that showcase intellectual or creative achievement such as science festivals, literary festivals and music festivals. Sub-categories include rock festivals, jazz festivals and buskers festivals. In the Philippines, aside from numerous art festivals scattered throughout the year, February is known as national arts month, the culmination of all art festivals in the entire archipelago. Film festivals involve the screenings of several different films, are held annually; some of the most significant film festivals include the Berlin International Film Festival, the Venice Film Festival and the Cannes Film Festival. A food festival is an event celebrating drink; these highlight the output of producers from a certain region.
Some food festivals are focused on a particular item of food, such as the National Peanut Festival in
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects. Plasticity is the general property of all materials which can deform irreversibly without breaking but, in the class of moldable polymers, this occurs to such a degree that their actual name derives from this specific ability. Plastics are organic polymers of high molecular mass and contain other substances, they are synthetic, most derived from petrochemicals, however, an array of variants are made from renewable materials such as polylactic acid from corn or cellulosics from cotton linters. Due to their low cost, ease of manufacture and imperviousness to water, plastics are used in a multitude of products of different scale, including paper clips and spacecraft, they have prevailed over traditional materials, such as wood, stone and bone, metal and ceramic, in some products left to natural materials. In developed economies, about a third of plastic is used in packaging and the same in buildings in applications such as piping, plumbing or vinyl siding.
Other uses include automobiles and toys. In the developing world, the applications of plastic may differ—42% of India's consumption is used in packaging. Plastics have many uses in the medical field as well, with the introduction of polymer implants and other medical devices derived at least from plastic; the field of plastic surgery is not named for use of plastic materials, but rather the meaning of the word plasticity, with regard to the reshaping of flesh. The world's first synthetic plastic was bakelite, invented in New York in 1907 by Leo Baekeland who coined the term'plastics'. Many chemists have contributed to the materials science of plastics, including Nobel laureate Hermann Staudinger, called "the father of polymer chemistry" and Herman Mark, known as "the father of polymer physics"; the success and dominance of plastics starting in the early 20th century led to environmental concerns regarding its slow decomposition rate after being discarded as trash due to its composition of large molecules.
Toward the end of the century, one approach to this problem was met with wide efforts toward recycling. The word plastic derives from the Greek πλαστικός meaning "capable of being shaped or molded" and, in turn, from πλαστός meaning "molded"; the plasticity, or malleability, of the material during manufacture allows it to be cast, pressed, or extruded into a variety of shapes, such as: films, plates, bottles, amongst many others. The common noun plastic should not be confused with the technical adjective plastic; the adjective is applicable to any material which undergoes a plastic deformation, or permanent change of shape, when strained beyond a certain point. For example, aluminum, stamped or forged exhibits plasticity in this sense, but is not plastic in the common sense. By contrast, some plastics will, in their finished forms, break before deforming and therefore are not plastic in the technical sense. Most plastics contain organic polymers; the vast majority of these polymers are formed from chains of carbon atoms,'pure' or with the addition of: oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur.
The chains comprise many repeat units, formed from monomers. Each polymer chain will have several thousand repeating units; the backbone is the part of the chain, on the "main path", linking together a large number of repeat units. To customize the properties of a plastic, different molecular groups "hang" from this backbone; these pendant units are "hung" on the monomers, before the monomers themselves are linked together to form the polymer chain. It is the structure of these side chains; the molecular structure of the repeating unit can be fine tuned to influence specific properties in the polymer. Plastics are classified by: the chemical structure of the polymer's backbone and side chains. Plastics can be classified by: the chemical process used in their synthesis, such as: condensation and cross-linking. Plastics can be classified by: their various physical properties, such as: hardness, tensile strength, resistance to heat and glass transition temperature, by their chemical properties, such as the organic chemistry of the polymer and its resistance and reaction to various chemical products and processes, such as: organic solvents and ionizing radiation.
In particular, most plastics will melt upon heating to a few hundred degrees celsius. Other classifications are based on qualities that are relevant for product design. Examples of such qualities and classes are: thermoplastics and thermosets, conductive polymers, biodegradable plastics and engineering plastics and other plastics with particular structures, such as elastomers. One important classification of plastics is by the permanence or impermanence of their form, or whether they are: thermoplastics or thermosetting polymers. Thermoplastics are the plastics that, when heated, do not undergo chemical change in their composition and so can be molded again and again. Examples include: polyethylene, polypropylene and polyvinyl chloride. Common thermoplastics range from 20,000 to 500,000 amu, while thermosets are assumed to have infinite molecular weight. Thermosets, or thermosetting polymers, can melt and take shape only once: after they have solidified, they stay solid. In the thermosetting process, a chemical reaction occurs, irreversible.
