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Llywelyn ap Gruffudd

Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, sometimes written as Llywelyn ap Gruffudd known as Llywelyn the Last or Llywelyn Yr Ail, was Prince of Wales from 1258 until his death at Cilmeri in 1282. The son of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn Fawr and grandson of Llywelyn the Great, he was the last sovereign prince of Wales before its conquest by Edward I of England. Llywelyn was the second of the four sons of Gruffydd, the eldest son of Llywelyn the Great, Senana ferch Caradog, the daughter of Caradoc ap Thomas ap Rhodri, Lord of Anglesey; the eldest was Owain Goch ap Gruffydd and Llywelyn had two younger brothers, Dafydd ap Gruffydd and Rhodri ap Gruffydd. Llywelyn is thought to have been born around 1222 or 1223, he is first heard of holding lands in the Vale of Clwyd around 1244. Following his grandfather's death in 1240, Llywelyn's uncle, Dafydd ap Llywelyn, succeeded him as ruler of Gwynedd. Llywelyn's father and his brother, were kept prisoner by Dafydd transferred into the custody of King Henry III of England. Gruffydd died in 1244, from a fall while trying to escape from his cell at the top of the Tower of London.

The window from which he attempted to escape the Tower was bricked up and can still be seen to this day. This freed Dafydd ap Llywelyn's hand as King Henry could no longer use Gruffydd against him, war broke out between him and King Henry in 1245. Llywelyn supported his uncle in the savage fighting. Owain, was freed by Henry after his father's death in the hope that he would start a civil war in Gwynedd, but stayed in Chester, so when Dafydd died in February 1246 without leaving an heir, Llywelyn had the advantage of being on the spot. Llywelyn and Owain came to terms with King Henry and in 1247, signed the Treaty of Woodstock at Woodstock Palace; the terms they were forced to accept restricted them to Gwynedd Uwch Conwy, the part of Gwynedd west of the River Conwy, divided between them. Gwynedd Is Conwy, east of the river, was taken over by King Henry; when Dafydd ap Gruffydd came of age, King Henry accepted his homage and announced his intention to give him part of the reduced Gwynedd. Llywelyn refused to accept this, Owain and Dafydd formed an alliance against him.

This led to the Battle of Bryn Derwin in June 1255. Llywelyn defeated Owain and Dafydd and captured them, thereby becoming sole ruler of Gwynedd Uwch Conwy. Llywelyn now looked to expand his area of control; the population of Gwynedd Is Conwy resented English rule. This area known as "Perfeddwlad" had been given by King Henry to his son Edward and during the summer of 1256, he visited the area, but failed to deal with grievances against the rule of his officers. An appeal was made to Llywelyn, that November, crossed the River Conwy with an army, accompanied by his brother, whom he had released from prison. By early December, Llywelyn controlled all of Gwynedd Is Conwy apart from the royal castles at Dyserth and Dnoredudd as a reward for his support and dispossessing his brother-in-law, Rhys Fychan, who supported the king. An English army led by Stephen Bauzan invaded to try to restore Rhys Fychan but was decisively defeated by Welsh forces at the Battle of Cadfan in June 1257, with Rhys having slipped away to make his peace with Llywelyn.

Rhys Fychan now accepted Llywelyn as overlord, but this caused problems for Llywelyn, as Rhys's lands had been given to Maredudd. Llywelyn restored his lands to Rhys, but the king's envoys approached Maredudd and offered him Rhys's lands if he would change sides. Maredudd paid homage to Henry in late 1257. By early 1258, Llywelyn was using the title Prince of Wales, first used in an agreement between Llywelyn and his supporters and the Scottish nobility associated with the Comyn family; the English Crown refused to recognise this title however, in 1263, Llywelyn's brother, went over to King Henry. On 12 December 1263 in the commote of Ystumanner, Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn did homage and swore fealty to Llywelyn. In return he was made a vassal lord and the lands taken from him by Llywelyn about six years earlier were restored to him. In England, Simon de Montfort defeated the king's supporters at the Battle of Lewes in 1264, capturing the king and Prince Edward. Llywelyn began negotiations with de Montfort, in 1265, offered him 30,000 marks in exchange for a permanent peace, in which Llywelyn's right to rule Wales would be acknowledged.

