Llandaff is a district and coterminous electoral ward in the north of Cardiff, capital of Wales. It was incorporated into the city in 1922, it is the seat of the Bishop of Llandaff, whose diocese within the Church in Wales covers the most populous area of South Wales. Most of the history of Llandaff centres on its role as a religious site. Before the creation of Llandaff Cathedral, it became established as a Christian place of worship in the 6th century AD because of its location as the first firm ground north of the point where the river Taff met the Bristol Channel, because of its pre-Christian location as a river crossing on a north-south trade route. Evidence of Romano-British ritual burials have been found under the present cathedral; the date of the moving of the cathedral to Llandaff is disputed, but elements of the fabric date from the 12th century, such as the impressive Romanesque Urban Arch, named after the 12th century Bishop, Urban. It has had a history of continual destruction and restoration, as a result of warfare and natural disaster.
Llandaff has been a focal point of devastating attacks by Oliver Cromwell. It was the second most damaged cathedral in the UK, following Luftwaffe bombing during World War II, subsequently restored by the architect George Pace. One of its main modern points of interest is the aluminium figure of Christ in Majesty, by Jacob Epstein, suspended above the nave. In 2007, a lightning strike to its spire sent a surge through the building, its replacement, the largest to be built in the UK for over 40 years, was inaugurated in 2010. A bishop's palace, now in ruins, lies to the south of the cathedral, it is believed it was constructed at a similar date in the late 13th century. It is believed it was abandoned after being attacked and damaged by Glyndŵr in the 15th century; the gatehouse of the Palace survives, the courtyard is now a public garden. Llandaff never developed into a chartered borough, by the 19th century, was described as "reduced to a mere village... It consists of little more than two short streets of cottages, not lighted or paved, terminating in a square, into which the great gateway of the old palace opened, where are still several genteel houses."
Llandaff was informally known as a'city', because of its status as the seat of the Bishop of Llandaff. This city status was never recognised because the community did not possess a charter of incorporation; the ancient parish of Llandaff included a wide area. Apart from Llandaff itself, it included the townships of Canton, Ely and Gabalfa. During the development of the South Wales coalfield and Cardiff Docks, the parish was absorbed into the Borough of Cardiff during the 19th and 20th centuries. Seen as a clean and green up-market countrified village location close to the fast developing city, many of the better-off coal merchants and business people chose to live in Llandaff, including the Insole family; the house now known as Insole Court dates from 1856. Llandaff itself became a civil parish, from 1894 to 1922, was part of the Llandaff and Dinas Powis Rural District. On 9 November 1922, the county borough of Cardiff was extended to include the area. At the United Kingdom Census 2011, the population of the Llandaff was 8,997.
91.6% were recorded as being of various white ethnicities. 65% of the population were returned as Christian, with about 1.5% each being Hindu or Muslim, 30% having no religion or no stated religion. In the 2011 census, 15.3% of the population over 3 years old in Llandaff were recorded as speaking Welsh, or 1,337 people. This was a small drop compared to the 2001 census figure, 15.4%. The headquarters of BBC Cymru Wales is in Llandaff. Research by Owen John Thomas shows the historical strength of the Welsh language in Llandaff. According to his book:'Yr Iaith Gymraeg yng Nghaerdydd c. 1800–1914’, the nonconformist church in Cardiff Road was a Welsh-language church in 1813. His work shows that Welsh was the main language of the street in Llandaff in the 17th century. Llandaff is both an electoral ward, a community of the City of Cardiff. There is no community council for the area; the electoral ward of Llandaff is bounded by Morganstown to the north west. The ward is represented by two councillors on Cardiff Council, Sean Driscoll and Philippa Hill-John, both members of the Conservative Party.
