A Coruña is a city and municipality of Galicia, Spain. It is the second most populated city in the autonomous community and seventeenth overall in the country; the city is the provincial capital of the province of the same name, having served as political capital of the Kingdom of Galicia from the 16th to the 19th centuries, as a regional administrative centre between 1833 and 1982, before being replaced by Santiago de Compostela. A Coruña is a busy port located on a promontory in the Golfo Ártabro, a large gulf on the Atlantic Ocean, it provides a distribution point for agricultural goods from the region. In English, use of the Spanish or Galician forms now predominates. However, the traditional English form Corunna can persist in reference to the Battle of Corunna in the Peninsular War. Archaically, English-speakers knew the city as "The Groyne" from French La Corogne. In Spain, the only official form of the name is now the Galician one: "A Coruña". Nonetheless, use of the Spanish form, La Coruña, remains widespread, it is the traditional name in Spanish recommended by the Real Academia Española for texts in Spanish.
Certain groups of people have advocated elevating the reintegrationist spelling "Corunha" to official status, pointing to the provisions of the Spanish Constitution of 1978 and claiming that it is unconstitutional to stipulate use of the Real Academia Galega spelling, but they have not been successful as of 2018. There is no clear evidence as to, it seems to be from Crunia, of unknown meaning. At the time of Ferdinand II of León the name Crunia was documented for the first time; as usual in Galician-Portuguese, the cluster ni evolved into the sound, written n, nn or nh in old Galician orthography, nn in Spanish, nh in Portuguese and alternative Galician spelling. "A" is the Galician article equivalent to English the. One proposed etymology derives Crunia from the town in France. During its height the Cluniac religious movement became prominent in Europe. There is another town named Coruña in Burgos Province. Another possibility is that the name means "The Crown"; the Galician word for "crown" is coroa.
It is possible it came about through changes to the French La Couronne meaning "the Crown". It seems less that it traces back to the Galician clunia. A folk etymology incorrectly derives Tower of Hercules. A Coruña is located on a peninsula, its isthmus was at times formed only by a small strip of sand. Erosion and sea currents caused a progressive accumulation of sand, enlarging it to its present dimensions. A Coruña has five parishes or "parroquias": A Coruña Elviña Oza San Cristovo das Viñas Visma A Coruña has a warm-summer mediterranean climate in the Köppen climate classification moderated by the Atlantic Ocean. Autumn and winter are unsettled and unpredictable, with strong winds and abundant rainfall coming from Atlantic depressions, it is overcast; the ocean keeps temperatures mild, frost and snow are rare. Summers are sunny, with only occasional rainfall. Spring is cool and calm; the warmest month on record was subdued, being August 2003 with an average high temperature of 25 °C. Temperatures above 25 °C occur many days in the summer, while temperatures above 30 °C are infrequent.
A Coruña spread onto the mainland. The oldest part, known popularly in Galician as Cidade Vella, Cidade Alta or the Cidade, is built on an ancient Celtic castro, it was inhabited by the Brigantes and Artabrians, the Celtic tribes of the area. The Romans came to the region in the 2nd century BC, the colonisers made the most of the strategic position and soon the city became quite important in maritime trade. In 62 BC Julius Caesar came to the city in pursuit of the metal trade, establishing commerce with what are now France and Portugal; the town began growing during the 1st and 2nd centuries, but declined after the 4th century and with the incursions of the Normans, which forced the population to flee towards the interior of the Estuary of O Burgo. After the fall of the Roman Empire, A Coruña still had a commercial port connected to foreign countries, but contacts with the Mediterranean were replaced by a more Atlantic-oriented focus; the process of deurbanisation that followed the fall of the Roman Empire affected A Coruña.
Between the 7th and 8th centuries, the city was no more than a little village of labourers and sailors. The 11th-century Chronica iriense names Faro do Burgo as one of the dioceses that king Miro granted to the episcopate of Iria Flavia in the year 572: "Mirus Rex Sedi suae Hiriensi contulit Dioceses, scilicet Morratium, Bregantinos, Farum..."""The Muslim invasion of the Iberian peninsula left no archaeological evidence in the northwest, so it cannot be said whether or not the Muslim invaders reached the city. As Muslim rule in early 8th century Galicia consisted little more than a short-lived overlordship of th
Amanu, Timanu, or Karere, is an atoll in the Tuamotu archipelago. Amanu lies at right angles to neighbouring Hao Atoll, it is situated 900 km east of 15 km north of Hao. The atoll is 32 km long and 10 km wide, but only 15.55 km² of its land is above water, the rest forming the central lagoon. The surface area of Amanu's wide lagoon is 240 km². There are two navigable. Amanu has 195 inhabitants; the main village is Ikitake. The first recorded European who arrived at Amanu Atoll was Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernández de Quirós who navigated for Spain, on 12 February 1606, while sailing across the Pacific Ocean in search of Terra Australis. However, several 16th-century Spanish cannons were found on Amanu in 1929, indicating that an earlier Spanish expedition had visited Tuamotu; some historians notably Robert Adrian Langdon believe the cannons belonged to the caravel San Lesmes, split off from the Loaísa expedition which sailed the Pacific Ocean in 1526. It was visited by Spanish explorer Domingo de Boenechea in 1774, that charted them as Las Ánimas.
