The Drake Passage or Mar de Hoces—Sea of Hoces—is the body of water between South America's Cape Horn and the South Shetland Islands of Antarctica. It connects the southwestern part of the Atlantic Ocean with the southeastern part of the Pacific Ocean and extends into the Southern Ocean; the passage receives its English-language name from the 16th-century English privateer Sir Francis Drake. Drake's only remaining ship, after having passed through the Strait of Magellan, was blown far south in September 1578; this incident implied an open connection between the Pacific oceans. Half a century earlier, after a gale had pushed them south from the entrance of the Strait of Magellan, the crew of the Spanish navigator Francisco de Hoces thought they saw a land's end and inferred this passage in 1525. For this reason, some Spanish and Latin American historians and sources call it Mar de Hoces after Francisco de Hoces; the first recorded voyage through the passage was that of Eendracht, captained by the Dutch navigator Willem Schouten in 1616, naming Cape Horn in the process.
The 800-kilometre wide passage between Cape Horn and Livingston Island is the shortest crossing from Antarctica to any other landmass. The boundary between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans is sometimes taken to be a line drawn from Cape Horn to Snow Island. Alternatively, the meridian that passes through Cape Horn may be taken as the boundary. Both boundaries lie within the Drake Passage; the other two passages around the extreme southern part of South America, Strait of Magellan and Beagle Channel, are narrow, leaving little room for a ship. They can become icebound, sometimes the wind blows so that no sailing vessel can make headway against it. Hence most sailing ships prefer the Drake Passage, open water for hundreds of miles, despite rough conditions; the small Diego Ramírez Islands lie about 100 kilometres south-southwest of Cape Horn. There is no significant land anywhere around the world at the latitudes of Drake Passage, important to the unimpeded flow of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current which carries a huge volume of water through the Passage and around Antarctica.
Ships in the Passage are good platforms for the sighting of whales and seabirds including giant petrels, other petrels and penguins. The passage is known to have been closed until around 41 million years ago according to a chemical study of fish teeth found in oceanic sedimentary rock. Before the passage opened, the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans were separate, with Antarctica being much warmer and having no ice cap; the joining of the two great oceans started the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and cooled the continent significantly. Elizabeth Island García de Nodal Bransfield Strait Sars Bank Media related to Drake Passage at Wikimedia Commons National Oceanography Centre, Southampton page of the important and complex bathymetry of the Passage A NASA image of an eddy in the Passage Larger-scale images of the passage from the US Navy
The Sangihe Islands – Indonesian: Kepulauan Sangihe – are a group of islands which constitute two regencies within the province of North Sulawesi, in northern Indonesia, the Sangihe Islands Regency and the Sitaro Islands Regency. They are located north-east of Sulawesi between the Celebes Sea and the Molucca Sea halfway between Sulawesi and Mindanao, in the Philippines; the islands combine to total 813 square kilometres, with many of the islands being volcanic with fertile soil and mountains. The main islands of the group are, north to south, Sangir Besar, Siau and Biaro; the largest island contains an active volcano, Mount Awu. Tahuna is the chief town and port hosting the islands' sole airport, Naha Airport; the area came under Dutch control in 1677, became part of Indonesia when it declared independence from the Netherlands in 1945. The Sangir language is spoken in the islands; the Sangihe tectonic plate is named after the island arc and is active. In 2007, the Sitaro Islands became a new regency by separation from the Sangihe Islands.
The population for these island groups was 189,676 at the 2010 Census, comprising 126,133 in the Sangihe Islands Regency and 63,543 in the Sitaro Islands Regency. In 2014, a first media, in form of newspaper is brought from several young people that have a clean integrity to build Sangihe Region. Marore Island is one of point of baselines of Indonesia in Sangihe Islands. 15 years ago there were illegal fishing bombing which made mangrove destructions. In 2012, coral recovery is found, but not yet for mangrove. List of extinct birds
Portuguese India Armadas
The Portuguese India Armadas were the fleets of ships, organized by the crown of the Kingdom of Portugal and dispatched on an annual basis from Portugal to India, principally Goa. These armadas undertook the Carreira da Índia, following the sea route around the Cape of Good Hope first opened up by Vasco da Gama in 1497–1499. For a long time after its discovery by Vasco da Gama, the sea route to India via the Cape of Good Hope was dominated by the Portuguese India armada – the annual fleet dispatched from Portugal to India. Between 1497 and 1650, there were 1033 departures of ships at Lisbon for the Carreira da Índia; the India armada left Lisbon and each leg of the voyage took six months. The critical determinant of the timing was the monsoon winds of the Indian Ocean; the monsoon was a southwesterly wind in the summer and abruptly reversed itself and became a northeasterly in the winter. The ideal timing was to pass the Cape of Good Hope around June–July and get to the East African middle coast by August, just in time to catch the summer monsoon winds to India, arriving around early September.