In the UK Parliament, Llandaff is part of the constituency of Cardiff West. Its most prominent MPs were former Speaker of the House of Commons; the current MP is Labour's Kevin Brennan, elected in 2001. In the Welsh Assembly, Llandaff is part of the constituency of Cardiff West, whose current AM since 2011 is Mark Drakeford of Labour; the constituency falls within the electoral region of South Wales Central, whose four current AMs are Conservatives Andrew R. T. Davies and David Melding. Cardiff Metropolitan University, Llandaff campus St. Michael's College, Anglican theological college Bishop of Llandaff Church in Wales High School, English medium. Ysgol Gyfun Gymraeg Glantaf, Welsh medium. Danescourt Primary School, English medium. Ll
Heath is a district and coterminous electoral ward in the north of Cardiff, capital of Wales. The population of the ward taken at the 2011 census was 12,629. Heath was called the Great Heath and named as a result of the large park and woodland that it once contained. After the initial development of traditionally middle-classed semi-detached housing and more the construction of the University Hospital of Wales on the site of the former Heath Wood, much of the greenery has been eradicated, it should be distinguished from the Little Heath which lies to the south of the Great Heath, in the vicinity of Crwys Road. The 37 hectare Heath Park woodland, it includes attractions and facilities such as the George V Playing Fields, tennis courts, a miniature steam railway and refreshment facilities. Birchgrove is a busy shopping area, part of the ward of Heath, it is composed of more affordably priced housing terraced, has taken on an identity of its own. The area around the University Hospital of Wales has been known as Saints Corner, due to the number of streets in the area named after well known saints.
The number of Heath residents over three years old who speak Welsh increased from 1,378 in the 2001 UK Census to 1,422 in the 2011 UK Census. In percentage terms there was a slight decrease; this was caused by a reduction in the number of speakers over the age of 65. The area is served by two railway stations. Heath Low Level is on the Coryton Line, linking Coryton stations. Heath High Level is on the Rhymney Line, linking Central and Rhymney stations via Llanishen, Lisvane Thornhill and Caerphilly. Cardiff Bus's routes 38 and 39 terminate at the University Hospital of Wales, originating from the City Centre; the 8 now operates between the City Centre and Grangetown, while the 9/9A operates from the City Centre to IKEA and Cardiff Bay, including the Sports Village. The 86 service runs to Lisvane via Heath; the following services run through west of Heath: 1/2 21 23 24 25 27 Capital City Green 35 Westminster: As part of Cardiff North, Heath has been represented at Westminster since 2017 by Anna McMorrin MP Welsh Assembly: As part of Cardiff North, Heath has been represented in the Welsh Assembly since 2011 by Julie Morgan, AM The electoral ward of Heath falls within the parliamentary constituency of Cardiff North.
It is bounded by Llanishen to the north. Cardiff Council: Since May 2017 Heath is represented on Cardiff Council by three councillors, Lyn Hudson, Graham Hinchey and Fenella Bowden. Cllr Bowden had been a member of the Liberal Democrats but left, to sit as an Independent councillor, in November 2010. In the past it has been represented by a variety of political groups, moving from Labour in the 1990s, to all Liberal Democrat in May 2004 and, after the May 2008 election, a Conservative majority
Listed buildings in Cardiff
There are around 1000 listed buildings in Cardiff, the capital city of Wales. A listed building is one considered to be of special architectural, historical or cultural significance, protected from being demolished, extended or altered, unless special permission is granted by the relevant planning authorities; the Welsh Government makes decisions on individual cases, taking advice from the heritage agency Cadw, the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales and local councils. There is an interactive map showing the locations of these buildings available to view on the council website; because of the way in which buildings are listed and the large number of listed buildings within the city, they have been subdivided into Grade I, II* and II buildings, with the Grade II buildings being further split up by area. Architecture of Cardiff List of Scheduled Monuments in Cardiff Listed buildings in Wales Cardiff, BritishListedBuildings.co.uk Hilling, John B.. Cardiff and the Valleys: Architecture and Townscape.