Russian explorer Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen visited Amanu in 1820 on ships Mirni. He named this atoll "Moller". Administratively Amanu forms a commune in French Polynesia which includes the atolls of Rekareka and Tauere; the Amanu commune is associated with the Hao commune. Oceandots Atoll list Classification of the French Polynesian atolls by Salvat
Portuguese India Armadas
The Portuguese India Armadas were the fleets of ships, organized by the crown of the Kingdom of Portugal and dispatched on an annual basis from Portugal to India, principally Goa. These armadas undertook the Carreira da Índia, following the sea route around the Cape of Good Hope first opened up by Vasco da Gama in 1497–1499. For a long time after its discovery by Vasco da Gama, the sea route to India via the Cape of Good Hope was dominated by the Portuguese India armada – the annual fleet dispatched from Portugal to India. Between 1497 and 1650, there were 1033 departures of ships at Lisbon for the Carreira da Índia; the India armada left Lisbon and each leg of the voyage took six months. The critical determinant of the timing was the monsoon winds of the Indian Ocean; the monsoon was a southwesterly wind in the summer and abruptly reversed itself and became a northeasterly in the winter. The ideal timing was to pass the Cape of Good Hope around June–July and get to the East African middle coast by August, just in time to catch the summer monsoon winds to India, arriving around early September.
The return trip from India would begin in January, taking the winter monsoon back to Lisbon along a similar route, arriving by the summer. Overall, the round trip took a little over a year; the critical step was ensuring the armada reached East Africa on time. Ships that failed to reach the equator latitude on the East African coast by late August would be stuck in Africa and have to wait until next Spring to undertake an Indian Ocean crossing, and they would have to wait in India until the Winter to begin their return. So any delay in East Africa during those critical few weeks of August could end up adding an entire extra year to a ship's journey; the circumnavigation of Madagascar opened an alternative route to get to India, which gave more flexibility in timing. The rule that emerged was that if an outbound armada doubled the Cape of Good Hope before mid-July it should follow the old "inner route" – that is, sail into the Mozambique Channel, up the East African coast until the equator latitude take the southwesterly monsoon across the ocean to India.
If, the armada doubled the Cape after mid-July it was obliged to sail the "outer route" – that is, strike out straight east from South Africa, go under the southern tip of Madagascar, turn up from there, taking a northerly path through the Mascarenes islands, across the open ocean to India. While the outer route did not have the support of African staging posts and important watering stops, it sidestepped sailing directly against the post-summer monsoon. Return fleets were a different story; the principal worry of the return fleets was the fast dangerous waters of the inner Mozambican channel, precarious for loaded and less maneuverable ships. In the initial decades, the return fleet set out from Cochin in December, although, pushed forward to January. January 20 was the critical date, after which all return fleets were obliged to follow the outer route, deemed calmer and safer for their precious cargo; that meant they missed the important watering stop on Mozambique island on the return leg and had to put in elsewhere such as Mossel Bay or St. Helena.
Between 1525 and 1579, all return fleets were ordered to follow the outer route. This rule was temporarily suspended between the 1590s. From 1615, a new rule was introduced whereby return fleets from Goa were allowed to use the inner route, but return fleets from Cochin still had to use the outer route. With the entry of Dutch and English competition in the 1590s, the start of the return legs were delayed until February and March, with the predictable upsurge in lost and weather-delayed ships. Arrival times in Portugal varied between mid-June and late August, it was customary for return fleets to send their fastest ship ahead to announce the results in Lisbon, before the rest of the fleet arrived that summer. Because of the timing, an armada had to leave Lisbon. To get news of the latest developments in India, the outgoing armada relied on notes and reports left along the way at various African staging posts by the returning fleet. Portuguese India armadas tended to follow the same outward route.
