Great Mosque of Djenné
The Great Mosque of Djenné is a large banco or adobe building, considered by many architects to be one of the greatest achievements of the Sudano-Sahelian architectural style. The mosque is located in the city of Mali, on the flood plain of the Bani River; the first mosque on the site was built around the 13th century, but the current structure dates from 1907. As well as being the centre of the community of Djenné, it is one of the most famous landmarks in Africa. Along with the "Old Towns of Djenné" it was designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988; the actual date of construction of the first mosque in Djenné is unknown, but dates as early as 1200 and as late as 1330 have been suggested. The earliest document mentioning the mosque is Abd al-Sadi's Tarikh al-Sudan which gives the early history from the oral tradition as it existed in the mid seventeenth century; the tarikh states that a Sultan Kunburu became a Muslim and had his palace pulled down and the site turned into a mosque. He built another palace for himself near the mosque on the east side.
His immediate successor built the towers of the mosque while the following Sultan built the surrounding wall. There is no other written information on the Great Mosque until the French explorer René Caillié visited Djenné in 1828 and wrote "In Jenné is a mosque built of earth, surmounted by two massive but not high towers, it is abandoned to thousands of swallows. This occasions a disagreeable smell, to avoid which, the custom of saying prayers in a small outer court has become common." Ten years before René Caillié's visit, the Fulani leader Seku Amadu had launched his jihad and conquered the town. Seku Amadu appears to have allowed it to fall into disrepair; this would have been the building. Seku Amadu had closed all the small neighbourhood mosques. Between 1834 and 1836, Seku Amadu built a new mosque to the east of the existing mosque on the site of the former palace; the new mosque was a low building lacking any towers or ornamentation. French forces led by Louis Archinard captured Djenné in April 1893.
Soon after, the French journalist Félix Dubois visited the town and described the ruins of the original mosque. At the time of his visit, the interior of the ruined mosque was being used as a cemetery. In his 1897 book, Tombouctou la Mystérieuse, Dubois provides a plan and a drawing as to how he imagined the mosque looked before being abandoned. In 1906, the French administration in the town arranged for the original mosque to be rebuilt and at the same time for a school to be constructed on the site of Seku Amadu's mosque; the rebuilding was completed in 1907 using forced labour under the direction of Ismaila Traoré, head of Djenné's guild of masons. From photographs taken at the time, it appears the position of at least some of the outer walls follows those of the original mosque but it is unclear as to whether the columns supporting the roof kept to the previous arrangement. What was certainly novel in the rebuilt mosque was the symmetric arrangement of three large towers in the qibla wall.
There has been debate as to what extent the design of the rebuilt mosque was subject to French influence. Dubois was shocked by the new building, he believed that the French colonial administration were responsible for the design and wrote that it looked like a cross between a hedgehog and a church organ. He thought that the cones made the building resemble a baroque temple dedicated to the god of suppositories. By contrast, Jean-Louis Bourgeois has argued that the French had little influence except for the internal arches and that the design is "basically African."The terrace in front of the eastern wall includes two tombs. The larger tomb to the south contains the remains of Almany Ismaïla, an important imam of the 18th century. Early in the French colonial period, a pond located on the eastern side of the mosque was filled with earth to create the open area, now used for the weekly market. Electrical wiring and indoor plumbing have been added to many mosques in Mali. In some cases, the original surfaces of a mosque have been tiled over, destroying its historical appearance and in some cases compromising the building's structural integrity.
While the Great Mosque has been equipped with a loudspeaker system, the citizens of Djenné have resisted modernization in favor of the building's historical integrity. Many historical preservationists have praised the community's preservation effort, interest in this aspect of the building grew in the 1990s. In 1996, Vogue magazine held. Vogue's pictures of scantily-dressed women outraged local opinion, as a result, non-Muslims have been banned from entering the mosque since; the Mosque is seen in the 2005 film Sahara. The walls of the Great Mosque are made of sun-baked earth bricks, sand and earth based mortar, are coated with a plaster which gives the building its smooth, sculpted look; the walls of the building are decorated with bundles of rodier palm sticks, called toron, that project about 60 cm from the surface. The toron serve as readymade scaffolding for the annual repairs. Ceramic half-pipes extend from the roofline and direct rain water from the roof away from the walls; the mosque is built on a platform measuring about 75 m × 75 m, raised by 3 metres above the level of the marketplace.