London: Lund Humphries. Newman, John. Glamorgan; the Buildings of Wales. London: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-071056-6. Media related to Listed buildings in Cardiff at Wikimedia Commons Listed and Locally Listed Buildings, Cardiff Council
An electoral district, election district, or legislative district, called a voting district by the US Census is a territorial subdivision for electing members to a legislative body. Only voters who reside within the district are permitted to vote in an election held there. From a single district, a single member or multiple members might be chosen. Members might be chosen by a first-past-the-post system or a proportional representative system, or another voting method entirely. Members might be chosen through a direct election under universal suffrage, an indirect election, or another form of suffrage; the names for electoral districts vary across countries and for the office being elected. The term constituency is used to refer to an electoral district in British English, but it can refer to the body of eligible voters or all the residents of the represented area or only those who voted for a certain candidate; the terms precinct and election district are more common in American English. In Australia and New Zealand, electoral districts are called electorates, however elsewhere the term electorate refers to the body of voters.
In India electoral districts are referred to as "Nirvachan Kshetra" in Hindi, which can be translated to English as "electoral area" though the official English translation for the term is "constituency". The term "Nirvachan Kshetra" is used while referring to an electoral district in general irrespective of the legislature; when referring to a particular legislatorial constituency, it is referred to as "Kshetra" along with the name of the legislature, in Hindi. Electoral districts for municipal or other local bodies are called "wards". In Canada, districts are colloquially called ridings. Local electoral districts are sometimes called wards, a term which designates administrative subdivisions of a municipality. In local government in the Republic of Ireland voting districts are called "electoral areas". District magnitude is the number of representatives elected from a given district to the same legislative body. A single-member district has one representative. Voting systems that seek proportional representation inherently require multi-member districts, the larger the district magnitude the more proportional a system will tend to be Non-proportional systems may use multi-member districts, as in the House of Commons until 1950, Singapore's Group Representation Constituency, or the New Hampshire House of Representatives.
Under proportional representation systems, district magnitude is an important determinant of the makeup of the elected body. With a larger number of winners, candidates are able to represent proportionately smaller minorities; the geographic distribution of minorities affects their representation - an unpopular nationwide minority can still secure a seat if they are concentrated in a particular district. District magnitude can sometimes vary within the same system during an election. In the Republic of Ireland, for instance, national elections to Dáil Éireann are held using a combination of 3, 4, 5 member districts. In Hong Kong, the magnitude ranged from 3 to 5 in 1998, when the current electoral system was introduced for Legislative Council geographical constituency elections, will range from 5 to 9 in the forthcoming election in September 2012; the only democracies with one single nationwide electoral district and no other territorial correctors are Fiji, The Netherlands, Mozambique, South Africa and Serbia.
Main articles: Apportionment and RedistrictingApportionment is the process of allocating a number of representatives to different regions, such as states or provinces. Apportionment changes are accompanied by redistricting, the redrawing of electoral district boundaries to accommodate the new number of representatives; this redrawing is necessary under single-member district systems, as each new representative requires their own district. Multi-member systems, vary depending on other rules. Ireland, for example, redraws its electoral districts after every census while Belgium uses its existing administrative boundaries for electoral districts and instead modifies the number of representatives allotted to each. Israel and the Netherlands avoid the need for apportionment by electing legislators at-large. Apportionment is done on the basis of population. Seats in the United States House of Representatives, for instance, are reapportioned to individual states every 10 years following a census, with some states that have grown in population gaining seats.
By contrast, seats in the Cantonal Council of Zürich are reapportioned in every election based on the number of votes cast in each district, only made possible by use of multi-member districts, the House of Peoples of Bosnia and Herzegovina, by contrast, is apportioned without regard to population. Malapportionment occurs when voters are under- or over-represented due to variation in district population. Given the complexity of this process, softwa
Radyr railway station
Radyr railway station is a railway station serving the Radyr area of Cardiff, South Wales. It is at the foot of the hill at the eastern edge of the village, alongside the River Taff and adjacent to the Taff Trail; the station is on the Merthyr Line, is the northern terminus of the City Line. Radyr was a major railway junction and the location of sidings forming a marshalling yard for freight trains used in the industries in the Glamorgan valleys, it was first opened by the Taff Vale Railway in June 1863, was named Penarth Junction. At one time there were four running lines through the station, up and down passenger and up and down goods on the Taff Vale main line to the valleys northwards and via Llandaff to Cardiff and the docks to the south east. South of the station, the Cardiff City line diverged southwards and reached the east side of Cardiff via Waterhall Junction, en route to the harbour at Penarth; the marshalling yard was south of the station in the fork between the running lines. Following the down-turn in coal traffic.