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
The Celsius scale known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units. As an SI derived unit, it is used by all countries except the United States, the Bahamas, the Cayman Islands and Liberia, it is named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius. The degree Celsius can refer to a specific temperature on the Celsius scale or a unit to indicate a difference between two temperatures or an uncertainty. Before being renamed to honor Anders Celsius in 1948, the unit was called centigrade, from the Latin centum, which means 100, gradus, which means steps. From 1743, the Celsius scale is based on 0 °C for the freezing point of water and 100 °C for the boiling point of water at 1 atm pressure. Prior to 1743, the scale was based on the boiling and melting points of water, but the values were reversed; the 1743 scale reversal was proposed by Jean-Pierre Christin. By international agreement, since 1954 the unit degree Celsius and the Celsius scale are defined by absolute zero and the triple point of Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water, a specially purified water.
This definition precisely relates the Celsius scale to the Kelvin scale, which defines the SI base unit of thermodynamic temperature with symbol K. Absolute zero, the lowest temperature possible, is defined as being 0 K and −273.15 °C. The temperature of the triple point of water is defined as 273.16 K. This means that a temperature difference of one degree Celsius and that of one kelvin are the same. On 20 May 2019, the kelvin, along with it the degree Celsius, will be redefined so that its value will be determined by definition of the Boltzmann constant. In 1742, Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius created a temperature scale, the reverse of the scale now known as "Celsius": 0 represented the boiling point of water, while 100 represented the freezing point of water. In his paper Observations of two persistent degrees on a thermometer, he recounted his experiments showing that the melting point of ice is unaffected by pressure, he determined with remarkable precision how the boiling point of water varied as a function of atmospheric pressure.
He proposed that the zero point of his temperature scale, being the boiling point, would be calibrated at the mean barometric pressure at mean sea level. This pressure is known as one standard atmosphere; the BIPM's 10th General Conference on Weights and Measures defined one standard atmosphere to equal 1,013,250 dynes per square centimetre. In 1743, the Lyonnais physicist Jean-Pierre Christin, permanent secretary of the Académie des sciences, belles-lettres et arts de LyonAcadémie des sciences, belles-lettres et arts de Lyon, working independently of Celsius, developed a scale where zero represented the freezing point of water and 100 represented the boiling point of water. On 19 May 1743 he published the design of a mercury thermometer, the "Thermometer of Lyon" built by the craftsman Pierre Casati that used this scale. In 1744, coincident with the death of Anders Celsius, the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus reversed Celsius's scale, his custom-made "linnaeus-thermometer", for use in his greenhouses, was made by Daniel Ekström, Sweden's leading maker of scientific instruments at the time, whose workshop was located in the basement of the Stockholm observatory.
As happened in this age before modern communications, numerous physicists and instrument makers are credited with having independently developed this same scale. The first known Swedish document reporting temperatures in this modern "forward" Celsius scale is the paper Hortus Upsaliensis dated 16 December 1745 that Linnaeus wrote to a student of his, Samuel Nauclér. In it, Linnaeus recounted the temperatures inside the orangery at the University of Uppsala Botanical Garden:...since the caldarium by the angle of the windows from the rays of the sun, obtains such heat that the thermometer reaches 30 degrees, although the keen gardener takes care not to let it rise to more than 20 to 25 degrees, in winter not under 15 degrees... Since the 19th century, the scientific and thermometry communities worldwide have used the phrase "centigrade scale". Temperatures on the centigrade scale were reported as degrees or, when greater specificity was desired, as degrees centigrade; because the term centigrade was the Spanish and French language name for a unit of angular measurement and had a similar connotation in other languages, the term centesimal degree was used when precise, unambiguous language was required by international standards bodies such as the BIPM.
More properly, what was defined as "centigrade" would now be "hectograde". To eliminate any confusion, the 9th CGPM and the CIPM formally adopted "degree Celsius" in 1948, formally keeping the recognized degree symbol, rather than adopting the gradian/centesimal degree symbol. For scientific use, "Celsius" is the term used, with "centigrade" remaining in common but decreasing use in informal contexts in English-speaking countries, it was not until February 1985 that the weather forecasts issued by