The platform prevents damage to the mosque. It is accessed by six sets of stairs, each decorated with pinnacles; the ma
Tillage is the agricultural preparation of soil by mechanical agitation of various types, such as digging and overturning. Examples of human-powered tilling methods using hand tools include shovelling, mattock work and raking. Examples of draft-animal-powered or mechanized work include ploughing, rolling with cultipackers or other rollers and cultivating with cultivator shanks. Small-scale gardening and farming, for household food production or small business production, tends to use the smaller-scale methods, whereas medium- to large-scale farming tends to use the larger-scale methods. Tillage, deeper and more thorough is classified as primary, tillage, shallower and sometimes more selective of location is secondary. Primary tillage such as ploughing tends to produce a rough surface finish, whereas secondary tillage tends to produce a smoother surface finish, such as that required to make a good seedbed for many crops. Harrowing and rototilling combine primary and secondary tillage into one operation.
"Tillage" can mean the land, tilled. The word "cultivation" has several senses that overlap with those of "tillage". In a general context, both can refer to agriculture. Within agriculture, both can refer to any kind of soil agitation. Additionally, "cultivation" or "cultivating" may refer to an narrower sense of shallow, selective secondary tillage of row crop fields that kills weeds while sparing the crop plants. Tilling was first performed via human labor. Hoofed animals could be used to till soil by trampling; the wooden plow was invented. It could be pulled with human labor, or by mule, ox, water buffalo, or similar sturdy animal. Horses are unsuitable, though breeds such as the Clydesdale were bred as draft animals; the steel plow allowed farming in the American Midwest, where tough prairie grasses and rocks caused trouble. Soon after 1900, the farm tractor was introduced, which made modern large-scale agriculture possible. Primary Tillage is conducted after the last harvest, when the soil is wet enough to allow plowing but allows good traction.
Some soil types can be plowed dry. The objective of primary tillage is to attain a reasonable depth of soft soil, incorporate crop residues, kill weeds, to aerate the soil. Secondary tillage is any subsequent tillage, in order to incorporate fertilizers, reduce the soil to a finer tilth, level the surface, or control weeds. Reduced tillage leaves between 15 and 30% crop residue cover on the soil or 500 to 1000 pounds per acre of small grain residue during the critical erosion period; this may involve the use of field cultivators, or other implements. See the general comments below to see how they can affect the amount of residue. Intensive tillage leaves less than 15% crop residue cover or less than 500 pounds per acre of small grain residue; this type of tillage is referred to as conventional tillage but as conservational tillage is now more used than intensive tillage, it is not appropriate to refer to this type of tillage as conventional. Intensive tillage involves multiple operations with implements such as a mold board, and/or chisel plow.
A finisher with a harrow, rolling basket, cutter can be used to prepare the seed bed. There are many variations. Conservation tillage leaves at least 30% of crop residue on the soil surface, or at least 1,000 lb/ac of small grain residue on the surface during the critical soil erosion period; this slows water movement. Additionally, conservation tillage has been found to benefit predatory arthropods that can enhance pest control. Conservation tillage benefits farmers by reducing fuel consumption and soil compaction. By reducing the number of times the farmer travels over the field, farmers realize significant savings in fuel and labor. In most years since 1997, conservation tillage was used in US cropland more than intensive or reduced tillage. However, conservation tillage delays warming of the soil due to the reduction of dark earth exposure to the warmth of the spring sun, thus delaying the planting of the next year's spring crop of corn. No-till - Never use a plow, etc. again. Aims for 100% ground cover.