The platforms were rationalised, from five to two, one up and one down. In 1987 passenger services were introduced on the City Line by British Rail; this made Radyr a bottleneck, as the terminating trains coming from that line occupied the down platform and delays along the line to the Valleys were inevitable. It allowed diversions for through trains, beneficial. Redesigned as a commuter station in 1998, major renovations took place, resulting in the two freight lines being replaced by a third platform, eliminating the problem of congestion. A new ticket office was built and modern shelters replaced the old waiting area; these renovations coincided with the upgrades along the Taff Main Line, where the most of the track was replaced between Cardiff and Pontypridd, the old-fashioned semaphore signals were replaced with modern, colour light signals worked from a new panel box here. These renovation allowed the last of the old sidings to be removed, redeveloped for parking and as a housing developments.
Today the station, operated by Transport for Wales, has three platforms. Radyr has six northbound services per hour, with a half hourly service to each of Treherbert and Merthyr Tydfil. There are eight southbound services per hour to Cardiff Central, two heading along the City Line that continue to Coryton and six going via Cathays, with two terminating at Cardiff Central, four continuing every 15 minutes to Barry, three terminating at Barry Island and one terminating at Bridgend. Platform 1 is used by services to Cathays, platform 2 is used for those to Pontypridd and platform 3 for City Line services. Extensive upgrading and modernisation works were completed in late 2017 by Network Rail as part of the Metro project which included improved access to all platforms by a new footbridge. A larger car park has been provided to supplement the original which provides Much better facilities including good lighting. Wheelchair access is now provided to all platforms via lifts; the ticket office is manned in peak morning hours.
Travel time into Cardiff Central is 15 minutes on all lines. In July 2007, members of the Radyr Comprehensive Green Flag Committee formally adopted the station and now check that the station is clean and that all amenities are working; this link ties in with a community response to ensure. In Monday-Saturday daytimes, there are eight trains an hour from Cardiff Central to destinations including Pontypridd, Merthyr Tydfil and Aberdare. There are eight trains an hour to Cardiff Central with some trains continuing beyond Cardiff to Barry Island and Coryton. A reduced service operates with no trains on the City line. List of railway stations in Cardiff Train times and station information for Radyr railway station from National Rail
Architecture of Cardiff
Architecture in Cardiff, the capital city of Wales, dates from Norman times to the present day. Its urban fabric is Victorian and reflecting Cardiff's rise to prosperity as a major coal port in the 19th century. No single building style is associated with Cardiff, but the city centre retains several 19th and early 20th century shopping arcades; the city is noted for its fantasy castles, Cardiff Castle and Castell Coch, both by the Victorian architect William Burges. The well-preserved early 20th century Civic Centre, surrounding Cathays Park, was described as one of the best examples of civic planning in Britain; the city contains a number of engineering projects. These include the Millennium Stadium in the city centre and several examples in the major urban regeneration project of Cardiff Bay, for example the Wales Millennium Centre and the Senedd; the western suburb of St Fagans contains an open-air museum of Welsh vernacular architecture, the St Fagans National History Museum. The common building materials of Cardiff's Victorian and Edwardian buildings are Bath stone, blue Pennant stone and red brick – except in Cathays Park, where Portland stone predominates.
Grey Lias stone features in the construction of the city's medieval buildings, but is absent from buildings. Two recent buildings in Cardiff Bay, the Senedd and the Wales Millennium Centre, make conspicuous use of Welsh slate together with glass and steel; the most noted individual building in the city is Cardiff Castle, a fortress of Roman foundation with a ruined 12th-century medieval keep and exterior walls. After Cardiff Castle, the oldest remaining building in the city centre is St John's Parish Church, which dates from the 12th century but was totally reconstructed during the 15th century, it has tower. The medieval town walls were removed as the town developed and nowadays only two small sections remain; the modernised Womanby Street is one of the few remaining original medieval streets, that lead from the town's original quay to the castle. Two monastic buildings existed in Cardiff and Blackfriars, established in the late 13th century. Greyfriars was converted into a family mansion but was demolished to make way for a carpark and office block during the 20th-century.