There were several staging posts along the route of India Run that were used. Setting out from Lisbon, India-bound naus took the easy Canary Current straight southwest to the Canary Islands; the islands were owned by Castile and so this was not a usual watering stop for the Portuguese India naus, except in emergencies. The first real obstacle on the route was the Cape Verde peninsula, around which the Canary Current ends and the equatorial drift begins. Although not difficult to double, it was a concentration point of sudden storms and tropical cyclones, so ships were damaged; the Cape Verde islands, to the west of Cape Verde peninsula was the usual first stop for India ships. Relative scarcity of water and supplies on the islands made this a suboptimal stop. Nonetheless, the islands served as a harbor against storms and was a pre-arranged point for the collection and repair of tempest-tossed ships; the Angra de Bezeguiche was a common watering stop for ships after doubling Cape Verde. The shores were controlled by Wolof and Serer kingdoms, whose relations
The Sangihe Islands – Indonesian: Kepulauan Sangihe – are a group of islands which constitute two regencies within the province of North Sulawesi, in northern Indonesia, the Sangihe Islands Regency and the Sitaro Islands Regency. They are located north-east of Sulawesi between the Celebes Sea and the Molucca Sea halfway between Sulawesi and Mindanao, in the Philippines; the islands combine to total 813 square kilometres, with many of the islands being volcanic with fertile soil and mountains. The main islands of the group are, north to south, Sangir Besar, Siau and Biaro; the largest island contains an active volcano, Mount Awu. Tahuna is the chief town and port hosting the islands' sole airport, Naha Airport; the area came under Dutch control in 1677, became part of Indonesia when it declared independence from the Netherlands in 1945. The Sangir language is spoken in the islands; the Sangihe tectonic plate is named after the island arc and is active. In 2007, the Sitaro Islands became a new regency by separation from the Sangihe Islands.
The population for these island groups was 189,676 at the 2010 Census, comprising 126,133 in the Sangihe Islands Regency and 63,543 in the Sitaro Islands Regency. In 2014, a first media, in form of newspaper is brought from several young people that have a clean integrity to build Sangihe Region. Marore Island is one of point of baselines of Indonesia in Sangihe Islands. 15 years ago there were illegal fishing bombing which made mangrove destructions. In 2012, coral recovery is found, but not yet for mangrove. List of extinct birds
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
The Tuamotus referred to in English as the Tuamotu Archipelago or the Tuamotu Islands, are a French Polynesian chain of 80 islands and atolls forming the largest chain of atolls in the world. This archipelago in the southern Pacific Ocean stretches from the northwest to the southeast over an area the size of Western Europe; the total area of land within this chain is 850 square kilometres, with its major islands being Anaa, Fakarava and Makemo. The Tuamotus have 16,000 inhabitants; the islands were settled by Polynesians, from them, modern Tuamotuans share a common culture and the Tuamotuan language. The Tuamotus are a French overseas collectivity; the people of Tahiti referred to the islands with the exonym of the Paumotus, which means the "Subservient Islands", until a delegation from the island convinced the French authorities to change it to Tuamotus, which means the "Distant Islands". French Polynesia is a semi-autonomous island group designated as an overseas country of France; the Tuamotus combine with the Gambier Islands to form the Îles Tuamotu-Gambier, one of the five administrative divisions of French Polynesia.
The Tuamotus are grouped into sixteen communes: Anaa. The communes on Tuamotu are part of two different electoral districts represented in the Assembly of French Polynesia; the Îles Gambier et Tuamotu Est electoral district comprises the commune of Gambier and eleven communes in eastern Tuamotu: Anaa. The other five communes in western Tuamotu – Arutua. At the 2007 census, the Tuamotus had a population of 18,317 inhabitants. Of these, 769 inhabitants live in a 215-nautical-mile radius around Mururoa and Fangataufa, the sites of former French nuclear tests; the common language spoken in the Tuamotus is Tuamotuan, except in Puka-Puka which uses the Marquesan language. The Gambier Islands use Mangarevan; the islands' economy is predominantly composed of subsistence agriculture. The most important sources of additional income are the cultivation of black pearls and the preparation of copra. Tourism-related income remains meager by comparison to the tourism industry of the neighboring Society Islands.
Modest tourism infrastructure is found on the atolls of Rangiroa and Manihi which have recreational scuba diving and snorkeling destinations. Despite the vast spread of the archipelago, it covers a total land area of only about 885 km2; the climate is warm tropical, without pronounced seasons. The annual average temperature is a continuous 26 °C. Water sources such as lakes or rivers are absent, leaving catchments of rain as the only source of fresh water; the annual average rainfall is 1400 mm. Rainfall is not markedly different throughout the year, although it is lowest during the months of September and November. Geological stability of the archipelago is high, as it was created by the weakly active Easter Fracture Zone. No volcanic eruptions have been recorded historically; the sparse soil of the coral islands does not permit diverse vegetation. The coconut palm, which forms the basis for copra production, is of special economic importance. On a few islands, vanilla is cultivated. Agriculture is otherwise limited to simple subsistence.