The return trip from India would begin in January, taking the winter monsoon back to Lisbon along a similar route, arriving by the summer. Overall, the round trip took a little over a year; the critical step was ensuring the armada reached East Africa on time. Ships that failed to reach the equator latitude on the East African coast by late August would be stuck in Africa and have to wait until next Spring to undertake an Indian Ocean crossing, and they would have to wait in India until the Winter to begin their return. So any delay in East Africa during those critical few weeks of August could end up adding an entire extra year to a ship's journey; the circumnavigation of Madagascar opened an alternative route to get to India, which gave more flexibility in timing. The rule that emerged was that if an outbound armada doubled the Cape of Good Hope before mid-July it should follow the old "inner route" – that is, sail into the Mozambique Channel, up the East African coast until the equator latitude take the southwesterly monsoon across the ocean to India.
If, the armada doubled the Cape after mid-July it was obliged to sail the "outer route" – that is, strike out straight east from South Africa, go under the southern tip of Madagascar, turn up from there, taking a northerly path through the Mascarenes islands, across the open ocean to India. While the outer route did not have the support of African staging posts and important watering stops, it sidestepped sailing directly against the post-summer monsoon. Return fleets were a different story; the principal worry of the return fleets was the fast dangerous waters of the inner Mozambican channel, precarious for loaded and less maneuverable ships. In the initial decades, the return fleet set out from Cochin in December, although, pushed forward to January. January 20 was the critical date, after which all return fleets were obliged to follow the outer route, deemed calmer and safer for their precious cargo; that meant they missed the important watering stop on Mozambique island on the return leg and had to put in elsewhere such as Mossel Bay or St. Helena.
Between 1525 and 1579, all return fleets were ordered to follow the outer route. This rule was temporarily suspended between the 1590s. From 1615, a new rule was introduced whereby return fleets from Goa were allowed to use the inner route, but return fleets from Cochin still had to use the outer route. With the entry of Dutch and English competition in the 1590s, the start of the return legs were delayed until February and March, with the predictable upsurge in lost and weather-delayed ships. Arrival times in Portugal varied between mid-June and late August, it was customary for return fleets to send their fastest ship ahead to announce the results in Lisbon, before the rest of the fleet arrived that summer. Because of the timing, an armada had to leave Lisbon. To get news of the latest developments in India, the outgoing armada relied on notes and reports left along the way at various African staging posts by the returning fleet. Portuguese India armadas tended to follow the same outward route.
There were several staging posts along the route of India Run that were used. Setting out from Lisbon, India-bound naus took the easy Canary Current straight southwest to the Canary Islands; the islands were owned by Castile and so this was not a usual watering stop for the Portuguese India naus, except in emergencies. The first real obstacle on the route was the Cape Verde peninsula, around which the Canary Current ends and the equatorial drift begins. Although not difficult to double, it was a concentration point of sudden storms and tropical cyclones, so ships were damaged; the Cape Verde islands, to the west of Cape Verde peninsula was the usual first stop for India ships. Relative scarcity of water and supplies on the islands made this a suboptimal stop. Nonetheless, the islands served as a harbor against storms and was a pre-arranged point for the collection and repair of tempest-tossed ships; the Angra de Bezeguiche was a common watering stop for ships after doubling Cape Verde. The shores were controlled by Wolof and Serer kingdoms, whose relations
The Spanish Helmet
The Spanish Helmet is a thriller/historical fiction novel by Swiss/New Zealand author Greg Scowen. Published in 2011, it is the first book featuring Scowen's character Dr. Matthew Cameron; the novel received mixed reviews in New Zealand newspapers due to its handling of controversial theories relating to New Zealand's accepted history. While one book reviewer praised the novel for a thought-provoking story-line, another labelled sub-plots of the debut work as laughable. Most agree that despite the sometimes'clunky' writing, The Spanish Helmet is a fun and quick read; the peer reviewed journal of the Australian and New Zealand Map Society included a review of The Spanish Helmet in their first bi-annual issue of 2013. The reviewer was John Dancy of Ordnance Survey, UK. In summary, the reviewer had some issues with the book which he suggests may come about from his distance from the setting, however he concluded that the story-lines are believable and there is something there to keep you interested until the end.