Comarcas of Spain
In Spain traditionally and some autonomous communities are divided into comarcas. Some comarcas have a defined status, are regulated by law and their comarcal councils have some power. In some other cases their legal status is not formal for they correspond to natural areas, like valleys, river basins and mountainous areas, or to historical regions overlapping different provinces and ancient kingdoms. In such comarcas or natural regions municipalities have resorted to organizing themselves in mancomunidad, like the Taula del Sénia, the only legal formula that has allowed those comarcas to manage their public municipal resources meaningfully. There is a comarca, the Cerdanya, divided between two states, the southwestern half being counted as a comarca of Spain, while the northeastern half is part of France. In English, a comarca is equivalent to a district, area or zone. Alto Almanzora Poniente Almeriense Níjar Los Vélez Levante Almería Bahía de Cádiz Bajo Guadalquivir called Costa Noroeste Campo de Gibraltar La Janda Campiña de Jerez called Marco de Jerez Sierra de Cádiz Alto Guadalquivir Campiña de Baena Campiña Este - Guadajoz Campiña Sur Los Pedroches Subbetica Valle del Guadiato Valle Medio del Guadalquivir Granadin Alpujarra Comarca de Alhama Comarca de Baza Comarca de Guadix Comarca de Huéscar Comarca de Loja Granadin Coast Los Montes Lecrin Valley Vega de Granada Andévalo Condado de Huelva Cuenca Minera de Huelva Costa Occidental de Huelva Huelva Sierra de Huelva Alto Guadalquivir - Cazorla La Campiña El Condado Área Metropolitana de Jaén La Loma Las Villas Norte Sierra Mágina Sierra de Segura Sierra Sur de Jaén Antequera Axarquía Costa del Sol Occidental Málaga Serranía de Ronda Valle del Guadalhorce Aljarafe Bajo Guadalquivir Campiña Estepa Marisma Sierra Norte Sierra Sur La Vega Alto Gállego Bajo Cinca called Baix Cinca Cinca Medio Hoya de Huesca called Plana de Uesca Jacetania La Litera called La Llitera Monegros Ribagorza Sobrarbe Somontano de Barbastro Bajo Martín Jiloca Cuencas Mineras Andorra-Sierra de Arcos Bajo Aragón Comunidad de Teruel Maestrazgo Sierra de Albarracín Comarca, named after the Sierra de Albarracín mountain range Gúdar-Javalambre Matarraña called Matarranya Aranda Bajo Aragón-Caspe called Baix Aragó-Casp Campo de Belchite Campo de Borja Campo de Cariñena Campo de Daroca Cinco Villas Comunidad de Calatayud Ribera Alta del Ebro Ribera Baja del Ebro Tarazona y el Moncayo Valdejalón Zaragoza Avilés Caudal Eo-Navia Gijón / Xixón Nalón Narcea Oriente Oviedo / Uviéu Serra de Tramuntana Es Raiguer Es Pla Migjorn Llevant Menorca Eivissa Formentera Añana Aiara / Ayala Agurain / Salvatierra Vitoria-Gasteiz Zuia Arabako Mendialdea / Montaña Alavesa Arabako Errioxa / Rioja Alavesa Arratia-Nerbioi Busturialdea Durangaldea Enkarterri Greater Bilbao Lea-Artibai Uribe Bidasoa-Txingudi Debabarrena Debagoiena Goierri Donostialdea Tolosaldea Urola Kosta Fuerteventura Lanzarote Las Palmas El Hierro La Gomera La Palma Tenerife Valle de Güímar Valle de la Orotava Icod Daute Isla Baja Isora-Teno Tenerife Sur Tenerife Sur Acentejo Metropolitana-Anaga Comarca de Santander Besaya Saja-Nansa Costa occidental Costa oriental Trasmiera Pas-Miera Asón-Agüera Liébana Campoo-Los Valles Alt Penedès Anoia Bages Baix Llobregat Barcelonès Berguedà Garraf Maresme Moianès Osona Vallès Occidental Vallès Oriental Alt Empordà Baix Empordà Baixa Cerdanya Garrotxa Gironès Osona Pla de l'Estany Ripollès Selva Alt Urgell Alta Ribagorça Baixa Cerdanya Garrigues Noguera Pallars Jussà Pallars Sobirà Pla d'Urgell Segarra Segrià Solsonès Urgell Val d'Aran Alt Camp Baix Camp Baix Ebre Baix Penedès Conca de Barberà Montsià Priorat Ribera d'Ebre Tarragonès Terra Alta Llanos de Albacete Campos de Hellín La Mancha del Júcar-Centro La Manchuela Monte Ibérico–Corredor de Almansa Sierra de Alcaraz y Campo de Montiel Sierra del Segura Campo de Montiel.
Alcarria conquense. La Mancha de Cuenca. Manchuela conquense. Serranía Alta. Serranía Baja. Serranía Media-Campichuelo. Campiña de Guadalajara Campiña del Henares La Alcarria La Serranía Señorío de Molina-Alto Tajo Campo de San Juan La Jara La Campana de Oropesa Mancha Alta de Toledo Mesa de Ocaña Montes de Toledo La Sagra Sierra de San Vicente Tierras de Talavera Torrijos La Moraña Comarca de Ávila Comarca de El Barco de Ávila - Piedrahíta Comarca de Burgohondo - El Tiemblo - Cebreros Comarca de Arenas de San Pedro Merindades Páramos La Bureba Ebro Odra-Pisuerga Alfoz de Burgos Montes de Oca Arlanza Sierra de la Demanda Ribera del Duero La Montaña de Luna La Montaña de Riaño La Cabrera Astorga El Bierzo Tierras de León La Bañeza El Páramo Esla-Campos Sahagún Cerrato Palentino Montaña Palentina Páramos Valles Tierra de Campos Comarca de Vitigudino Comarca de Ciudad Rodrigo La Armuña Las Villas Tierra de Peñaranda Tierra de Cantalapiedra Tierra de Ledesma Comarca de Guijuelo Tierra de Alba Sierra de Béjar Sierra de Francia Campo de Salamanca An official classification establishes three comarcas: Segovia.
Cuéllar. Sepúlveda.or sometimes four: Tierra de Pinares. Segovia. Sepúlveda. Tierra de Ayllón. However, historic approaches establish six comarcas: Tierra de Pinares. Tierra de Ayllón. Tierras de Cantalejo y