The Treaty of Pipton, 22 June 1265, established an alliance between Llywelyn and de Montfort, but the favourable terms given to Llywelyn in this treaty were an indication of de Montfort's weakening position. De Montfort was to die at the Battle of Evesham in a battle in which Llywelyn took no part. After Simon de Montfort's death, Llywelyn launched a campaign in order to gain a bargaining position before King Henry had recovered. In 1265, Llywelyn captured Hawarden Castle and routed the combined armies of Hamo Lestrange and Maurice fitz Gerald in north Wales. Llywelyn moved on to Brycheiniog, in 1266, he routed Roger Mortimer's army. With these victories and the backing of the papal legate, Llywelyn opened negotiations with the king, was recognised as Prince of Wales by King Henry in the Treaty of Montgomery in 1267. In return for the title, the retention of the lands he had conquered and the homage of all the native rulers of Wales, he was to pay a tribute of 25,000 marks in yearly installments of 3,000 marks, could if he wished, purchase the homage of the one outstandi

1898 Ontario general election

The 1898 Ontario general election was the ninth general election held in the Province of Ontario, Canada. It was held on March 1898, to elect the 94 Members of the 9th Legislative Assembly of Ontario; the Ontario Liberal Party, led by Arthur S. Hardy, won an eighth term in office with a clear majority – the Patrons of Industry and the Protestant Protective Association held no sway in this legislature; the Ontario Conservative Party, led by Sir James P. Whitney, formed the official opposition. Note: * Party did not nominate candidates in the previous election. Politics of Ontario List of Ontario political parties Premier of Ontario Leader of the Opposition

Cheryl Cole's Night In

Cheryl Cole's Night In was a one-off television special, starring English recording artist Cheryl Cole, produced for ITV, that aired on 12 December 2009 at 6:30 pm. The programme was hosted by Holly Willoughby, featured a host of other performers and acted as a lead-in to the final of the sixth series of The X Factor, in which Cole is a judge. Cole performed songs from her debut solo album, 3 Words, the programme featured performances from other musical acts as well as interviews conducted by Willoughby; the programme was watched by 5 million people. Tabloid newspaper The Sun published a report on 21 November 2009 claiming that Cole would receive £100,000 for appearing in a programme entitled Cheryl Cole's Night In; the programme was recorded through the week beginning 7 December at the BBC Television Centre and images of Cole performing the song "Fight for This Love", whilst dressed as a ninja, were released. Cole debuted a song from her album, 3 Words, titled "Parachute", where she danced with Derek Hough, a professional champion of Dancing with the Stars.

Anna Pickard of The Guardian described the programme as "an hour of commissioning genius", despite Stuart Heritage of the same publication arguing that "just the title is enough to put you off". In a separate article, Heritage voiced his belief that the programme saw Cole "discussing her life in the blandest possible terms while wearing a variety of impractical dresses". Rick Fulton of the Daily Record was complimentary of the programme as he compared the dance routine that accompanied "Parachute" to a routine from the programme Strictly Come Dancing. Alexandra Burke, who featured in the programme, praised Cole by complimenting her hairstyle and by stating that her performance had "gone up another level". Sian Brewis of the Leicester Mercury was critical of the programme. Rachel Holmes, writing in The Guardian, was critical of Cole’s choice of attire and argued that the programme was uninformative. Holmes claimed that viewers "were suffering from Chezza overload" due to her appearances on The X Factor the same weekend.