Strip-Till - Narrow strips are tilled where seeds will be planted, leaving the soil in between the rows untilled. Mulch-till Rotational Tillage - Tilling the soil every two years or less often. Ridge-Till Zone tillage is form of modified deep tillage in which only narrow strips are tilled, leaving soil in between the rows untilled; this type of tillage agitates the soil to help reduce soil compaction problems and to improve internal soil drainage. It is designed to only disrupt the soil in a narrow strip directly below the crop row. In comparison to no-till, which relies on the previous year’s plant residue to protect the soil and aides in postponement of the warming of the soil and crop growth in Northern climates, zone tillage creates a 5-inch-wide strip that breaks up plow pans, assists in warming the soil and helps to prepare a seedbed; when combined with cover crops, zone tillage helps replace lost organic matter, slows the deterioration of the soil, improves soil drainage, increases soil water and nutrient holding capacity, allows necessary soil organisms to survive.
It has been used on farms in the mid-west and west for over 40 years and is used on more than 36% of the U. S. farmland. Some specific states where zone tillage is in prac
Loess is a clastic, predominantly silt-sized sediment, formed by the accumulation of wind-blown dust. Ten percent of the Earth's land area is covered by similar deposits. Loess is an aeolian sediment formed by the accumulation of wind-blown silt in the 20–50 micrometer size range, twenty percent or less clay and the balance equal parts sand and silt that are loosely cemented by calcium carbonate, it is homogeneous and porous and is traversed by vertical capillaries that permit the sediment to fracture and form vertical bluffs. The word loess, with connotations of origin by wind-deposited accumulation, came into English from German Löss, which can be traced back to Swiss German and is cognate with the English word loose and the German word los, it was first applied to Rhine River valley loess about 1821. Loess is homogeneous, friable, pale yellow or buff coherent non-stratified and calcareous. Loess grains are angular with little polishing or rounding and composed of crystals of quartz, feldspar and other minerals.
Loess can be described as a dust-like soil. Loess deposits may become thick, more than a hundred meters in areas of China and tens of meters in parts of the Midwestern United States, it occurs as a blanket deposit that covers areas of hundreds of square kilometers and tens of meters thick. Loess stands in either steep or vertical faces; because the grains are angular, loess will stand in banks for many years without slumping. This soil has a characteristic called vertical cleavage which makes it excavated to form cave dwellings, a popular method of making human habitations in some parts of China. Loess will erode readily. In several areas of the world, loess ridges have formed that are aligned with the prevailing winds during the last glacial maximum; these are called "paha ridges" in "greda ridges" in Europe. The form of these loess dunes has been explained by a combination of tundra conditions. Loess comes from the German Löss or Löß, from Alemannic lösch meaning drop as named by peasants and masons along the Rhine Valley.
The term "Löß" was first described in Central Europe by Karl Cäsar von Leonhard who reported yellowish brown, silty deposits along the Rhine valley near Heidelberg. Charles Lyell brought this term into widespread usage by observing similarities between loess and loess derivatives along the loess bluffs in the Rhine and Mississippi. At that time it was thought that the yellowish brown silt-rich sediment was of fluvial origin being deposited by the large rivers, it wasn't until the end of the 19th century that the aeolian origin of loess was recognized the convincing observations of loess in China by Ferdinand von Richthofen. A tremendous number of papers have been published since focusing on the formation of loess and on loess/palaeosol sequences as archives of climate and environment change; these water conservation works were carried out extensively in China and the research of Loess in China has been continued since 1954. Much effort was put into the setting up of regional and local loess stratigraphies and their correlation.
But the chronostratigraphical position of the last interglacial soil correlating to marine isotope substage 5e has been a matter of debate, owing to the lack of robust and reliable numerical dating, as summarized for example in Zöller et al. and Frechen, Horváth & Gábris for the Austrian and Hungarian loess stratigraphy, respectively. Since the 1980s, thermoluminescence, optically stimulated luminescence and infrared stimulated luminescence dating are available providing the possibility for dating the time of loess deposition, i.e. the time elapsed since the last exposure of the mineral grains to daylight. During the past decade, luminescence dating has improved by new methodological improvements the development of single aliquot regenerative protocols resulting in reliable ages with an accuracy of up to 5 and 10% for the last glacial record. More luminescence dating has become a robust dating technique for penultimate and antepenultimate glacial loess allowing for a reliable correlation of loess/palaeosol sequences for at least the last two interglacial/glacial cycles throughout Europe and the Northern Hemisphere.