Dancy commented on the fine use of maps and thorough knowledge of New Zealand presented. New Zealand has numerous pseudohistory theories of pre Māori settlement and alternative narratives of early European exploration some of which are explored in this novel; the plot of The Spanish Helmet revolves around a theory that New Zealand was discovered by the crew of a Spanish ship lost at sea in 1525. This theory was proposed by Australian writer Robert Langdon in his 1975 work The Lost Caravel. Scowen acknowledges the work of Langdon as the basis for the novel and has intertwined the story of the crew of the San Lesmes beyond their last sighting with the story of a modern-day archaeologist/historian who investigates the suggested New Zealand discovery. Another possible settlement of New Zealand by Celts is lightly skirted around; the explanation for the helmet is in an article by H. Fildes in'The Dominion' newspaper, Wellington, 3 August 1932, p.6. It came from Alfred Taine, the son of immigrants to Wellington in 1840.
He said an immigrant of 1840 had purchased the helmet when embarking at Gravesend for New Zealand,'believing the iron headgear would be serviceable as protection when he landed among the savages of New Zealand. On his arrival here he learned a helmet was quite unnecessary, as he was sufficiently encumbered with his goods and chattels, not any of his fellow immigrants cared to accept the iron hat, he got rid of it in the most easy way—by tossing it overboard.' The helmet was recovered from Wellington Harbour'some fifty years ago', This is the only time guide to when the helmet was dredged up. This, as well as the helmet's good condition, lends support to people in the Tower of London who say the helmet was a nineteenth century English musketeer's helmet; therefore the helmet was acquired cheaply at some London outlet disposing of surplus military equipment and was not a valuable sixteenth century antique. The novel was selected by the New Zealand Society of Authors for presentation at the Frankfurt Book Fair in 2012, where New Zealand was the guest of honour
History of the Philippines
The history of the Philippines is believed to have begun with the arrival of the first humans using rafts or boats at least 67,000 years ago as the 2007 discovery of Callao Man suggested. Negrito groups first inhabited the isles. Groups of Austronesians migrated to the islands. Scholars believe that these social groups developed into various settlements or polities with varying degrees of economic specialization, social stratification, political organization; some of these settlements achieved such a scale of social complexity that some scholars believe they should be considered early states. This includes the predecessors of modern-day population centers such as Maynila, Pangasinan, Panay, Butuan, Cotabato and Sulu as well as some polities, such as Ma-i, whose possible location are still the subject of debate among scholars; these polities were either influenced by the Hindu-Buddhist Indian religion, culture and philosophy from India through many campaigns from India including the South-East Asia campaign of Rajendra Chola I, Islam from Arabia or were Sinified tributary states allied to China.
These small maritime states flourished from the 1st millennium. These kingdoms traded with what are now called China, Japan, Thailand and Indonesia; the remainder of the settlements were independent. These small states alternated from between being part of or being influenced by larger Asian empires like the Ming Dynasty and Brunei or rebelling and waging war against them; the first recorded visit by Europeans is the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan. He sighted Samar Island on March 16, 1521 and landed the next day on Homonhon Island, now part of Guiuan, Eastern Samar. Spanish colonization began with the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi's expedition on February 13, 1565 from Mexico, he established the first permanent settlement in Cebu. Much of the archipelago came under Spanish rule, creating the first unified political structure known as the Philippines. Spanish colonial rule saw the introduction of Christianity, the code of law and the oldest modern university in Asia; the Philippines was ruled under the Mexico-based Viceroyalty of New Spain.
After which, the colony was directly governed by Spain. Spanish rule ended in 1898 with Spain's defeat in the Spanish–American War; the Philippines became a territory of the United States. U. S forces suppressed a Philippine Revolution led by Emilio Aguinaldo; the United States established the Insular Government to rule the Philippines. In 1907, the elected Philippine Assembly was set up with popular elections; the U. S. promised independence in the Jones Act. The Philippine Commonwealth was established in 1935, as a 10-year interim step prior to full independence. However, in 1942 during World War II, Japan occupied the Philippines; the U. S. military overpowered the Japanese in 1945. The Treaty of Manila in 1946 established an independent Philippine Republic. Discovery in 2018 of stone tools and fossils of butchered animal remains in Rizal, Kalinga has pushed back evidence of early hominins in the country to as early as 709,000 years. Still, the earliest archeological evidence for man in the archipelago is the 67,000-year-old Callao Man of Cagayan and the Angono Petroglyphs in Rizal, both of whom appear to suggest the presence of human settlement prior to the arrival of the Negritos and Austronesian speaking people.