The foundations of Blackfriars can still be seen in Bute Park. Llandaff Cathedral was built on the site of a pre-Norman building, it was extended in the 13th and 15th centuries. Nearby are the ruins of the Bishop's Palace, destroyed by the forces of Owain Glyndŵr in 1400. With the arrival of the railways and a expanding coal export industry, Cardiff changed beyond recognition during the mid nineteenth century, it became the largest town in Wales in 1875. From the 1840s new residential streets were built in Temperance Town. Much of the land on which Cardiff was built was owned by 2nd Marquess of Bute. Much of Cardiff and many of its buildings were designed by Alexander Roos. New churches and chapels were created, including a new Romanesque St Mary's Church on Bute Street. Noted local architect John Prichard designed St Margaret's Church, Roath and St John's Church, Canton refurbishing Llandaff Cathedral; the Tabernacl chapel in The Hayes is described as the "finest classical chapel of the period".
Important architects from outside Wales arrived, designing St David's Roman Catholic church in Charles Street, amongst others. In 1853 a new "graceless but vigorous" colonnaded Town Hall and Corn Exchange replaced the old Guildhall in High Street. Horace Jones of London had been the winners of the design competition, because the cost limit was £8,000, while Jones scheme was estimated at £11,690; the building was extended in 1876 but was replaced in the early 20th century. New shops, bank buildings and hotels appeared, including the Royal Hotel, Great Western Hotel and Park Hotel. Cardiff's "fascinating and delightful" Victorian shopping arcades were built: High Street Arcade, Wyndham Arcade, Castle Arcade and Morgan Arcade. Important new public buildings were created, including the Central Library, Cardiff Royal Infirmary, St David's Hospital, the Theatre Royal, Grand Theatre and the University College of South Wales. Impressive new buildings were constructed in Butetown to serve the dockland economy.
These included the Coal Exchange in Mount Stuart Square and the imposing French-Gothic Pierhead Building at the docks entrance. Cardiff Castle was restored and redesigned between 1868 and 1890; the private apartments of the third Marquis of Bute in Cardiff Castle, commissioned from the architect William Burges, are an acknowledged masterpiece of the Victorian Gothic Revival. Burges's other buildings in Cardiff are Castell Coch, a 13th-century castle rebuilt as a residence for Bute, Park House which influenced domestic architecture in Cardiff and was a prototype for Burges's own house in London, The Tower House; the civic centre at Cathays Park, whose earliest building dates from 1901, is a notable example in the United Kingdom of city planning on Beaux-Arts principles. In the 1941 Cardiff Blitz, Llandaff Cathedral sustained a direct hit, it was restored by George Pace, who added a concrete parabolic arch in the nave to support a new sculpture by Jacob Epstein, Majestas. The Festival-style Empire Pool was built in the Cardiff Arms Park for the 1958 Empi
Llandaff Cathedral is an Anglican cathedral and parish church in Llandaff, Wales. It is the seat of the Bishop of head of the Church in Wales Diocese of Llandaff, it is dedicated to Saint Peter and Saint Paul, three Welsh saints: Dubricius and Oudoceus. It is one of two cathedrals in Cardiff, the other being the Roman Catholic Cardiff Cathedral in the city centre; the current building was constructed in the 12th century over the site of an earlier church. Severe damage was done to the church in 1400 during the rebellion of Owain Glyndŵr, during the English Civil War when it was overrun by Parliamentarian troops, during the Great Storm of 1703. By 1717, the damage to the cathedral was so extensive that the church considered removal of the see. Following further storms in the early 1720s, construction of a new cathedral began in 1734, designed by John Wood, the Elder. During the Cardiff Blitz of the Second World War in January 1941, the cathedral was damaged when a parachute mine was dropped; the stonework which remains from the medieval period is Somerset Dundry stone, though local blue lias constitutes most of the stonework done in the post-Reformation period.