Furthermore, the numerical dating provides the basis for quantitative loess research applying more sophisticated methods to determine and understand high-resolution proxy data, such as the palaeodust content of the atmosphere, variations of the atmospheric circulation patterns and wind systems, palaeoprecipitation and palaeotemperature. According to Pye, four fundamental requirements are necessary for the formation of loess: a dust source, adequate wind energy to transport the dust, a suitable accumulation area, a sufficient amount of time. Periglacial loess is derived from the floodplains of glacial braided rivers that carried large volumes of glacial meltwater and sediments from the annual melting of continental icesheets and mountain icecaps during the spring and summer. During the autumn and winter, when melting of the icesheets and icecaps ceased, the flow of meltwater down these rivers either ceased or was reduced; as a consequence, large parts of the submerged and unvegetated floodplains of these braided rivers dried out and were exposed to the wind.
Because these floodplains consist of sediment containing a high content of glacial
Mollisols are a soil order in USDA soil taxonomy. Mollisols form in semi-arid to semi-humid areas under a grassland cover, they are most found in the mid-latitudes, namely in North America east of the Rocky Mountains, in South America in Argentina and Brazil, in Asia in Mongolia and the Russian Steppes. Their parent material is base-rich and calcareous and include limestone, loess, or wind-blown sand; the main processes that lead to the formation of grassland Mollisols are melanisation, decomposition and pedoturbation. Mollisols have deep, high organic matter, nutrient-enriched surface soil between 60 and 80 cm in depth; this fertile surface horizon, known as a mollic epipedon, is the defining diagnostic feature of Mollisols. Mollic epipedons result from the long-term addition of organic materials derived from plant roots, have soft, soil structure. Mollisols occur in savannahs and mountain valleys; these environments have been influenced by fire and abundant pedoturbation from organisms such as ants and earthworms.
It was estimated that in 2003, only 14 to 26 percent of grassland ecosystems still remained in a natural state. Globally, they represent ~7% of ice-free land area; as the world's most agriculturally productive soil order, the Mollisols represent one of the more economically important soil orders. Though most of the other soil orders known today existed by the time of the Carboniferous Ice Age 280 million years ago, Mollisols are not known from the paleopedological record any earlier than the Eocene, their development is closely associated with the cooling and drying of the global climate that occurred during the Oligocene and Pliocene. Albolls — wet soils; such soils are known as Molliturbels or Mollorthels and provide the best grazing land in such cold climates because they are not acidic like many other soils of cold climates. Other soils which have a mollic epipedon are classified as Vertisols because the presence of high shrink swell characteristics and high clay contents takes precedence over the mollic epipedon.
These are common in parts of South America in the Paraná River basin that have abundant but erratic rainfall and extensive deposition of clay-rich minerals from the Andes. Mollic epipedons occur in some Andisols but the andic properties take precedence. In the World Reference Base for Soil Resources, Mollisols are split up into Chernozems and Phaeozems. Shallow or gravelly Mollisols may belong to the Leptosols. Many Aquolls are Stagnosols or Planosols. Mollisols with a natric horizon belong to the Solonetz. Pedogenesis Pedology Soil classification Soil science Soil type "Mollisols". USDA-NRCS. Archived from the original on 2006-05-09. Retrieved 2006-05-14. "Mollisols". University of Florida. Archived from the original on April 4, 2006. Retrieved 2006-05-14. "Mollisols". University of Idaho. Retrieved 2006-05-14. Brady, N. C. and Weil, R. R.. ‘The Nature and Properties of Soils.’ 11th edition.. Buol, S. W. Southard, R. J. Graham, R. C. and McDaniel, P. A.. ‘Soil Genesis and Classification.’ 5th edition
Sand is a granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles. It is defined by size, being finer than coarser than silt. Sand can refer to a textural class of soil or soil type; the composition of sand varies, depending on the local rock sources and conditions, but the most common constituent of sand in inland continental settings and non-tropical coastal settings is silica in the form of quartz. The second most common type of sand is calcium carbonate, for example, created, over the past half billion years, by various forms of life, like coral and shellfish. For example, it is the primary form of sand apparent in areas where reefs have dominated the ecosystem for millions of years like the Caribbean. Sand is a non-renewable resource over human timescales, sand suitable for making concrete is in high demand. Desert sand, although plentiful, is not suitable for concrete, 50 billion tons of beach sand and fossil sand is needed each year for construction; the exact definition of sand varies.
The scientific Unified Soil Classification System used in engineering and geology corresponds to US Standard Sieves, defines sand as particles with a diameter of between 0.074 and 4.75 millimeters. By another definition, in terms of particle size as used by geologists, sand particles range in diameter from 0.0625 mm to 2 mm. An individual particle in this range size is termed a sand grain. Sand grains are between silt; the size specification between sand and gravel has remained constant for more than a century, but particle diameters as small as 0.02 mm were considered sand under the Albert Atterberg standard in use during the early 20th century. The grains of sand in Archimedes Sand Reckoner written around 240 BCE, were 0.02 mm in diameter. A 1953 engineering standard published by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials set the minimum sand size at 0.074 mm. A 1938 specification of the United States Department of Agriculture was 0.05 mm. Sand feels gritty when rubbed between the fingers.
Silt, by comparison, feels like flour). ISO 14688 grades sands as fine and coarse with ranges 0.063 mm to 0.2 mm to 0.63 mm to 2.0 mm. In the United States, sand is divided into five sub-categories based on size: fine sand, fine sand, medium sand, coarse sand, coarse sand; these sizes are based on the Krumbein phi scale, where size in Φ = -log2D. On this scale, for sand the value of Φ varies from −1 to +4, with the divisions between sub-categories at whole numbers; the most common constituent of sand, in inland continental settings and non-tropical coastal settings, is silica in the form of quartz, because of its chemical inertness and considerable hardness, is the most common mineral resistant to weathering. The composition of mineral sand is variable, depending on the local rock sources and conditions; the bright white sands found in tropical and subtropical coastal settings are eroded limestone and may contain coral and shell fragments in addition to other organic or organically derived fragmental material, suggesting sand formation depends on living organisms, too.
The gypsum sand dunes of the White Sands National Monument in New Mexico are famous for their bright, white color. Arkose is a sand or sandstone with considerable feldspar content, derived from weathering and erosion of a granitic rock outcrop; some sands contain magnetite, glauconite or gypsum. Sands rich in magnetite are dark to black in color, as are sands derived from volcanic basalts and obsidian. Chlorite-glauconite bearing sands are green in color, as are sands derived from basaltic lava with a high olivine content. Many sands those found extensively in Southern Europe, have iron impurities within the quartz crystals of the sand, giving a deep yellow color. Sand deposits in some areas contain garnets and other resistant minerals, including some small gemstones. Rocks erode/weather over a long period of time by water and wind, their sediments are transported downstream; these sediments continue to break apart into smaller pieces. The type of rock the sediment originated from and the intensity of the environment gives different compositions of sand.
The most common rock to form sand is Granite, where the Feldspar minerals dissolve faster than the Quartz, causing the rock to break apart into small pieces. In high energy environments rocks break apart much faster than in more calm settings. For example, Granite rocks this means more Feldspar minerals in the sand because it wouldn't have had time to dissolve; the term for sand formed by weathering is epiclastic. Sand from rivers are collected either from the river itself or its flood plain, accounts for the majority of the sand used in the construction industry; because if this, many small rivers have been depleted, causing environmental concern and economic losses to adjacent land. The rate of sand mining in such areas outweighs the rate the sand can replenish, making it a non-renewable resource. Sand dunes are a consequence of wind deposition; the Sahara Desert is dry because of its geographic location and is known for its vast sand dunes. They exist here because little vegetation is able to grow and there's not a lot of water.
Over time, wind blow
Ultisols known as red clay soils, are one of twelve soil orders in the United States Department of Agriculture soil taxonomy. The word "Ultisol" is derived from "ultimate", because Ultisols were seen as the ultimate product of continuous weathering of minerals in a humid, temperate climate without new soil formation via glaciation, they are defined as mineral soils which contain no calcareous material anywhere within the soil, have less than 10% weatherable minerals in the extreme top layer of soil, have less than 35% base saturation throughout the soil. Ultisols occur in tropical regions. While the term is applied to the red clay soils of the Southern United States, Ultisols are found in regions of Africa and South America. In the World Reference Base for Soil Resources, most Ultisols are known as Alisols; some belong to the Nitisols. Aquults are Stagnosols or Planosols. Humults may be Umbrisols. Ultisols vary in color from purplish-red, to a bright reddish-orange, to pale yellowish-orange and some subdued yellowish-brown tones.
They are quite acidic having a pH of less than 5. The red and yellow colors result from the accumulation of iron oxide, insoluble in water. Major nutrients, such as calcium and potassium, are deficient in Ultisols, which means they cannot be used for sedentary agriculture without the aid of lime and other fertilizers, such as superphosphate, they can be exhausted, require more careful management than Alfisols or Mollisols. However, they can be cultivated over a wide range of moisture conditions. Ultisols can have a variety of clay minerals; this clay has no shrink -- swell property. Well-drained kaolinitic Ultisols such as the Cecil series are suitable for urban development. Ultisols are the dominant soils in the Southern United States, southeastern China, Southeast Asia, some other subtropical and tropical areas, their northern limit is sharply defined in North America by the limits of maximum glaciation during the Pleistocene, because Ultisols take hundreds of thousands of years to form—far longer than the length of an interglacial period today.
The oldest fossil Ultisols are known from the Carboniferous period. Though known from far north of their present range as as the Miocene, Ultisols are rare as fossils overall, since they would have been expected to be common in the warm Mesozoic and Tertiary paleoclimates; the lack of organic matter in Ultisol makes it difficult for plants to grow without proper care and considerations. Soil amendments are required each year in order to sustain plant life in regions with Ultisol soil; the use of soil tests, coupled with the corresponding provisions, can alleviate issues of nutrition and irrigation that can result from non porous Ultisol. Soil tests help indicate the pH, red clay soil has a low pH; the addition of lime is used to help to increase the pH in soil and can help increase the pH in Ultisol as well. Clay soil is known to retain nutrients well because its negative charge helps to attract cations; as a result, Ultisol does not require the high amounts of fertilizer additions other types of soils do.
However, this retention of nutrients coincides with a lack of water filtration that may subject plants to saturated soil. Not all plants can survive in the moist, humid Ultisol found throughout the Southeastern United States and elsewhere. Gardeners aim to have 45% mineral, 5% organic matter and 50% pore space in their soil; the composition of Ultisol in North Carolina, for reference, is 16% pore space, 2% organic matter and 82% mineral. The use of mulch is widespread in the Piedmont region of the United States as a solution to the high temperatures and saturation of the soil; the addition of mulch helps to make the soil more porous. Adding manure and/or compost can help to boost the amount of organic material present in the soil which in turn helps to add essential nutrients; the addition of a 2- to 3-inch layer of compost and/or manure should be mixed into the soil to match the depth of a shovel. The addition of organic material helps to improve the drainage of the soil and helps to decrease the overall weight of the soil.
However, microorganisms in the soil consume the same nutrients that plants use to grow so certain nutrients will remain unavailable to plants until the microorganisms break down the organic material and release nutrients. Living organisms within the soil use, subsequently convert, organic material into usable humus. To avoid the delay presented by this process, adding manure in the fall is advisable; some gardeners who live in areas with large amounts of red clay soil use raised beds to avoid having to amend the soil. By using raised beds, gardeners avoid having to deal with Ultisol and can make their own soil composition from scratch; this allows a large degree of freedom in choosing. When choosing what to plant in Ultisol, plants found native to regions with high amounts of Ultisol are able to thrive. Additionally, other plants with wide-spreading roots that stay close to the surface succeed in red clay soil; the Missouri Botanical Garden recommends tickweed, spotted jewelweed, mealycup sage, spring starflower, ostrich fern, sideoats grama, Bouteloua curtipendula, prairie dropseed.
Aquults: Ultisols with a water table at or near the surface for much of t
Purdue University is a public research university in West Lafayette and the flagship campus of the Purdue University system. The university was founded in 1869 after Lafayette businessman John Purdue donated land and money to establish a college of science and agriculture in his name; the first classes were held on September 1874, with six instructors and 39 students. The main campus in West Lafayette offers more than 200 majors for undergraduates, over 69 masters and doctoral programs, professional degrees in pharmacy and veterinary medicine. In addition, Purdue has more than 900 student organizations. Purdue is a member of the Big Ten Conference and enrolls the second largest student body of any university in Indiana, as well as the fourth largest foreign student population of any university in the United States. In 1865, the Indiana General Assembly voted to take advantage of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act of 1862, began plans to establish an institution with a focus on agriculture and engineering.
Communities throughout the state offered their facilities and money to bid for the location of the new college. Popular proposals included the addition of an agriculture department at Indiana State University or at what is now Butler University. By 1869, Tippecanoe County’s offer included $150,000 from Lafayette business leader and philanthropist John Purdue, $50,000 from the county, 100 acres of land from local residents. On May 6, 1869, the General Assembly established the institution in Tippecanoe County as Purdue University, in the name of the principal benefactor. Classes began at Purdue on September 1874, with six instructors and 39 students. Professor John S. Hougham was Purdue’s first faculty member and served as acting president between the administrations of presidents Shortridge and White. A campus of five buildings was completed by the end of 1874. Purdue issued its first degree, a Bachelor of Science in chemistry, in 1875 and admitted its first female students that fall. Emerson E. White, the university’s president from 1876 to 1883, followed a strict interpretation of the Morrill Act.
Rather than emulate the classical universities, White believed Purdue should be an "industrial college" and devote its resources toward providing a liberal education with an emphasis on science and agriculture. He intended not only to prepare students for industrial work, but to prepare them to be good citizens and family members. Part of White's plan to distinguish Purdue from classical universities included a controversial attempt to ban fraternities; this ban was overturned by the Indiana Supreme Court and led to White's resignation. The next president, James H. Smart, is remembered for his call in 1894 to rebuild the original Heavilon Hall "one brick higher" after it had been destroyed by a fire. By the end of the nineteenth century, the university was organized into schools of agriculture and pharmacy, former U. S. President Benjamin Harrison was serving on the board of trustees. Purdue's engineering laboratories included testing facilities for a locomotive and a Corliss steam engine, one of the most efficient engines of the time.
The School of Agriculture was sharing its research with farmers throughout the state with its cooperative extension services and would undergo a period of growth over the following two decades. Programs in education and home economics were soon established, as well as a short-lived school of medicine. By 1925 Purdue had the largest undergraduate engineering enrollment in the country, a status it would keep for half a century. President Edward C. Elliott oversaw a campus building program between the world wars. Inventor and trustee David E. Ross coordinated several fundraisers, donated lands to the university, was instrumental in establishing the Purdue Research Foundation. Ross's gifts and fundraisers supported such projects as Ross–Ade Stadium, the Memorial Union, a civil engineering surveying camp, Purdue University Airport. Purdue Airport was the country's first university-owned airport and the site of the country's first college-credit flight training courses. Amelia Earhart joined the Purdue faculty in 1935 as a consultant for these flight courses and as a counselor on women's careers.
In 1937, the Purdue Research Foundation provided the funds for the Lockheed Electra 10-E Earhart flew on her attempted round-the-world flight. Every school and department at the university was involved in some type of military research or training during World War II. During a project on radar receivers, Purdue physicists discovered properties of germanium that led to the making of the first transistor; the Army and the Navy conducted training programs at Purdue and more than 17,500 students and alumni served in the armed forces. Purdue set up about a hundred centers throughout Indiana to train skilled workers for defense industries; as veterans returned to the university under the G. I. Bill, first-year classes were taught at some of these sites to alleviate the demand for campus space. Four of these sites are now degree-granting regional campuses of the Purdue University system. Purdue's on-campus housing became racially desegregated in 1947, following pressure from Purdue President Frederick L. Hovde and Indiana Governor Ralph F. Gates.
After the war, Hovde worked to expand the academic opportunities at the university. A decade-long construction program emphasized research. In the late 1950s and early 1960s the university established programs in veterinary medicine, industrial management, nursing, as well as the first computer science department in the United States. Undergraduate humanities courses were strengthened