The programme attracted 5 million viewers, a 22% share of the viewing audience, on its first airing. However, an episode of Merlin and an installment of the seventh series of Strictly Come Dancing, which aired at the same time on BBC One, attracted 5.2 million and 8.1 million respectively

Julian Holland (boxer)

Julian "Fighting Farrier" Holland is an Australian professional welter/light middleweight boxer of the 1990s and 2000s who won the Queensland State welterweight title, Pan Pacific welterweight title, Australian welterweight title, Oceanic Boxing Association welterweight title, Australasian welterweight title, Pan Pacific light middleweight title, World Boxing Organization Asia Pacific welterweight title, Commonwealth light welterweight title, his professional fighting weight varied from 143 lb, i.e. welterweight to 154 lb, i.e. light middleweight. Template:Empty sdection Professional boxing record for Julian Holland from BoxRec Image - Julian Holland

Uzbek women's football championship

The Uzbek women's national football championship is top division of women's football in Uzbekistan. The league is organized by the Uzbekistan Football Federation. Before 1991, some Uzbek women's clubs had competed in the Soviet Union women's league system, but after the collapse of the Soviet Union most women's teams left for Russia or dissolved; the 2017 season was played by the following 11 teams: Almalyk Andizhanka Bunyodkor Buxoro FK Lokomotiv Mash'al Metallurg Neftchi Qizilkum Guli Sevinch Sho'rtan The league features 10 teams that play a double round-robin to decide the champion. The season is held on several matchweeks, within one matchweek which lasts five days each team plays one game per day in the matchweek's city; the champions so far are: 1996 Andijanka Andijon 1997 Andijanka Andijon 1998 Andijanka Andijon 1999 Andijanka Andijon 2000 Andijanka Andijon 2001 Andijanka Andijon 2002 Andijanka Andijon 2003 Andijanka Andijon 2004 Sevinch Qarshi 2005 Andijanka Andijon 2006 Sevinch Qarshi 2007 Sevinch Qarshi 2008 Sevinch Qarshi 2009 Sevinch Qarshi 2010 Sevinch Qarshi 2011 Sevinch Qarshi 2012 Sevinch Qarshi 2013 Sevinch Qarshi 2014 Sevinch Qarshi 2015 Sevinch Qarshi 2016 Sevinch Qarshi 2017 Metallurg Bekobod 2018 Bunyodkor Tashkent Official website of the UFF 2017 standings at Sevinch website

Berry Mountain

Berry Mountain, east peak 2,203 feet and west peak 2,188 feet, is a prominent mountain in the Taconic Mountains of western Massachusetts. The mountain is located in Pittsfield State Forest; the west peak is traversed by the 35 mi Taconic Crest hiking trail and the east peak is traversed by the 12.1 mi multi-use Taconic Skyline Trail. The summits are wooded with northern hardwood forest species, but support a 65-acre field of wild azaleas. A microwave tower stands on the east peak. A park loop automobile road and a campground, maintained for summer use, are located just to the north of the summits. Berry Pond, 2,150 feet, presumed the highest natural pond in the state of Massachusetts, is located on the ridge between Berry Mountain and Berry Hill to the north; the west side and summits of Berry Mountain are located within Massachusetts. The ridgeline continues south from Berry Mountain as Tower Mountain. Berry Mountain is bordered by West Hill to the west across the Wyomanock Creek valley; the west side of the mountain drains into Berry Pond Creek Wyomanock Creek, thence into Kinderhook Creek, the Hudson River and Long Island Sound.

The east side drains into Lulu Creek and Parker Brook, thence into Onota Lake, the Housatonic River, Long Island Sound. Massachusetts Trail Guide. Boston: Appalachian Mountain Club. Commonwealth Connections proposal PDF download. Retrieved March 2, 2008. AMC Massachusetts and Rhode Island Trail Guide. Boston: Appalachian Mountain Club. "Greenways and Trails" Massachusetts DCR. Retrieved February 22, 2008. Pittsfield State Forest map Pittsfield State Forest. Massachusetts DCR