Fruit and vegetable staples include yams and breadfruit, as well as a wide range of other tropical fruits. Pandanus leaves are traditionally woven together as a roof thatch, as well as for other items, such as mats and hats; the species-rich reefs are home to a diverse range of underwater fauna. Surface creatures are seabirds and lizards; the Tuamotus have only 57 species of birds, but ten of these are endemic, including the Tuamotu kingfisher, the Tuamotu reed warbler, the Tuamotu sandpiper. Thirteen species are globally threatened and one is extinct. All of the islands of the Tuamotus are coral "low islands": high sand bars built upon coral reefs. Makatea, southwest of the Palliser Islands, is one of three great phosphate rocks in the Pacific Ocean; the others are Banaba in Kiribati, the island nation of Nauru. Although geographically part of the Tuamotus, the Gambier Islands, at the southeastern extreme of the archipelago, are geologically and culturally distinct. In the northwest of the archipelago, the ring-shaped atoll Taiaro provides a rare example of a coral reef with a enclosed lagoon.
The atoll was designated as a UNESCO biosphere reserve in 1977. The early history of the Tuamotu islands is shrouded in mystery. Archaeological findings lead to the conclusion that the western Tuamotus were settled from the Society Islands by c. 1000. On the islands of Rangiroa and Mataiva, there are flat ceremonial platforms made of coral blocks, although their exact age is unknown. Due to the vast extent and position of the Tuamotus, they have been described as the Crossroads of East Polynesia, for pre-European links to neighbouring archipelagos remain evident today in basalt adze heads, the source quarries for which can be traced back to the Society Islands, Austral Islands, Pitcairn Island, the Hawaiian Island
The East Indies or the Indies are the lands of South and Southeast Asia. In a more restricted sense, the Indies can be used to refer to the islands of Southeast Asia the Indonesian Archipelago and the Philippine Archipelago; the name "Indies" is derived from the River Indus and is used to connote parts of Asia that came under Indian cultural influence. Dutch-occupied colonies in the area were known for about 300 years as the Dutch East Indies before Indonesian independence, while Spanish-occupied colonies were known as the Spanish East Indies before the American conquest and Philippine independence; the East Indies may include the former French-occupied Indochina, former British territories Brunei and Singapore and former Portuguese East Timor. It does not, include the former Dutch New Guinea western New Guinea, geographically considered to be part of Melanesia; the inhabitants of the East Indies are never called East Indians, distinguishing them both from inhabitants of the Caribbean and from the indigenous peoples of the Americas who are called "American Indians."
In colonial times they were just "natives". However, the peoples of the East Indies comprise a wide variety of cultural diversity, the inhabitants do not consider themselves as belonging to a single ethnic group. Buddhism, Islam and Hinduism are the most popular religions throughout the region, while Sikhism, Chinese folk religion and various other traditional beliefs and practices are prominent in some areas; the major languages in this area draw from a wide variety of language families, should not be confused with the term Indic, which refers only to a group of Indo-Iranian languages from South Asia. The extensive East Indies are subdivided into two sections, archaically called Hither India and Further India; the first is the former British India, the second is Southeast Asia. Regions of the East Indies are sometimes known by the colonial empire they once belonged to, British East Indies refers to Malaysia, Dutch East Indies means Indonesia, Spanish East Indies means the Philippines; the king of Abyssinia was identified with "Prester John of the Indies", since that part of the world was imagined to be one of "Three Indias".
Exploration of these regions by European powers first began in the late 15th century and early 16th century led by the Portuguese explorers. The Portuguese described the entire region; the region would be broken up into a series of Indies: The East Indies, called "Old Indies" or "Great Indies", consisting of India, the West Indies called "New Indies" or "Little Indies", consisting of the Americas. These regions were important sources of trading goods cotton and spices after the establishment of European trading companies: the British East India Company and Dutch East India Company, among others, in the 17th century; the New World was thought to be the easternmost part of the Indies by explorer Christopher Columbus, who had grossly underestimated the westerly distance from Europe to Asia. To avoid confusion, the New World came to be called the "West Indies", while the original Indies came to be called the "East Indies"; the designation East Indian was once used to describe people of all of the East Indies, in order to avoid the potential confusion from the term American Indian who were once referred to as Indians.
Insulindia List of Governor-General of the Philippines List of Governors-General of the Dutch East Indies List of governors of the Straits Settlements Malayness Bumiputera Pribumi Malay world Malay Archipelago Malay race Maphilindo Maritime Southeast Asia Nusantara Greater Indonesia Greater India History of the Americas Indian West Indies