The work done on the church since World War II is concrete and Pennant sandstone, the roofs, of Welsh slate and lead, were added during the post-war rebuilding. In February 2007, the organ was damaged during a severe lightning strike, prompting a fundraiser of £1.5 million to raise money for an new organ. For many years, the cathedral had the traditional Anglican choir of boys and men, more a girls' choir, with the only dedicated choir school in the Church in Wales, the Cathedral School, Llandaff; the cathedral contains a number of notable tombs, including Dubricius, a 6th-century Briton Saint who evangelised Ergyng and much of South-East Wales, Meurig ap Tewdrig, King of Gwent, Teilo, a 6th-century Welsh clergyman, church founder and Saint, many Bishops of Llandaff, from the 7th century Oudoceus to the 19th century Alfred Ollivant, bishop from 1849 to 1882. Llandaff Cathedral was built on the site of an existing church. According to tradition, the community was established by Saint Dubricius at a ford on the River Taff and the first church was founded by Dubricius' successor, Saint Teilo.
These two are regarded as the cathedral's patron saints, along with their successor Oudoceus. The original church is no longer extant, but a standing Celtic cross testifies to the presence of Christian worship at the site in pre-Norman times; the Normans occupied Glamorgan early in the Norman conquest, appointing Urban their first bishop in 1107. He began construction of the cathedral in 1120 and had the remains of Saint Dyfrig transferred from Bardsey. After the death of Urban, it is believed the work was completed some time in the last years of Bishop Nicholas ap Gwrgant, who died in 1183; the cathedral was dedicated to St Paul, St Dubricius, St Teilo and St Oudoceus. Bishop Henry de Abergavenny organised the Llandaff Cathedral chapter circa 1214, he appointed eight priests, four deacons and two sub-deacons. De Abergavenny made changes to Llandaff's episcopal seal, giving more detail to the figure of the bishop depicted on it and adding the phrase "by the grace of God" to its inscription; the west front contains a statue of St Teilo.
By 1266, the structure that Urban began had been altered. The Lady Chapel was built by William de Braose, bishop from 1266 to 1287, it was built at the rear of the church constructed by Urban and the old choir area was removed in order to build the chapel. From this time on, it seemed as if the cathedral was in a constant state of repair or alterations at a slow pace. After the Lady Chapel had been completed, the two bays of the north choir aisle were rebuilt. Severe damage was done to the church in 1400 during the rebellion of Owain Glyndŵr; the damage was extensive enough to cause Bishop Blethyn to notify his fellow clergymen in 1575 that he believed the cathedral to be damaged beyond repair. Most of the other damage was repaired, most notably by Bishop Marshall, whose reredos survives; the northwest tower, the one without a spire, is now named after him. He assumed the lordship of Cardiff after the accession to the throne of his nephew, King Henry VII of England. Late medieval tombs include that of Sir David Mathew of Llandaff.
Sir David ap Mathew was appointed "Grand Standard Bearer of England", by King Edward IV, for saving his life at the Battle of Towton 1461 as part of the War of the Roses. During the English Civil War, the cathedral was overrun by Parliamentarian troops. Along with other destruction, the troops seized the books of the cathedral library, taking them to Cardiff Castle, where they were burned along with many copies of the Book of Common Prayer. Among those invited to the castle to warm themselves by the fire on that cold winter day, were the wives of some sequestered clergymen. During this time of unrest, a man named Milles, who claimed to be a practising Puritan, appropriated portions of the cathedral for his own gain. Milles set up a tavern in the cathedral, used part of it as a stable, turned the choir area into a pen for his calves and used the font as a trough for his pigs; the southwest tower suffered major damage in the Great Storm of 1703 and by 1720, was in a state of collapse. The damage to the cathedral was so extensive that the church considered removal of the see to Cardiff in 1717.
Between 1720 and 17