Continued excavations in Callao Cave revealed 12 bones from three hominin individuals identified as a new species named Homo luzonensis. There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. F. Landa Jocano theorizes. Wilhelm Solheim's Island Origin Theory postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the Sundaland area around 48,000 to 5000 BC rather than by wide-scale migration; the Austronesian Expansion Theory states that Malayo-Polynesians coming from Taiwan began migrating to the Philippines around 4000 BC, displacing earlier arrivals. The Negritos were early settlers, but their appearance in the Philippines has not been reliably dated, they were followed by speakers of the Malayo-Polynesian languages, a branch of the Austronesian language family, who began to arrive in successive waves beginning about 4000 BC, displacing the earlier arrivals. Before the expansion out of Taiwan, archaeological and genetic evidence had linked Austronesian speakers in Insular Southeast Asia to cultures such as the Hemudu, its successor the Liangzhu and Dapenkeng in Neolithic China.
During this neolithic period, a "jade culture" is said to have existed as evidenced by tens of thousands of exquisitely crafted jade artifacts found in the Philippines dated to 2000 BC. The jade is said to have originated nearby in Taiwan and is found in many other areas in insular and mainland Southeast Asia; these artifacts are said to be evidence of long range communication between prehistoric Southeast Asian societies. By 1000 BC, the inhabitants of the Philippine archipelago had developed into four distinct kinds of peoples: tribal groups, such as the Aetas, Hanunoo and the Mangyan who depended on hunter-gathering and were concentrated in forests, it was during the first millennium BC that early metallurgy was said to have reached the archipelagos of
The East Indies or the Indies are the lands of South and Southeast Asia. In a more restricted sense, the Indies can be used to refer to the islands of Southeast Asia the Indonesian Archipelago and the Philippine Archipelago; the name "Indies" is derived from the River Indus and is used to connote parts of Asia that came under Indian cultural influence. Dutch-occupied colonies in the area were known for about 300 years as the Dutch East Indies before Indonesian independence, while Spanish-occupied colonies were known as the Spanish East Indies before the American conquest and Philippine independence; the East Indies may include the former French-occupied Indochina, former British territories Brunei and Singapore and former Portuguese East Timor. It does not, include the former Dutch New Guinea western New Guinea, geographically considered to be part of Melanesia; the inhabitants of the East Indies are never called East Indians, distinguishing them both from inhabitants of the Caribbean and from the indigenous peoples of the Americas who are called "American Indians."
In colonial times they were just "natives". However, the peoples of the East Indies comprise a wide variety of cultural diversity, the inhabitants do not consider themselves as belonging to a single ethnic group. Buddhism, Islam and Hinduism are the most popular religions throughout the region, while Sikhism, Chinese folk religion and various other traditional beliefs and practices are prominent in some areas; the major languages in this area draw from a wide variety of language families, should not be confused with the term Indic, which refers only to a group of Indo-Iranian languages from South Asia. The extensive East Indies are subdivided into two sections, archaically called Hither India and Further India; the first is the former British India, the second is Southeast Asia. Regions of the East Indies are sometimes known by the colonial empire they once belonged to, British East Indies refers to Malaysia, Dutch East Indies means Indonesia, Spanish East Indies means the Philippines; the king of Abyssinia was identified with "Prester John of the Indies", since that part of the world was imagined to be one of "Three Indias".
Exploration of these regions by European powers first began in the late 15th century and early 16th century led by the Portuguese explorers. The Portuguese described the entire region; the region would be broken up into a series of Indies: The East Indies, called "Old Indies" or "Great Indies", consisting of India, the West Indies called "New Indies" or "Little Indies", consisting of the Americas. These regions were important sources of trading goods cotton and spices after the establishment of European trading companies: the British East India Company and Dutch East India Company, among others, in the 17th century; the New World was thought to be the easternmost part of the Indies by explorer Christopher Columbus, who had grossly underestimated the westerly distance from Europe to Asia. To avoid confusion, the New World came to be called the "West Indies", while the original Indies came to be called the "East Indies"; the designation East Indian was once used to describe people of all of the East Indies, in order to avoid the potential confusion from the term American Indian who were once referred to as Indians.
Insulindia List of Governor-General of the Philippines List of Governors-General of the Dutch East Indies List of governors of the Straits Settlements Malayness Bumiputera Pribumi Malay world Malay Archipelago Malay race Maphilindo Maritime Southeast Asia Nusantara Greater Indonesia Greater India History of the Americas Indian West Indies
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala